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S. G. and E. L. ELBERT 







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JDottonstratea bg tl)e Instigations of 












No. 20 South Fifth Street. 


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1851, 


in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court for the Eastern District 

of Pennsylvania. 



No. 7, Fear Street. Philad'a. 



That there are various races of men now upon 
our globe, none will deny. These are composed of 
black, white, brown, yellow, fair, Caucasian, Mon- 
golian, Malay, Indian, Negro, Saxon, Celtic, Scla- 
vonic, Australian, Tasmanian, Gipsey, Jew, Arab, 
Copt, Nubian, with an endless variety. The most 
arbitrary distinctions have been made to endeavor 
to classify the races of man : one asserts that all are 
descended from one pair, another entirely dissents 
from this view, all are equal says the ignorant fan- 
atic, negroes and red men as well as whites. It seems 
to me therefore a work not only of necessity but of 
justice, to place this matter in a compact method 
before the people of America. 

The method I have adopted is very simple. I 
cite all that I deem of importance to the subject 
under investigation, from an author ; and then, if I 
consider it necessary, I comment upon such passa- 
ges as may need explanation. To me it matters 
little whether the public will receive the contents 
of the following pages favorably or otherwise. It 
will be all one a hundred years hence. 

I do not profess any originality, but I lay claim 

to some tact in the arrangement of my quotations. 



When I consider how little is really known of the 
history of the races of men, when I know that it 
would take hundreds of dollars to purchase all the 
books that I have read upon the subject, and when 
I also know that but fe.w poor men have the means 
of obtaining these books, I therefore have attempted 
to popularize this question by citing such portions 
of the best authors as have written upon it. 

I may as well explain the reasons which induced 
me to arrange my ideas in the following manner : — 

I am a member of the Social Improvement Society 
of Philadelphia. A question was brought before it 
for discussion, of which the following is a transcript : 
1 Can the Colored races of men be made mentally, 
politically and socially equal with the white V The 
discussion of this question was continued for eight 
successive Sunday evenings. The speakers were 
various and talented ; among the most prominent, 
were Eugene Ahem, E. W. Power, B. F. Mayers, 
Robert Boyle, Thomas Phillips, JohnO'Byrne James 
Eddison, Wm. Brotherhead, Ralph Smith, whites; 
— Bower, — Purvis, Rev. Mr. Ward, colored ; all 
shades of color were permitted to participate, each 
speaker was allowed ten minutes at a time, the 
greatest latitude, and I may say longitude, were al- 
lowed to the disputants, every shade of authority 
was quoted. I grant in many instances not too 
learnedly. A Doctor Longshore also lectured dur- 
ing the discussion. I myself lectured upon it, at 
the termination of the debate ; in about two weeks 
afterwards, a Mr. Johnson, a mulatto, lectured in 
the Franklin Hall, upon the same subject; the por- 


tions taken by Mr. Johnson were, that the ancient 
Egyptians were negroes, and that they were the ori- 
ginators of the arts and sciences. The discussion 
and lectures were carried on in the Franklin Hall, 
and were attended by about nine hundred or one 
thousand persons. The only lectures which were 
not free to criticism were Mr. Johnson's. The So- 
cial Improvement Society acts thus — any man of 
ability can have its rostrum to speak one hour upon 
such subject as he chooses, but he must allow one 
hour's discussion after his lecture. 

I may remark that the Social Improvement Soci- 
ety is not answerable for any opinion expressed in 
the following pages. I know that there are many 
members, who conscientiously differ from me upon 
this as well as upon other subjects, but there each 
and all of us have adopted the idea of Jefferson that 
it is only by fair and free discussion that truth will 
ever be able to overcome falsehood ; let us therefore 
take the motto of the apostle kt prove all things, hold 
fast that what is good ;" " Fiat justitia ruat caelum.' 2 

The arguments I heard uttered by the different 
speakers afforded me the idea of offering my views 
in a more connected manner to the public, in a writ- 
ten form, than I did orally before the audiences in 
the Franklin Hall. 

The question as above stated, to wit : "can the 
colored races of men be made mentally, politically 
and socially equal with the white?" I mean to 
examine in the course of this book and by 
citing such authprities as to me appear the best ac- 
quainted with ethnology endeavor to counteract the 



sickly sentimentalism, the maudlin philosophy and 
pseudo philanthropy, oft times amounting to trea- 
son either through the folly or wickedness of the 
men who advocate negro-ology. 

The great advocate of the equality of races is 
Prichard. He sat down to his task predetermined 
in favor of the negro and of the colored races of men 
— "Grant me a place said Archimedes to set my 
lever and I will move the w r orld." — " Grant me my 
premises says Prichard, and I will draw deductions 
to prove the verity of these premises. " This Mr. 
Prichard can do; this any man can do; there is 
no difficulty in the matter at all. 

I follow no theory. I adopt no one's views in 
particular, it is only when I find one author corrobo- 
rating another that I adopt their positions. 

I take it for granted that no dark race of men 
has ever been equal to a white race.- — Equal numbers 
ceteris paribus, the dark race must submit to the 
fair, the two cannot exist together in the same com- 
munity on terms of equality — I speak not here of the 
justice or injustice of the matter, I only speak of the 
fact ! the whole history of the world proves it. It 
is an actual fact, a truth, a reality, as it was five 
thousand years ago so was it four and three and 
and two and one thousand years ago — so is it to 
day, that the dark race had always to yield to the 
superior intellect of the white — never at any given 
time from the most infinitely remote antiquity until 
now, has there ever appeared a race of negroes, that 
is men with woolly heads, flat nosjes, thick and pro- 
truding lips, who has ever emerged from a state of 


savageism or barbarism, to even a demi civilization 
— Look to the West Indies, to Brazil, to Australia, 
to the Gold Coast, to Zanguebar, to Congo, to Sene- 
gambia, to Ashantee, nay to the civilization under 
his imperial highness Faustin the first Emperor of 
Hayti, and answer me, ye Garrisons and Phillipses 
and Burleys and Folsoms and Smiths, what has 
this race done in five thousand years?" 

Let us now carefully scan the flimsy arguments of- 
fered to our notice by the advocates of negro equality. 
The first argument is " that the negroes never have 
had an opportunity to develope themselves because 
the white man has always oppressed them." 

They forget that the latter portion of this propo- 
sition refutes the former. If the white man has al- 
ways oppressed the negro, it goes to establish the 
fact claimed by me that the white man is mentally 
superior, because, if the white has been always 
powerful enough to debar the negro from improving 
his intellect, it establishes the complete force of my 
views — u That no amount of education or training 
can ever make the negro equal in intellect with the 
white;" " knowledge is power," and it is evident 
to all, that under no circumstance has the negro 
race ever been able to compete with the white. 

We see around us in every direction, evidences 
of the fact that the negro is naturally inferior to the 
white ; but it is unfair to institute comparisons 
where this race is held in bondage by the white. — 
We will give them all the advantage of a fair exa- 
mination. We will travel to that quarter of the 
globe which seems to be the native land of this 


race, and to which they appear to be indigenous. — 
We will go where the white man has never oppress- 
ed this race. 

Monumental ruins of Dahomey forty ages do not 
look down upon you. Strewn columns of Ashan- 
tee where shall we find you, and echo answers 
where? Decaying towers of Zanguebar shall any 
traveller ever discover thy nameless and undisco- 
vered and undiscoverable foundations. Sculptured 
temples of Guinea what hierologist shall ever be 
able to decipher thy extinguished hieroglyphics — 
what future Pickwickian antiquarian shall ever as- 
cend to the pinnacle of fame, by translating the negro 
cabalistic letters of "bil stumps his mark.' 

Let us have one great negro to redeem a whole 
race from the universally acknowledged fact, that 
the brand mark of inferiority has been indelibly, 
irrevocably, irretrievably, and eternally impressed 
by the Creator upon the negro, and that nothing can 
erase or obliterate it. Inferiority marks him as her 
own in the United States, in Brazil, <3kc. 

I said before, if only one great negro name could be 
produced to redeem a whole race, that I will retract 
all I have ever said against negro inferiority, — but 
this one only name, this rara avis, this white black- 
bird, this phoenix is not forthcoming, "you cannot 
make a silk purse out of a sow's lug," is an old and 
homely adage, but not the less true, so can you not 
make any thing from a negro but negroism, which 
means barbarism and inferiority. 

Greatness indeed in a pure negro, where, when 
and how did it manifest itself? What woolly-head- 


ed Homers, Virgils, Dantes, Molieres, or Shaks- 
peares ever inscribed their names upon the pillar of 
fame, by the numbers of immortal song? What 
woolly-headed Xenophons, Tacituses, Gibbons, Vol- 
taires, Humes and Bancrofts ever depicted the ac- 
tions of woolly-headed heroes, patriots and soldiers ? 
What woolly -headed Epaminondases, Csesars, Alex- 
anders, Washingtons, Napoleons and Wellingtons 
ever led their marshalled battalions upon the prin- 
ciples of military science to either liberty, victory, 
or death ? What woolly-headed Solons, or Numas, 
or Alfreds, or Jeffersons, ever framed a code of laws 
to direct and guide the destinies of a great nation ? 
What woolly-headed Demostheneses, or Ciceros, or 
Mirabeaus, or Sheridans, or Calhouns, or Bentons, 
or Clays ever delighted and electrified vast masses 
of woolly-headed men with their eloquence ? What 
woolly-headed Euclids,or Archimedeses, or Laplaces, 
or Gallileos, or Herschels, or Newtons ever investi- 
gated the truths of astronomical and mathematical 
sciences ? What woolly-headed Cuviers, Hum- 
boldts, Davys and Audubons ever explored the ani- 
mal and mineral kingdoms ? What woolly-headed 
Watses, Arkwrights, or Fultons ever attempted to 
invent a machine of iron, wood, or brass to super- 
cede the labor of woolly-headed men? What woolly- 
headed Columbuses, or Hudsons, or Drakes ever ven- 
tured across the wide wilderness of waters in search 
of distant, unknown and undiscovered continents ? 
In fine, have the woolly-headed races of men ever 
produced one, even only one man famous as either 
a lawgiver, statesman, poet, priest, painter, histo- 


rian, orator, architect, musician, soldier, sailor, en- 
gineer, navigator, astronomer, linguist, mathemati- 
cian, anatomist, chemist, physician, naturalist, or 
philosopher ; if they have, let us know his name, 
where he was born, and when he flourished, the 
works he wrote, and where, when and how he died. 

My motives are to write for that great mass of our 
citizens who are unable to obtain all the authors 
for themselves, who have written upon this subject, 
by making such a selection as will form a text book 
for white men upon the subject of negromania. I 
propose to devote a particular chapter to Herodo- 
tus, and shall then ask what reliance can be placed 
upon his authority. 

The idea that the negro race ever civilized Egypt, 
is now exploded among learned men, but we have 
among us persons who spurn at history, who laugh at 
nature, who sneer at reason, and who say that " the 
negro is one of God's creatures, and is therefore 
equal to the white." Why so are elephants, and 
dogs, and monkeys, and rattlesnakes God's crea- 
tures ; but does any body ever compare any of these 
in intellect to even the negro, and yet there is as much 
difference between the lowest tribe of negroes and 
the white Frenchman, Englishman, or American, 
as there is between the monkey and the negro. All 
animated things are God's creatures, but certainly 
it does not follow that all are equally intelligent ; that 
there is a regular chain in nature, from the granite 
rock to the highest order of intellect in the white 
race, is now generally acknowledged. To follow 
inanimate matter through its gradations up to ani- 


mate, is neither my intention or object, but I wish 
the reader to trace the geological formations of the 
earth up to that point where the vegetable kingdom 
commences, then trace the vegetable kingdom to the 
zoophyte, the connecting link in the chain between 
the vegetable and animal kingdoms, then trace the 
animal kingdom up through reptiles, fishes, beasts, 
until he arrives at man, can he not distinctly recog- 
nize the gradations of intellect, and finally trace the 
various races of man from the lowest order of the 
negro race to the most intellectual Caucasian. All 
we can do is to admire the wonderful mechanism 
of the harmonious whole, and pay our adoration to 
its incomprehensible and omnipotent Creator. 

I do not say one word concerning the question of 
slavery, that is entirely foreign to the nature of my 
book. In the recent discussion upon negro equal- 
ity, I broadly asserted the fact, that there is not one 
white in fifty thousand who believe in such a revolt- 
ing and infamous doctrine, and I frequently dared 
all the speakers to say if any one of them were satis- 
fied to give his child in marriage to a negro. I 
need hardly say that such a challenge was not ac- 
cepted. How I loathe that hypocrisy which claims 
the same mental, moral, and physical equality for 
the negro which the whites possess. 

Time nor circumstance nor climate affect not the 
negro race, all nature forbids an amalgamation be- 
tween them and the Caucasians. Nature tolerates 
not hybrids, or mules, or mulattoes. It is clearly 
proven that a race between the three typical stocks, 
can only be maintained by a continual drain upon 


a parent stock. There is one great difficulty, 
and to my mind an insurmountable one, which is, 
that the advocates of the negro civilization of Egypt 
do not attempt to account for, how this civilization 
was lost. We know that the white never loses, but 
always gains. A nation or tribe of the white race 
may become extinct, from a variety of causes, but 
the civilization of the race progresses notwithstand- 
ing. Egypt progressed, and why, because it was 
Caucasian. Egypt fell, but its civilization was 
transferred, made more perfect, in the land of Mara- 
thon. Greece, in its turn, decayed as a nation, but 
not so its learning, it was transferred to Rome, and 
an increase added to the original stock. The sun 
of Rome's greatness, grandeur and glory set, but 
not its classic lore, it was preserved, extended and 
ramified among the Caucasian race in France, in 
England, in Germany, in Italy, and in America. — 
It is the nature of the white to progress, this ap- 
pears to be the fact from all history, from all expe- 
rience, and from all nature. 




As it is always right to discriminate upon the 
nature of the evidence from the character of a wit- 
ness in a court of justice, so is it equally fair to 
criticise the writings of a historian, to see if he re- 
lates what is both probable and possible. Whenever 
we find an author prone to narrate the improbable 
and marvellous as being not only true facts and 
veritable transactions, but furthermore, that he re- 
lates these from a personal knowledge of his own, 
then are we justified in severely criticising all that 
such authors speak of, and only pay any credit to 
their assertions, when not contrary to the laws of 
nature, and when such assertions are confirmed by 
the testimony of cotemporary and subsequent au- 
thors and investigators. 

A case of this kind is now for consideration 
before us. It has been said, that " Herodotus is 
the Father of History." If by this is meant that 
his veracity can be depended upon in his rela- 
tions of facts, he is certainly unworthy of the 
title ; if it is meant that he is merely the first 
writer, then his title is correct. Herodotus existed 
about four hundred and thirty years before Christ, 
or about one hundred years before the time of the 
great Macedonian. Herodotus travelled into Egypt, 
and says, that " The Egyptians were black in com- 
plexion and woolly-headed." How far he is to be 

credited, must be a question for the readers of this 



book to determine for themselves, but before I pro- 
ceed to cite authority against the statement of He- 
rodotus, I will give a couple of quotations from him- 
self, in order that a due estimate may be placed 
upon him. In his Euterpe are to be found the fol- 
lowing, among a great mass of similar rubbish :■ — 
" The inhabitants become black from excessive 
heat." In page 121, Bonn's edition, is this — 

" The following is the nature of the crocodile. — 
During the four coldest months it eats nothing, and 
though it has four feet, it is amphibious. It lays 
its eggs on land, and there hatches them. It spends 
the greater part of the day on the dry ground, but 
the whole night in the river ; for the water is then 
warmer than the air and dew. Of all living things 
with which we are acquainted, this, from the least 
beginning, grows to be the largest. For it lays 
eggs little larger than those of a goose, and the 
young is at first in proportion to the egg ; but when 
grown up, it reaches to the length of seventeen cu- 
bits, and even more, It has the eyes of a pig, 
large teeth, and projecting tusks, in proportion to 
the body : it is the only animal that has no tongue : 
it does not move the lower jaw, but is the only ani- 
mal that brings down its upper jaw to the under 
one. It has strong claws, and a skin covered with 
scales, that cannot be broken on the back. It is 
blind in the water, but very quick-sighted on land ; 
and because it lives for the most part in the water, 
its mouth is filled with leeches." 

Again, p. 174 :— " The Persians, having marched 
through the arid region, halted near the Egyptians, 


as if with the design of engaging ; there the auxilia- 
ries of the Egyptians, consisting of Greeks and Ca- 
rians, condemning Phanes because he had led a 
foreign army against Egypt, adopted the following 
expedient against him : Phanes had left his sons in 
Egypt; these they brought to the camp, within 
sight of their father, and placed a bowl midway be- 
tween the two armies, then dragging the children 
one by one, they slew them over the bowl. When 
they slaughtered all the children, they poured wine 
and water into the bowl, and, after all the auxiliaries 
had drank of the blood, they immediately joined 
battle. A hard battle having been fought, and when 
great numbers had fallen on both sides, the Egyp- 
tians were put to flight. Here I saw a very sur- 
prising fact, which the people of the country in- 
formed me of. For as the bones of those w T ho were 
killed in that battle lie scattered about separately, 
(for the bones of the Persians lay apart in one place, 
as they did at first, and those of the Egyptians in 
another,) the skulls of the Persians were so weak, 
that if you should hit them only with a single peb- 
ble, you would break a hole in them ; w T hereas those 
of the Egyptians are so hard, that you could 
scarcely fracture them by striking them with a 
stone. The cause of this, they told me, is as fol- 
lows, and I readily assented ; that the Egyptians 
begin from childhood and shave their heads, and 
the bone is thickened by exposure to the sun : from 
the same cause also they are less subject to bald- 
ness, for one sees fewer persons bald in Egypt than 
in any other country. This, then, is the cause of 


their having such strong sculls : and the reason why 
the Persians have weak sculls is this : they shade 
them from the first, wearing tiaras for hats. Now, 
I myself saw that such was the case ; and I also 
observed the same thing at Papremis, with respect 
to those who were slain with Achsemenes, son of 
Darius, by Inarus the Libyan." 


" The works of Herodotus and Diodorus are too 
familiar to general readers, to require much more 
than designation. The former was in Egypt about 
430 years B. C, during the dominion of the Per- 
sians, and after Egypt had fallen entirely from her 
pristine greatness. The latter was in Egypt in 40 
B. C, toward the close of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, 
at a still lower period of degradation. 

" Valuable, as are the works of these two Greek 
authors, they have fallen very considerably in our 
estimation, since Egypt as a country, and the ancient 
Egyptians as a people have become better known to 
us ; and the inconsistencies, mis-statements, misre- 
presentations, misconceptions and absurdities, that 
are hourly exposed in their accounts of Egypt, 
more than compensate for the information, in which, 
by accident, they are correct. This assertion may 
seem audacious; but will be substantiated in the 
sequel, when a comparison is instituted between 
Egyptian history, as developed in these chapters 
and future lectures, and the accounts of Herodotus 
or Diodorus. 

" It would require a volume to elucidate the dis- 


crepancies, now demonstrable, between many, nay 
most of the assertions of Herodotus and Diodorus, 
in regard to almost every subject relating to ancient 
Egypt; and the facts, with which we are made ac- 
quainted, in the works of the whole Champollion 
school. Nor, in common fairness, must my asser- 
tions be doubted, until an antagonist shall have ac- 
tually verified in Champollion, Rosellini and Wil- 
kinson, some of the points in which Greek authors 
are shown to be so lamentably ignorant. I will, 
however, add the following reasons, gleaned chiefly 
from long personal acquaintance with Egypt, to 
show that it was not in the nature of things that 
Herodotus or Diodorus could be often correct. 

" In the first place, Herodotus, though a learned 
and highly respectable Greek, and who, as the 
greatest of their ancient travellers and universal 
historians, deserves our respect and gratitude, was 
in Egypt, a stranger. He was certainly not in 
literary, or scientific, or fashionable, or aristocratic 
society in that country ; which he visited, after in- 
tercourse with the Greeks, and the Persian conquest 
had ruined the former greatness of the higher castes, 
and had corrupted the inhabitants of Lower Egypt, 
with whom Herodotus chiefly mixed. For his own 
sake, we must hope he did not (although he says he 
did, as far as the first cataract) visit Upper Egypt, else 
he would not have left Thebes undescribed; or have 
listened to the idle tale, that the sources of the Nile 
were at Elephantine! 

" In his day, 500 years of decline had deteriorated 
the Priest-caste, the only depositaries of history in 



Egypt. As a foreigner, Herodotus was looked "upon 
by the sinking aristocracy of Egypt in the light of 
an " impure gentile;" and utterly ignorant of the lan- 
guage, he must have gleaned all his information 
through an interpreter. If, as we have a full right 
to do, we judge of Herodotus's interpreter by those 
of travellers in modern times, the result with respect 
to the sort of information he could receive through 
such a medium, may well be imagined. Nay, it is 
proved, by his mistakes upon almost every Egyptian 
subject which he handles in Euterpe. 

" Like some English and other modern writers, 
who compose volumes on that misrepresented coun- 
try, that are like Hodges' razors, only made to sell, 
Herodotus prepared his work to read at the Olym- 
pic games to a Grecian audience, more ignorant in 
those days on Egyptian affairs, than even Europeans 
of modern times are generally; and it was necessary 
to interlard his discourse with occasional fabrications, 
some of which will scarcley bear the dubious phrase 
of "Se non e vero, e ben trovato." 

" Diodorus was in Egypt just before the downfall 
of the house of Lagus, in B. C. 40, when the decline 
of Egyptian learning had been going on for 700 
years — 400 of which had been spent under the yoke 
of foreign masters. Diodorus copied Herodotus, 
and Hecatseus of Miletus, who had visited and 
written on Egypt, in the reign of Darius ; and, per- 
haps the later work of Hecatseus of Abdera, who was 
in Egypt after Alexander ; and who, from the little 
we know of him, appears to have been an intelligent 
man, although, to the Egyptians, all of them were 


naught but "impure foreigners" — so termed in hie- 
roglyphical legends by the Egyptians ; in the same 
manner, that foreign nations are, to this day, in 
China, termed " outside barbarians." Other infor- 
mation was imbibed by Diodorus, from Greeks in 
Lower Egypt ; whose profound ignorance of Egyp- 
tian learning is only exceeded by their indifference, 
their stupid self-complacency and egregious im- 
pudence. It will not be pretended that Diodorus 
could speak Egyptian. 

" There is so little dependence to be placed on the 
accounts of Herodotus or Diodorus, excepting on 
what they actually saw with their own eyes, or 
could comprehend from its nature when they saw 
it, that, by hieroglyphists their narratives are fol- 
lowed only in the absence of better guides; or, when 
their accounts are confirmed by other testimony. 
They could not discriminate between the truth or 
falsehood of the things that were told them ; and often 
the only way of accounting for the nonsense they 
often record, is to suppose, that the humorous Egyp- 
tians purposely misled them. We have to thank 
them however for puting all down ; leaving us the 
task of culling the pearls from the rubbish ; for there 
is no doctrine, however inconsistent or improbable, 
that cannot be supported by quotations from Hero- 
dotus or Diodorus. 

"Let any stranger at the present day, through 
the medium of an interpreter ask the most intelligent 
native in the Delta, a question about modern Nubia, 
and its present relations with Egypt: and the answer 
will be a fable, modelled into the form the Fellah 


deems most likely to be pleasing to the stranger, if 
he does not confess his utter ignorance thereon ; a 
candor rare in the valley of the Nile, and possibly 

" We must not merely look at the authority, but 
at the authority's resources and qualifications for 
information, no less than at the nature of the sources 
whence he could acquire that information. It would 
surprise any one to read descriptions of Egypt in 
some modern works (published since Champollion's 
discoveries,) and then go to Cairo and ask old resi- 
dents their opinions thereon. 

" The authority of Herodotus and Diodorus on 
ancient Egyptian, and still more on ancient Ethiopian 
questions, distant 1000 miles from the provinces 
they visited (the epochs of the occurrence of which, 
date from 2000 to 3000 years before they were in 
Egypt,) is of about the same value, as would be the 
authority of some modern travellers of the last half 
century, whose puerile information about even 
modern Cairo would be derived during a fortnight's 
residence, from an Arab Rais, or captain, a donkey- 
driver, or a European hotel-keeper! Ask any of 
these last, about events which took place in Egypt 
only 500 years ago ! 

" Travellers, therefore, who go beyond the first 
impressions they receive, are liable to err, if they 
attempt, without time and adequate study, to explain 
even what they behold. 

" That information must be incorrect which is 
solely derived from a village Arab Sheykh, or 
Turkish Nazir, on events whereon it is impossible 


these can possess any information — and which, in 
either case, is given to the traveller, ignorant of 
Arabic, through the medium of a stupid rascal, who, 
because he can jabber a few words of English, waits 
at table and cleans your shoes, is dignified by the 
inapplicable and inappropriate title of "dragoman" 
or interpreter. Let me ask have not Americans 
just reason to complain of the cursory notes of Eng- 
lish travellers, taken, during a railroad and steam- 
boat trip, through the United States? Yet, in this 
case the traveller speaks the same language as the 
nation, through whose country he whirls like an 

" Judge then how incompetent must that traveller 
be, in a foreign land, unacquainted with the lan- 
guage of the natives, when he inquires of unlettered 
Fellahs, or of European freshmen, about events that 
transpired thousands of years before his visit ; and 
yet, such was precisely the position of Herodotus 
and Diodorus, in Egypt. 

" If, therefore, my own assertions differ from those 
met with in works of any epoch, not written by dis- 
ciples of the Champollion school, the reader will be 
so indulgent as to make some allowance for diversities 
of opinion, between one who knows a country from 
23 years of domicile and many years of critical in- 
vestigation, and others, whose sojourn therein rarely 
equalled the same number of months, generally fell 
within the same number of weeks, and often did not 
exceed the same number of days. 

" When Herodotus or Diodorus are quoted upon 
subjects, which we can prove they could learn little 


or nothing about, it is of no great consequence what 
inference may be derived from their conclusions; 
because the well informed hierologists have better 
sources of information; and may draw inferences 
from existing monuments and Egyptian autocthon 
chronicles, which gave them, in 1843, an infi- 
nitely superior knowledge of early Egypt (dating 
2000 years before the earliest Greek historian) than 
could be acquired by, or was known to, the Greeks, 
or the Romans ; whose testimony may be very often 
useful, but it is not evidence. 

"All authors who wrote on Egypt and Ethiopia, 
before the discoveries of Champollion, or without a 
thorough perusal of the works of his school, are 
liable to error on subjects now perfectly understood ; 
and, in the present year, 1843, for a man to write 
on ancient Egypt, without first making himself really 
acquainted with what in the last 20 years has been 
done by the Champollions, by Rosellini, by Wilkinson 
and all the hieroglyphical students, is to act "the 
play of Hamlet, the part of Hamlet being left out 
by particular desire." Suppose an Egyptian were 
to write a history of the United States ; and to make 
a rule of never consulting one American author, 
while treating on American institutions, systems of 
government, manners and customs, annals or per- 
sonages ; what sort of a book would he write ? and 
what opinion would the citizens of the United States 
have of his one-sided and narrow-minded production, 
teeming, as it necessarily would, with nonsense, 
errors and misrepresentation ! And yet, it is a deed 
in absurdity precisely parallel for any one, in 1843, 


to write on ancient Egypt, without ascertaining first 
what its ancient inhabitants record of themselves. 

" We have now, however, indisputable evidence 
of the Asiatic origin and Caucasian race of the 
earliest denizens of the Nile ; and can smile at the 
long-asserted descent of civilization from Ethiopia, 
(that unknown land of fable) or, at the idea of its 
origin among any African tribe. This will be made 
clear in the sequel ; and this fact will remove a host 
of dilemmas, by tracing Hebrews and Egyptians to 
a probably-simultaneous departure from their com- 
mon Asiatic hive. 

" It is our part now to prove, that not time, nor 
circumstance, nor climate, effected any palpable 
change, or physical alteration, in their progeny ; and 
that Ham's lineal descendants, the Egyptians, were 
all pure blooded Caucasians, from the earliest to the 
latest Pharaonic epoch — modified in the Upper 
Nilotic provinces by the admixture of exotic Austro- 
E gy ptian (that is, as Dr. Morton explains, by com- 
pound Semitico-Hindoo and equally Caucasian) 
blood ; and this was strictly the fact, except in in- 
cidental and individual intermixture with the Afri- 
can races of Berbers and Negroes in those provinces 
to Ethiopia adjacent. This latter commingling, 
however, appears to have but partially affected the 
gross of Egyptian population of Asiatic origin ; and 
to have been no more visible, (probably still less 
so) among the Pharaonic Egypto-Caucasian family, 
than it is now discernible among the Fellahs, of the 
lower and middle provinces of the present day. 

" As Mizraim and his children were all Caucasians 


at first start, in order to change their skins from 
white to black, their hair to wool, and to alter their 
osteology, "through the effects of climate" time at 
least must be allowed. Who will define the neces- 
sary period for these radical changes ? Never mind 
— we grant every facility. Let countless generations 
transpire. Let them become Negroes, or Berbers, in 
race. Let them reach the acme of civilization. Let 
them surpass Dahomey ; outrival Ashantee ; become 
as intellectual as Hottentots — as philanthropical as 
Tuaricks — as constructive as Tibboos. Let them 
build the pyramids of Meroe, Gebel Birkal, and 
Noori — which done, let them come down the Nile 
again, to build the pyramids of Memphis and cover 
Egypt with stupendous structures ; a perfect, and 
essentially a civilized community ; to confirm Her- 
odotus, and his Egyptian applications, of ^Idy/Qoeg 
xcu ovlb TQiieg " black in complexion, and woolly- 
haired" to be called also MslapgoSw — " the black-foot- 
ed ;" or more appropriately, " the long-heeled race." 
On their arrival in Lower Egypt, the Delta, of 
course, is no longer a marsh ; and having waited for 
its formation, they cover it with cities. 

" Let them, I repeat, perform all of these impos- 
siblities, and then they are no longer Africans in 
Egypt. A miracle (of which we have no record) 
has metamorphosed them again into Caucasians. 

" It does seem odd, if not unnecessary, to make the 
Asiatic and Caucasian Mizraimites at once proceed 
np the Nile, 1500 miles to Meroe ; there to study 
and improve and sojourn, "until the wonderful effects 
of climate should transmute them into Africans; 


and then, after countless generations, to lead them 
back into Egypt, and there witness their transition 
into pure white men, in a climate where no Ethi- 
opian ever changed his skin ! 

" And we must make all these changes in far less 
than one thousand years : that is, we start with 
Ham and Mizraim as Caucasians; we transport 
them from Assyria into Ethiopia, and watch their 
transition into Negroes, or Berbers, by the effects 
of climate, and under the vaguest extent of time : 
we perfect them as such, and doat upon the sable 
or dusky philosophers, who are to instruct Moses, 
and. civilize the Greeks. We then bring them back 
into Egypt, and by magic as it were, transmute 
these Negroes or Berbers, again into pure white 
men, or Caucasians, such as every Egyptian was. 
We must accomplish all this between Mizraim and 
Abraham — in a space of about 100 years, by the 
Hebrew version : of about 500 by the Septuagint. 
On Egyptian monuments (as I shall prove by 
facsimile copies) we find the Negro and the Berber, 
painted prior to 1500, B. C, as perfectly distinct 
from the Egyptian natives, as an Anglo-Saxon is 
from a Chimpansee. If four thousand years have 
not had the slightest effect in whitening Negroes, 
how much change of color could have been accom- 
plished in one-eighth of the time ? 

" What should we say, if such a doctrine were 
maintained in defiance of Scripture, of nature, and 
of fact ? We should disdain to regard such nonsense ; 
and yet such is precisely the course we must pursue, 
if Ham be the father of the Egyptians, and the 


Egyptians descended the Nile from Ethiopia into 
Egypt. Such is precisely what must have occured, 
if we believe Herodotus, Diodorus, and. their Roman 
plagiarists ; and such is, in fine, the analysis of the 
Ethiopian origin of the Egyptians, if we pretend 
to believe the Bible. I will cast ethnography to 
the winds ; I will discard chronology as a dream ; but 
even then, I confess my inability to comprehend, 
or to accept, such a tissue of absurdities, if not 

" The Scriptures inform us, that Mizraim came 
from the banks of the Euphrates into Africa, and 
that his decendants colonized Lower Egypt. 

" To bring the ancestors of the Egyptians from 
Ethiopia, leads to consequences irreconcilable with 
primeval biblical migrations. Ham and his son 
were indisputably Caucasians — to find, therefore, 
that their Egyptian descendants were Caucasians 
also, is perfectly in accordance with nature, and 
with Scripture. 

" Lower Egypt and the Delta, would naturally be 
the region most suited to agriculture ; and contrary 
again to the general current of opinion, it was here 
that the earliest Egyptians settled — it was here, that 
the most ancient cities arose — and here, that the 
most ancient monumental piles still remain, to attest 
the correctness of the assertion. 

" The erection, in Lower Egypt, of the most ancient 
monuments we encounter, does not at all impede 
the migration of the Caucasian race, at a very early 
period into the Thebaid, or even as far as Meroe ; 
nor is the inferior relative antiquity of those vast 


edifices, that proudly demand, for Thebes, and the 
Thebaid, an age nearly parallel to those of Lower 
Egypt, devoid of explanation on other grounds; but, 
it is an indisputable fact, since the application of 
the Champollion tests to any of the ruins in the 
Nilotic valley, that the most ancient vestiges pre- 
served to us lie north; and the earliest extant are the 
Memphite pyramids ; while those found to the south- 
ward, are comparatively more recent; with the 
doubtful exception of the pyramids of Meroe in 
Ethiopia, which will be attended to in due course. 
" In the interval previous to the accession of Menes, 
and subsequent to the dispersion of mankind from 
Shinar, must that wandering tribe of Caucasians, 
who settled permanently in the valley of the Nile, 
have entered Egypt from Asia ; and although we 
possess not the slightest account of the time, beyond 
that of its occurence between Noah and Abraham, 
and none of the mode in which this march must 
have taken place, from Assyria into Egypt; yet, the 
fact of the Asiatic orgin, and Caucasian race of the 
early Egyptians being declared in the Bible, and 
proved by anatomy, with monumental and historical 
corroborations ; it may be desirable to inquire how 
far geographical facilities smoothed their path, and 
whether topographical circumstances, in connection 
with localities in Egypt, admit of and confirm their 

" According to the facts, set forth in Morton's 
'Crania iEgyptiaca,' we find the Caucasians occu- 
pying Egypt, at the remotest time we can descry; 
and any errors unintentionally committed in specu- 


lating upon the road they took from the Asiatic 
continent to Egypt, will not affect the fact of their 

" Whether their progress was slow, such as a 
pastoral people (we may infer they were at that 
primeval time) encumbered with families and flocks, 
would necessarily adopt; or whether it was the rapid 
march of men driven by political convulsions, or 
family feuds to seek safety in countries refnote from 
their first origin, are questions in themselves hypo- 
thetical, though the former speculation has most of 
probability. Whether their migration, from east to 
west, was anterior or posterior to the dispersion of 
Babel, I leave others to determine; in either case, 
we may recognise the all-wise hand of Providence, 
accomphshing by natural instruments, and accor- 
ding to immutable organic laws, the object of man's 
creation. Whether, prior to their entry, they pos- 
sessed any information concerning the fertility and 
salubrity of that smiling valley-land, whereon the 
"sacred Nile" by its periodical inundations, spreads 
its rich alluvium, must ever remain doubtful. 

" That they had their women with them is certain; 
as they preserved their blood, pure and intact, from 
amalgamation with African aborigines ; excepting, 
in partial instances, of much later times, proceeding 
from very natural causes, and affecting mainly those 
provinces which were adjacent to these Africans ; 
but no more influencing the mass of population in 
Lower and Middle Egypt, at any period, than is 
apparent, or usual, as I have before remarked, with 


the present Fellah and Arab inhabitants of these 
districts at this day. 

" The simplest view of the case would lead one to 
infer, that, in proportion as the increase of human 
and animal population rendered the area of Assyria 
too limited for the peaceful attainment of a suffi- 
ciency of food, small parties, offsets from the patri- 
archal tree, wandered, like the Bedawees of the 
present day, pasturing their cattle in search of 
forage, along the valleys of Palestine. The van- 
guard of these nomads, pushed forward constantly 
by the advance of later separations from the main 
body, or induced by other contingences, which we 
may conjecture, but cannot define, crossed the small 
desert, which even at the present day, in winter, 
offers every facility for similar migrations, and 
reached the valley of the Nile, somewhere in the 
vecinity of Pelusium. 

" Once in the land of Goshen, it may be readily 
imagined, whoever came the first would not be long 
in inviting his friends and relations to join him (and 
to sojourn permanently) in, what must have been 
to a herdsman, as it is the present day to the agri- 
culturist, a terrestrial paradise. Similar causes 
always produce similar effects. Population in- 
creased, and migration continued, until every atom 
of the then alluvial soil between the deserts of Suez 
and of Lybia, and from the sea beach to that extreme 
point, where an African climate becomes mortiferous 
to the white man (which region commences about 
the 16th degree of latitude in Ethiopia above 
Egypt,) was colonized by the Asiatic Caucasians; 



and, in those remote countries, by their intermixed 
decendants. As population increased, the herds- 
man was forced, by interest, and want of pasture 
room, to become a farmer ; and the first spade struck 
into the yielding black mud of the receding Nile, 
was the first step toward that civilization and power 
which, for 2000 years, made Egypt the greatest 
country of the earth. 

" I deem it requisite only to allude to the prevalent, 
but erroneous notion of the African origin of the 
ancient Egyptians, in so far as to express my 
disbelief of the possibility, that the Caucasian route 
from Asia to Egypt, could have lain, in those 
primeval times, across the Red Sea, at the straits 
of Bab-el-Mandeb, or higher up. Let any one look 
at the map, and measure the distance from Assyria 
to Meroe, by that road — let him pause and consider 
the vast geographical obstructions to be encountered 
in Arabia : the time it would take to overcome them; 
and then let him consider the little chronological 
space we have for the events that occurred in Egypt 
between Mizraim and Abraham ; and allow, that 
without overthrowing Scripture, this doctrine cannot 
be maintained. 

" From Assyria and the plains of Shinar, even at 
this day (aside from human insurmountable dificul- 
ties) the journey through Arabia across the Red 
Sea, into Abyssina, over the deserts of Catareff, to 
Meroe, and thence down the Nile, 1600 miles, to 
Lower Egypt and the sea-board, would be almost 
impossible to a family accompanied by children and 
by flocks. It may be objected, that this migration 


was not immediate, but may have occupied ages. 
In that case, my reply is, that their journey must 
have been rapid, and accomplished within a few 
years ; or we must reject even the septuagint chro- 
nology as insufficient. To pass over the Red Sea 
with flocks and large family incumbrances, implies 
vessels; whence could they obtain timber on the 
western Arabian coast ? how procure materials for 
naval construction and outfit, in those primeval 
times ? 

" A mere glance at the map of Abyssinia will 
present obstacles, after their supposititious arrival on 
the western shore of the Red Sea, to render their 
progress toward Meroe and Ethiopia, anything but 
desirable ; nor is there any point, whereon the 
advocates of the African theory can hang a reason- 
able hypothesis , since the results obtained by 
Dr. Morton, and detailed in his 'Crania ^Egyptiaca.' 

" Asiatic in their origin, springing from the same 
stock as Shem and Japheth, and Caucasian in 
their osteological conformation, the Egyptians were 
white men, of no darker hue than a pure Arab, a 
Jew, or a Phoenician ; and it is quite as justifiable, 
and equally reasonable, to draw the dusky and the 
sable inhabitants of Africa from Shem, the type of 
the Hebrews and the Arabs ; or from Japheth, the 
type of the Europeans, as to derive the Berbers and 
the Negroes from Ham, whom Scripture tells us 
was the parent of the Egyptians; and as such, Ham 
must have been an Asiatic and Caucasian, since we 
know positively, that his Egyptian decendants were 
Caucasians, as pure-blooded in orgin as ourselves. 


" The climate of Egypt will never change a Cau- 
casian into a Negro, a black into a white man ; and 
we have yet to learn what effect climate may have 
had, in every other latitude, on the physical organi- 
zation of man, on the material variation of his hair 
and skin, or on his osteological and craniological 

" How the real African aborigines — the Berbers 
and the Negroes, were disseminated over Ethiopia 
and Nigritia, is foreign to my discourse, nor do I 
presume to offer an hypothesis. 

" It does not seem possible (although the men are 
excellent swimmers) that they, and still less their 
females and children, swam across the red sea ! and, 
if it be necessary to import these African races 
from the Asiatic hive, the same reasons which ren- 
der the Isthmus of Suez the route the most natural 
to the Caucasian children of Ham, may likewise 
have served for the ancestors of the Berbers and the 

" Equally unnecessary does it seem, to speculate 
whether Egypt was inhabited by any or by what 
tribe of man, at the period of Mizraim's immigra- 
tion ; because such a speculation would imply the 
possibility of the existence of other people at the 
time of Noah's descent from the ark — a supposition 
hitherto irreconcilable with all we learn from Scrip- 
ture. These are problems still insoluble by human 
reason — their results, such as are developed to us, 
point out the miraculous ordinations of the Creator 
without unfolding his inscrutable ways — and I 
again repeat, there is no more biblical reason or au- 


thority to derive the Negroes from Ham, than from 
Shem or Japheth ; and if climate is to have effected 
the change, the same canses must have produced 
the same effects, operating on the same physical 
principles; so that it is just as probable that the 
Caucasian Shem, or the Caucasian Japheth was 
the parent of African races, as the Caucasian Ham, 
whose children the Egyptians, were like their 
father and his blood-brothers, Asiatics and Cau- 

" Finally, it seems more natural, that a tribe, com- 
ing from Asia and adopting Egypt as its resting- 
place, should have entered that country by the route 
which, from the earliest times, has been the high 
road of nations between the Asiatic and African 
continents. It was by the Isthmus of Suez that 
the Hykshos, the Scythian shepherd kings of re- 
mote antiquity, came and were expelled ; this Isth- 
mus was likewise the beaten road of the Hebrews, 
from Abraham to the Exodus, as it is at the pre- 
sent day between Jerusalem and Egypt. It served 
the Egytians under the Pharaohs and the Ptolemies, 
as the route for their military expeditions and for 
all commercial intercourse with Asia. 

" The Persians, under Cambyses and Artaxerxes 
Ochus, Alexander with his Macedonian phalanx, 
the Saracens under Aamer, and the Ottomans un- 
der Sooltan Seleem, used it as their undeviating 
highway into and out of Egypt ; while, from the 
most ancient postdiluvian period to the present 
hour, it has afforded and will continue to afford, the 
same facilities between Asia and Africa, that in- 


cluced me to select it as the route of the Caucasian 
family of Mizraim. 

" An important confirmation of the Asiatic origin 
of the Egyptians, and, indeed, of' all the views here- 
in put forward, is to be derived from the results 
established by the learned ethnographer, philolo- 
gist, and critical hierologist, Dr. Leipsius; who 
has proved the affinities between the Indo-Ger- 
rnanic, Semitic and Coptic languages, to be identi- 
cal, proceeding from their common origin in one 
primeval source. This discovery puts the seal of 
authenticity even as to language upon the Asiatic 
origin of the early Egyptians ; while it goes far to 
explain all Coptic linguistical affinities with He- 
brew, Arabic, Sanscrit, and other Asiatic tongues. 

" 1st. Because it was in Lower Egypt that the 
Caucasian children of Ham must have first settled, 
on their arrival from Asia. 

" 2nd. Because the advocates of the theory, which 
would assert the African origin of the Egyptians, 
say they rely chiefly on history for their African, or 
Ethiopian predelictions. 

" 3rd. Because the same theorists* assume, that 
we must begin with Africans at the top of the Nile, 
and come downward with civilization, instead of 
commencing with Asiatics and white men at the 
bottom, and carrying it up. 

*" I have already stated, that Sir J. GardnerWilkinson's critical obser- 
vations, during his long residence in Egypt; and his comparisons be- 
tween the present Egyptians and the ancient race, as depicted on the mon- 
uments, have led him to assert the Asiatic origin of the early inhabitants 
of the Nilotic valley. The learned hierologist, Samuel Birch, Esq., of 
the British museum, informed me in London, that he had arrived at the 


" I have not as yet touched on ethnography ; the 
effects of climate, and the antiquity of the different 
races of the human family; but I shall come to 
those subjects, after establishing a chronological 
standard, by defining the history of Egypt ac- 
cording to the hieroglyphics. At present, I intend 
merely to sketch the events connected with the 
Caucasian children of Ham, the Asiatic, on the first 
establishment of their Egyptian monarchy, and the 
foundation of their first and greatest metropolis in 
Lower Egypt. 

" The African theories are based upon no critical 
examination of early history ; are founded on no 
Scriptural authority for early migrations ; are sup- 
ported by no monumental evidence, or hieroglyphical 
data; and cannot be borne out, or admitted, by 
practical common sense. For civilization, that 
never came northward out of benighted Africa, 
(but from the Deluge to the present moment has 
been carried but partially into it; to sink into utter 
oblivion among the barbarous races whom Provi- 
dence created to inhabit the Ethiopian and Nigritian 
territories of that vast continent) could not spring 
from Negroes, or from Berbers, and never did. 

same conclusions ; while to his suggestion, am I indebted for the first 
idea, ' that the most ancient Egyptian monuments lie North. 1 The great 
naturalists, Blumenbach and Cuvier, declared that all the mummies 
they had opportunities of examining, presented the Caucasian type. — 
Monsieur Jomard, the eminent hydrographer and profound Orientalist, in 
a paper on Egyptian ethnology, appended to the 3rd volume of ' Men- 
gins Histoire de l'Egypte,' Paris, 1839, sustains the Arabian (and conse- 
quently Asiatic and Caucasian) origin of the early Egyptians ; and his 
opinions are the more valuable, as he draws his conclusions independ- 
ently of hieroglyphical discoveries." 


"So far then, as the record, Scriptural, historical, 
and monumental, will afford us an insight into the 
early progress of the human race in Egypt, (the 
most ancient of all civilized countries) we may 
safely assert, that history when analyzed by com- 
mon sense ; when scrutinized by the application of 
the experience bequeathed to us by our forefathers ; 
when subjected to a strictly impartial examination 
into, and comparison of the physical and mental 
capabilities of nations; when distilled in the alem- 
bic of chronology ; and submitted to the touchstone 
of hieroglyphical tests, will not support that super- 
annuated, but untenable doctrine, that civilization 
originated in Ethiopia, and consequently among an 
African people, and was by them brought down the 
Nile to enlighten the less polished, and therefore 
inferior, Caucasian children of Noah — the white 
Asiatics ; or that we, who trace back to Egypt the 
origin of every art and science known in antiquity, 
have to thank the sable Negro, or the dusky Ber- 
ber, for the first gleams of knowledge and inven- 

"We may therefore conclude with the observation, 
that if civilization, instead of going from North to 
South, came — contrary, as shown before, to the an- 
nals of the earliest historians, and all monumental 
facts — down the ' Sacred Nile' to illumine our 
darkness ; and if the E thiopic origin of arts and 
sciences, with social, moral and religious institu- 
tions, were in other respects possible ; these Afri- 
can theoretic conclusions would form a most as- 
tounding exception to the ordinations of Providence, 


and the organic laws of nature, otherwise so unde- 
viating throughout all the generations of man's his- 
tory since the Flood. 

"It is indeed sufficient to glance one's eye at the 
plates of the sculptures from the Ethiopian pyra- 
mids, to see that there is nothing African in the 
character of the human faces ; and that, be they 
who they may, these people were not, and did not de- 
sire to be considered Africans, whether of the Berber 
or the Negro branches. Whence, already we begin 
to infer, that the builders of these Ethiopian pyra- 
mids were not aborigines of that country, but of a 
race foreign to Africa, and generally speaking, at 
that remote period unmixed with African blood. — 
Unless born in Ethiopia, they must have come ori- 
ginally from some other region. Who can they be ? 

" Now it is but reasonable to claim, that if in 
arts, sciences, customs, religion, color and physiolo- 
gical conformation, these people of Meroe are the 
same people as the Egyptians, and we prove the 
Egyptians to have been Asiatic in origin — Cauca- 
sian in race, and white men in color : the people of 
Meroe must have been Asiatics, Caucasians and 
white men also. This was precisely the case, and 
for the Egyptian side of the question, I need not re- 
capitulate the account of Mizraim's migration into 
the valley of the Nile, but refer to Morton's ' Cra- 
nia JE gj ptiaca' for incontrovertible evidence. 

" The question in regard to the priority of erec- 
tion between the pyramids of Meroe, and those of 

Memphis, merges into the still more interesting 



fact of their having been built by the same race of 
men, who were not Africans, but Caucasians 

" This will at once explain the cause of the su- 
periority of the inhabitants of Meroe, over all Afri- 
can aborigines, and the reason why the Egyptians 
looked upon them as brethren and friends — never 
stigmatizing them by the contemptuous title of 
1 Gentiles,' or ' impure foreigners,' as they designa- 
ted Asiatic and European nations; and never ap- 
plying to the people of Meroe, the reproach of be- 
longing to the 'perverse race of Kush, (not Cush, 
the son of Ham) by which name the Egyptians ex- 
clusively designated the Negro and the Berber races 
in hieroglyphics. We shall come to these facts in 
due course. This view can be sustained by the 
whole chain of monumental and other history. It 
will account for all the conflicting traditionary le- 
gends, that would make Meroe the parent of Egyp- 
tian civilization, or Ethiopia the cradle of the 
Egyptian people — will explain the intimacy and 
alliance subsisting at every period between Egypt 
and Meroe ; the parity in religion ; identity in usages 
and institutions ; similarity in language, writing, 
buildings, &c. 

" I would therefore offer, as an improved hypo- 
thesis, that the children of Ham, on leaving Asia 
and settling in the valley of the Nile, colonized 
first Lower Egypt, and then all the alluvial soil 
from the Delta to the confines of Nigritia, where- 
in they did not penetrate for permanent establish- 
ment, for the identical reason, that white men can- 
not do so at the present time — the climate, which, 


in Central Africa, is mortiferous to the Caucasian. 
It does not change his skin, hair, facial angle, or 
his osteology ; it kills him outright, if he crosses a 
certain latitude. Of course, here and there, an 
exception may be instanced where white men have 
crossed the (to their race) deadly miasmata of Cen^ 
tral Africa ; but these exceptions are so rare, that 
they fortify the rule. Witness the late Niger ex- 
pedition ; witness the grave-yard that Africa has 
been to the most enterprising travellers; witness 
the fruitless attempts of Mohammed Ali to send 
expeditions, but a few hundred miles beyond 

" The Caucasian children of Ham proceeded up 
the Nile in a natural course of migration and set- 
tlement, from Lower Egypt as far as Meroe — and 
probably there (although it would seem likely in 
later times) met Indo- Arabian Caucasians, with 
whom they mixed, and formed one people. 

" All we can say of this epoch is, that these cir- 
cumstances must have occurred before Menes ; be- 
fore the pyramids of Memphis rose in Egypt; be- 
fore the pyramids of Meroe could have been built in 

" That civilization advanced northward from the 
Thebaid (which appears to have been the parental 
seat of the theocratic government) before Menei, is 
not improbable. That the Caucasians who settled 
at Meroe may have somewhat preceded in civiliza- 
tion their brethren in Egypt, is possible ; though 
from monumental and other reasons, I deem it un- 
likely. But ' it does seem unnecessary, that the 


children of Ham, (the Caucasian,) the highest caste 
of that triple Caucasian stock, should have come from 
Asia into Egypt, and have directly ascended the 
Nile, leaving the most eligible provinces and hea- 
venly climate behind them, and have proceeded 
1600 miles to an almost barren spot, to Meroe, be- 
tween the tropics, for the objects of study and im- 
provement, and then have returned into Egypt to 
colonize that country, or in other words to civilize 
their own relations. How much more reasonable 
is it to attribute the rise of civilization to the peo- 
ple, occupying the best land under the pure skies 
of Egypt, or to suppose that its development was 
simultaneous among the same people, along the 
whole alluvial line from Lower Egypt to Meroe? 

" There are no positive data by which the anti- 
quity of the pyramids of Meroe is shown to be more 
remote than that of Memphis ; and I am inclined 
to regard both as dating about the same period, 
when pyramidal constructions were preferred to all 
others, for the last habitation of the royal dignitaries 
of Egypt and Meroe. It may be conjectured, that 
if in Ethiopia these are tombs of individual kings, 
they continued there to erect pyramids long after 
this species of sepulchre was abandoned in Egypt ; 
because this would in some degree explain their 
number. They were all built, and w T ere ancient, 
in the days of Tirhaka, B. C. 700. 139 pyramids, 
at 221 years for a kingly generation, would be 
30272 years ; wdiich is incompatible with all Scrip- 
ture chronology. I am, therefore, inclined to con- 
sider the pyramids of Meroe to be tombs of kings, 


queens and princes. We have no sure basis for cal- 
culating their antiquity, excepting that they belong 
to a period more ancient than 700 B. C. ; but we 
know that whenever they were erected, it was by 
the same race which built those of Memphis, the 
children of Ham — the Caucasian settlers in the Ni- 
lotic valley, and not by African aborigines of any 
race, or of any period. The most critical examina- 
tion establishes for the pyramids of Egypt, and for 
Shoopho, builder of the largest, an antiquity that 
cannot certainly be later than B. C. 2348 — though 
probably dating some centuries earlier; but that 
they were erected by Caucasians is indisputable. — 
That the pyramids of Meroe belong to the same 
epoch is probable, and that they were likewise built 
by Caucasians is positive. 

" If the pyramids of Meroe are older than those 
of Memphis, their epoch must necessarily surpass 
the Septuagint era of the Flood, if not that of the 

" If, from a rigid examination of their present 
appearance, the priority of those at Meroe is proved, 
(as Mr. Hoskins considers,) and this aged appearance 
cannot be explained by the effects of tropical rains 
and solar heat, acting with the hand of the spoiler 
on a friable material like a soft sandstone; when we 
reflect how little, in an Egyptian climate, time 
affects the appearance of monuments; and then, 
(though erroneously,) recognize in Ethiopia abetter 
climate than that of Egypt — if, I say, we consider 
that notwithstanding so long a period, (above 4000 

years,) as we know the Memphite pyramids to have 



stood — time has had such a trifling effect on their 
massive structures ; and we are to allow a still 
slighter effect to be produced by time on those 
edifices at Meroe — why, we must carry the pyramids 
of Meroe beyond all chronological, and measure 
their antiquity by geological periods ; 1st, as regards 
the epoch of the building of these Meroe pyramids ; 
which is one fact ; and 2nd as concerns the national 
traits of the builders, who were not Africans, but 
Asiatics, the utter destruction of all biblical chro- 
nology by this process would be another. 

" Now, ' things which are equal to the same are 
equal to one another.' If they are anterior to 
Shoopho's pyramid in Egypt, then Meroe must 
have been occupied in the earliest ages — many 
centuries before B. C. 2348 — by Caucasians, who 
must have migrated up the valley of the Nile, 
and have been settled many ages at Meroe before 
they erected one pyramid . If posterior to Shoopho's 
pyramid, Meroe was a colony of Egypto-Caucasians, 
at any intervening period prior to the 16th dynasty, 
B. C. 2272 — for we know from positive conquests 
of Egyptian Pharaohs in Nigritia and Ethiopia, 
that Meroe was an Egyptian province from about 
that time, down to a few years prior to B. C. 700 
— say for a thousand years. 

"But, if each of these pyramids of Ethiopia, like 
those of Memphis, be the sepulchre of a king, and 
if all of these Meroe edifices, (according to Mr. Hos- 
kins) were erected before Shoophos' time, as there 
are 139 pyramids in Ethiopia, we should have 139 
generations of Caucasian kings at Meroe before the 
pyramids of Memphis were thought of. 


" Lastly if the advocates of the African origin of 
the Egyptians cling to the superior antiquity of the 
pyramids at Meroe, as a proof of the origin of civili- 
zation in Ethiopia, and its consequent descent into 
Egypt, they are easily placed in a series of dilem- 
mas. If they deny all Caucasian introduction at 
Meroe, in the hope of vindicating the ancient men- 
tal and physical capabilities of Negro or Berber 
races; as I have proved the immense and almost 
biblically-irreconcilable antiquity of the Memphite 
pyramids, the advocates of the African orgin of 
civilization must reject Scripture altogether, both 
for chronology and primitive migrations. If, on the 
other hand, they allow, that, according to the Bible, 
Ham was the parent of the Egyptians, as we prove 
these Egyptians to have been pure-blooded white 
men, they must allow that civilization, proceeding 
from the Caucasians, took its rise in Egypt; and 
that Ethiopian civilization is a consequence ; while, 
in no case, can they make it appear that the African 
races above Egypt were one iota more civilized in 
ancient times than at the present day, for the civi- 
lization of Meroe originated with the Caucasians, 
and expired on the extinction, or on the deteriora- 
ting amalgamation, of their high-caste race. 

" Such are the results of my reflections on the 
subject of the pyramids. They are not rashly ad- 
vanced ; nor devoid of infinite corroboration. They 
might be greatly extended, and a variety of inter- 
esting comparisons might be instituted between the 
pyramids of Ethiopia and Egypt, and those found 
on the Euphrates by Colonel Chesney, that one 


supposed to be the ruins of the tower of Babel, and 
those in Central America. 

" My province, however, is solely Egyptian 
history; and I will confidently assert, that any one 
who will read and. study the works of the hiero- 
glyphical school — the volumes of the Champollions, 
of Rosellini, and of Wilkinson — who will weigh the 
demonstrations in Morton's ' Crania iE gy ptica,' and 
who, to remove the last atoms of scepticism, will pay 
a visit to Egypt's time-honored monuments, and 
verify for himself the truth of the descriptions given 
by the hierologists — any one, I repeat, who will do 
all this, (which I have done) and then deny these 
evidences, would, I really believe, dispute the truth 
of Euclid's axiom, and maintain that ' a straight 
line is not the shortest distance from one given point 
to another.' 

" Let me recapitulate, in a summary mode, what 
these results are : 

"1st. Geologically — that the Delta is as ancient 
as any portion of the alluvial soil of the Nile, and 
that it was inhabited at the earliest postdiluvian 

" 2nd. Geographically — that Lower Egypt was 
by climate, soil, and every circumstance, most 
favorable to early settlement ; and as the most 
contiguous to Asia, was the region best adapted to 
primitive colonization, and the earliest civlization. 

" 3rd. Scripturally — that the children of Ham 
came from the banks of the Euphrates into Egypt, 
through Syria, Palestine, and the Isthmus of Suez 
— that they inhabited the lower provinces of the 


Nilotic valley in the first instance, whence they even- 
tually spread themselves over the alluvial soil of that 
valley, in a natural order of migration and settlement. 

" 4th. Physiologically — which, for the first time 
is clearly demonstrated by Morton's ' Crania 
iEgyptiaca,' the keystone of the system: that the 
ancient inhabitants of Egypt were Asiatic in origin, 
and Caucasian in race, from the earliest period to the 
extinction of Pharaonic dominion, which is in per- 
fect accordance with Scriptural migrations, and 
their Caucasian origin as descendants of Noah. 

" 5th. Ethnographically — according to Dr. Leip- 
sius, that, as the affinities of the Indo-Germanic and 
Semitic languages with the Coptic, establish the 
Asiatic and common primeval origin of all three, the 
remaining link of language is supplied to show the 
Caucasian attributes of the Egyptian tongue. 

" 6th. Historically — from the collation of the most 
ancient records with each other, corrected by the 
application of hieroglyphical testimony, coeval with 
the earliest events of which history has left us the 
annals — 

" 7th, and Monumentally — from the edifices still 
erect in Lower Egypt, which are more ancient than 
any others in the world, and from the vestiges in 
Lower Egypt of early cities, which history attests 
were equal to any others in antiquity — 

" We are fully justified in concluding that civili- 
zation, springing from Asia, introduced by Cau- 
casians into Lower Egypt, obtained its earliest 
known developments in the lower provinces, and 
therefore accompanied a white race up the Nile, 


from north to south, as these people, the primitive 
Egyptians, must have ascended, and not descended 
that river." 

Having thus quoted Gliddon at such length, I will 
now give a reason, and to my mind a most convincing 
one of the capability of that gentleman in arriving at 
correct conclusions, upon the Caucasian origin of 
the pyramid builders : 

" We are now approaching a period, when, for all 
local Egyptian annals, my own personal recollection 
will supply the place of books ; and I am able to 
speak as a spectator, and a little later as a very hum- 
ble actor, in some of the scenes, of which I shall 
incidentally give sketches. These may be thought 
curious by my readers, and I can assure them, that 
they are known to very few, and have never been 
published. I have said, that from 1829 my local recol- 
lection serves; but, to avoid misapprehension, I will 
mention that my sojourn in Egypt dates from 1818, 
and with intervals of absence has been prolonged du- 
ring 23 years, to 1841 ; and consequently, I presume 
to entertain opinions of my own, on any affairs to 
which I am a party. I mention these circumstances, 
with an apology for alluding to myself, only to satisfy 
my readers, that I am not a stranger in the land of 
Egypt, and may be allowed to speak from personal 
knowledge and long experience, without reference 
to the works or opinions of gentlemen, who, how- 
ever greatly they surpass me in acquirements and 
talents, remained but a few weeks, months, or years, 
in the valley of the Nile ; and whose Egyptian 
sojournings, in point of duration, can rarely be 


spoken of in the same breath with my own. In fact, 
I feel myself to be a foreigner in every other country; 
and if, on ancient Egyptian matters. I am proud to 
consider myself the humblest follower in the foot- 
steps of the hieroglyphical masters, or if, on scientific 
subjects, I make no claim to anything beyond the 
merest superficial acquaintance, it is not presump- 
tion in me to declare, that, on modern and on local 
Egyptian topics, I need acknowledge few superiors 
in or out of that country. Those who have been at 
Cairo, in my time, among whom I have much plea- 
sure in enumerating a host of American travellers, 
will allow, that in this personal digression, I do not 
arrogate to myself more than their own experience 
will in fairness concede to me," 

I cannot conclude this portion of my work with- 
out offering my tribute of gratitude to Mr. Gliddon, 
for placing before our citizens so much important 
information concerning the inhabitants of ancient 
Egypt — his own glowing words are the best calcu- 
lated to convey to the mind, an idea of this truly 
wonderful people. 

" Are not, however, Egyptian studies, and the 
mythology, philosophy, and doctrines of that mis- 
represented race, interesting to the divine who 
attests the unity of the Godhead and the holy 
Trinity ? Can the theologian derive no light from 
the pure primeval faith, that glimmers from Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphics, to illustrate the immortality of 
the soul and a final resurrection? Will not the 
historian deign to notice the prior origin of every 
art and science in Egypt, a thousand years before 


the Pelasgians studded the isles and capes of the 
Archipelago with their forts and temples? long 
before Etruscan civilization had smiled under Italian 
skies? And shall not the ethnographer, versed in 
Egyptian lore, proclaim the fact, that the physio- 
logical, craniological, capillary and cuticular dis- 
tinctions of the human race existed, on the first dis- 
tribution of mankind throughout the earth ? 

" Philologists, astronomers, chemists, painters, 
architects, physicians, must return to Egypt, to 
learn the orgin of language and writing — of the 
calender and solar motion — of the art of cutting 
granite with a copper chisel and of giving elasticy to 
a copper sword — of making glass with the variegated 
hues of the rainbow — of moving single blocks of 
polished syenite, 900 tons in weight, for any distance, 
by land or water — of building arches, round and 
pointed with masonic precision unsurpassed at the 
present day and antecedent, by 2000 years to the 
1 Cloaca Magna ' of Rome — of sculpturing a Doric 
column, 1000 years before the Dorians are known in 
history — of fresco painting in imperishable colors — 
and of practical knowledge in anatomy. 

" Every craftsman can behold, in Egyptian monu- 
ments, the progress of his art 4000 years ago ; and, 
whether it be a wheelwright building a chariot — 
a shoemaker drawing his twine — a leather-cutter 
using the self same form of knife of old, as is con- 
sidered the best form now — a weaver throwing the 
same hand-shuttle — a whitesmith useing that ident- 
ical form of blowpipe, but lately recognized to be 
the most efficient — the seal-engraver cutting, in 


hieroglyphics, such names as Shoopho's, above 
4300 years ago — or even the poulterer removing the 
pip from geese — all these, and many more astound- 
ing evidences of Egyptian priority, now require but 
a glance at the plates of Rosellini." 

The preceding quotations are from the fifteenth 
edition of Mr. Gliddon's work upon ancient Egypt, 
published by T. B. Peterson, No. 98 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia, at the remarkable low price of twenty- 
five cents. 

I now proceed to place several quotations from 
Prichard — appended to them are my own views : 




11 1. The basis on which the distinction of nations 
is founded, may be displayed by two straight lines; 
one of which is to be drawn through the meatus- 
auditorius, to the base of the nose, and the other 
touching the prominent centre of the forehead, and 
falling thence on the most advancing part of the up- 
per jawbone, the head being view r ed in profile. In the 
angle produced by these two lines, may be said to 
consist not only the distinctions between the skulls 
of the several species of animals, but also those 
which are found to exist between different nations ; 
and it might be concluded that nature has availed 
herself, at the same time, of this angle to mark out 
the diversities of the animal kingdom, and to esta- 
blish a sort of scale from the inferior tribes up to 
the most beautiful forms which are found in the hu- 
man species. Thus it will be found that the heads 
of birds display the smallest angle, and that it al- 
ways becomes of greater extent in proportion as the 
animal approaches more nearly to the human figure. 
Thus there is one species of the ape tribe in which 
the head has a facial angle of forty-two degrees ; in 
another animal of the same family, which is one of 
those simioe most approximating in figure to man- 
kind, the facial angle contains exactly fifty degrees. 
Next to this is the head of the African Negro, 
which, as well as that of the Kalmuk, forms an an- 
gle of seventy degrees ; while the angle discovered 


in the heads of Europeans contains eighty degrees. 
On this difference of ten degrees in the facial angle 
the superior beauty of the European depends; 
while that high character of sublime beauty which 
is so striking in some works of ancient statuary, as 
in the head of Apollo, and in the Medusa of Siso- 
cles, is given by an angle which amounts to one 
hundred degrees. Ill — 112. 

" 2. Some varieties are well known to exist be- 
tween different races of men in regard to the ave- 
rage stature of the body, the size and the proportion 
of the limbs and trunk, and the relations of differ- 
ent parts. The varieties have been differently esti- 
mated by anatomists. By some they have been re- 
garded as amounting, especially when taken toge- 
ther with other instances of deviation, to characters 
truly specific, and sufficient to separate mankind 
into several distinct species. Of late years and 
since the attention of voyagers has been directed to 
the collection of facts relating to the physical history 
of mankind, measurements have been taken of the 
length of the limbs and of their proportions : and 
experiments have been made by means of an instru- 
ment called a dydramometer with the view of form- 
ing some estimate of the muscular strength in newly 
discovered races. The facts as yet collected are far 
from being so complete as to admit of a comprehen- 
sive statement; and the only general result that can 
be deduced is, that every tribe of people has in 
some of the particulars above pointed out a peculiar 
character. In the proportional length of limbs, in 
the size and relation of parts, the people of almost 


every island and continent have some peculiarity 
which might serve to distinguish them. One of the 
most important of these varieties consists in the 
peculiar conformation of the pelvis. Camper, Soem- 
mering, White, and others had long ago observed 
that there is some peculiarity m the shape in this 
part of the skeleton of the Negro, and they had 
given different measurements with a view to ascer- 
tain its precise nature. 

" The subject has been more accurately investi- 
gated in later times, by Vrolik of Amsterdam, whose 
observations have been surveyed in a different point 
of view by Professor Weber of Bonn. Vrolik seems 
to have been led to these researches by the remark 
that the shape of the pelvis, must have some in- 
fluence greater or less, on the conformation of the 
foetus. He endeavored to discover what pecu- 
liarities exist in the shape of the pelvis, characteris- 
istic of the different nations, by examining the form 
displayed by this part of the skeleton in a male 
and female Negro; in a female of the Hottentot 
or Bushman race ; in a male and female Javanese; 
and in a Mestizo, or a person of mixed breed, having 
one parent a mulatto, and the other a white man or 
women. Vrolik has remarked that the differences 
between the pelvis of male and female Europeans 
are very considerable, but by no means so striking 
and well marked as those which are perceived when 
we compare the male and female of the Negro race. 
1 The pelvis of the male Negro ' he says ' in the 
strength and density of its substance and of the bones 
which compose it, resembles the pelvis of a wild 


beast; while, on the contrary, the pelvis of the 
female in the same race combines lightness of sub- 
stance and delicacy of form and structure. Delicate, 
however, as is the form of the pelvis in the female, 
it is difficult, as Vrolik thinks to separate from it the 
idea of degradation in type, and approach towards 
the form of the lower animals. This character is 
imparted by the vertical directions of the assa ilii, 
the elevation of the ilia at the posterior and upper 
tuberosities, the greater proximity of the anterior 
and upper spines, the smaller breadth of the sacrum, 
the smaller extent of the haunches, the smaller 
distance from the upper edge of the articulation of 
the pelvis, and by the projection of the sacrum, or 
the shortness of the confugate diameter, by the 
smallness of the transverse diameters at the spines 
and tuberosities of the ischium, and the lengthened 
form which the pelvis derives from these peculi- 
arities. All these characters, as he says, recall to 
our minds the conformation of the pelvis in the si- 
mise. The elongated shape of the pelvis in the Ne- 
gress is, in short, the character on which this 
approximation depends. The structure of the same 
parts in the Bushman and Hottentot race, is only 
known as yet by the skeleton of the female who 
died at Paris, in 1815. The shape of the pelvis in 
this individual indicates, in Dr. Vrolik's opinion, 
the inferior condition of the race, or its greater 
' animality in comparison even with the Negro.' 
In no individual exempt from deformity have the 
ilia been observed to assume so vertical a direction. 

They are likewise remarkable for their very great 



height in proportion to their breadth. The breadth 
is about half an inch less than the pelvis of the 
European females. The height is on .the contrary, 
much more considerable than the latter. The ilia 
reach up beyond the level of the half of the fourth 
lumbar vertebra. The distance between the two 
anterior and upper spines of the ilium is a fourth 
of an inch less than in the smallest pelvis of the 
Negress measured by Dr. Vrolik, and nearly an 
inch less than the largest. Those of my readers 
who are accustomed to anatomical descriptions will 
understand what is meant by these remarks on in- 
specting the sketch in the next page, displaying the 
anterior and posterior view of the human pelvis, in 
comparison with those of the highest of the simiae, 
the chimpantsi and the orang. By the animality, 
or degradation of the forms of the pelvis peculiar to 
the Negress, and the Bushman or Hottentot, is im- 
plied an approach towards the forms of these latter 
species. 123 — 125. 

"3. The complexion of the Arabs displays great 
diversities in the different countries inhabited by 
them. Volney says that some of the Bedouins are 
black. Niebuhr and De Pages assure us that the 
color of the lower orders is naturally a dusky or 
yellow brown. According to Burkhardt, the Arabs 
in the low countries of the Nile bordering on Nubia, 
are black. This traveller carefully distinguishes 
the Arabs from Negroes and Nubians. Higher up 
the Nile than Dongola are the Shegya Arabs of 
whom we have an excellent description from an in- 
teligent English traveller. ' The general complex- 


ion of the Shegya Arabs/ says Mr. Wad ding ton, 
'is a jet black. The Shegya' he adds, 'as I have 
already mentioned, are black, — a clear, glossy, jet 
black, which appeared to my then "unprejudiced 
eyes to be the finest color that could be selected for 
a human being. They are distinguished in every 
respect from the Negroes by the brightness of their 
color ; by their hair and the regularity of their 
features ; by the mild and dewy lustre of their eyes ; 
and by the softness of their touch, in which last 
respect they yield not to Europeans.' 149. 

"4. Of the skulls found in mummies. The 
Egyptian skulls were, as we have before observed, 
generally of that form which belong to all the most 
anciently civilized races, namely, the oval ; but 
there were great varieties among the people in this 
respect. Most of them resembled the European 
skull in many particulars ; but, in some a certain 
approximation to the African has been observed or 
fancied. The figure in the margin is a sketch of 
a skull in the Museum of the College of Surgeons. 
There is an Egyptian skull in the same Museum 
which in weight and density, resembles the heavy 
skulls of some Guinea Negroes. Its form is Euro- 
pean, except that the alveolar edge of the upper jaw 
is rather more prominent than usual. This, with a 
corresponding structure of the soft parts, might 
have given to the countenance much of the Negro 
character. Soemmerring has described the heads 
of four mummies examined by him. Two of them 
differed in no respect from European skulls; the 
third, as he says, represented the African form, in 


having the space marked out by the insertion of the 
temporal muscle more extensive than in European 
heads. 160. 

" 5. The Mongolian race, properly so termed, is 
generally considered as most strongly exemplifying 
the broad faced or pyramidal form of the skull. 
This character is, however, in reality more fully 
displayed in the heads of the Esquimaux, and some 
other nations, who wander along the shores of the 
Icy Sea. But the Mongolian race decidedly belongs 
to a variety of the human species which is distin- 
guished from Europeans by the shape of the skull. 

" 6. The Kamtschatkans, or Kamtschadales, are 
a people long well known to Navigators of the 
Northern Pacific. They were a numerous people 
till they became almost exterminated by the small- 
pox and other diseases, introduced among them by 
Europeans. Only the southern part of the penin- 
sula known by their name, is inhabited b}^ this 
race of people, the northern portion belonging to the 
Koriaks. The Kamtschatkans call themselves Itel- 
man. By Stoller who described them with accur- 
acy, they were imagined to be of Mongolian origin, 
an hypothesis chiefly founded on a physical resem- 
blance, and which is contradicted by an examination 
of their language. It appears that they constitute 
a distinct race, which, however, is divided into four 
tribes, who scarcely understand each other. They 
are Shamanists, and a people of rude and squalid 
manners. The Kamtschatkans are described as a 
people of short stature, swarthy complexion, of black 


hair, little beard, broad faces, short and flat noses, 
small and sunk eyes, small eye-brows, protuberant 
bellies, and small legs. In all these respects it has 
been thought that they bear a resemblance to the 
Mongoles. 222—223. 

"7. Pallas informs lis that the Circassians are a 
handsome race of people. ' The men' he says, 
' especially among the higher clases, are mostly of 
a tall stature, thin form, but Herculean structure. 
They are very slender about the loins, have small 
feet, and uncommon strength in their arms. They 
possess in general a truly Roman and martial ap- 
pearance. The women are not uniformly Circassian 
beauties, but are for the most part well formed, have 
a white skin, dark brown or black hair, and regular 
features.' He adds ' I have met with a greater num- 
ber of beauties among them than in any other un- 
polished nation.' Other travellers represent a mixture 
of red in their hair as a characteristic of the Circas- 
sians. Klaproth says ' They have brown hair and 
eyes, long faces, thin, straight noses, and elegant 
forms.' 254—25. 

" 8. Having described the ancient Egyptians in a 
preceding section, I now proceed to give some brief 
account of numerous races in the Eastern parts of 
Africa, who in their physical characters bear some 
resemblance to that celebrated people. In some of 
these races, a certain approximation may be recog- 
nised to the type of the Negro. The full develop- 
ment of all the peculiarities of organization which 
are considered as characteristic of the Negro races 
are only to be found in the western districts of in- 


tertropical Africa. If we trace the intervening 
countries between Egypt and Senegambia, and 
carefully note the physical qualities of the inhabi- 
tants, we shall have no difficulty in recognising al- 
most every degree or stage of deviation success- 
ively displayed, and showing a gradual transition 
from the characters of the Egyptian to those of the 
Negro, without any broadly marked line of abrupt 
separation. The characteristic type of one division 
of the human species here passes into another, and 
that by almost imperceptible degrees. This grad- 
ual change is not the result of the intermixture of 
races on the confines of regions of old allotted to 
either separately. This might have been conjec- 
tured some years ago, and, in fact, it has often been 
said by those who sought the most obvious explan- 
ation of the phenomena. The intermediate tribes 
are not Mulattoes, or at all resembling Mulattoes : 
they have each their distinguishing features, which 
besides their distinct languages, marks them out as 
races separate and peculiar, and not less distinct from 
the Negroes than white races themselves. These 
more accurate observations are the result of recent 
inquiries made on the spot by persons well skill- 
ed in natural history and comparative anatomy and 
physiology, and aware of the important bearing of 
such inquiries on the physical history of the human 
species. They were commenced by the scientific 
men who accompanied the army of the French re- 
public in the Egyptian expedition. They have 
been followed up by later travellers. Some of the 
most extensive of these researches have been made 


by M. D'Abbadie, who is now engaged on a second 
tour in Abyssinia. I shall avail myself of the ac- 
curate discrimination lately made by these ingenious 
travellers. 269, 270. 

" 9. Dr. Ruppell alludes to the sculptures found 
on the Nile above Egypt, which, however they 
may resemble the features of the Barabra, were 
not formed by their ancestors, but by people of the 
ancient Egyptian race. He thus describes their 
physiognomy : — A long oval countenance ; a beau- 
tifully curved nose, somewhat rounded towards the 
tip ; lips rather thick, but not protruding excessive- 
ly ; a retreating chin ; scanty beard ; lively eyes ; 
strongly frizzled, but never woolly, hair ; a remark- 
ably beautiful figure, generally of middle size; and 
a bronze color, are the characteristics of the genuine 
Dongolawi. These same traits of physiognomy 
are generally found among the Ababdeh, the Bis- 
hari a part of the inhabitants of the province of 
Schendic and partly also among the Abyssinians. 

" 10. Dr. Ruppell informs us that there are two 
physical types prevalent among the Abyssinians, 
the Galla and the Shangalla being excluded from 
that designation. The greater number, he says, 
are a finely formed people of the European type, 
having a countenance and features precisely re- 
sembling those of the Bedouins of Arabia. The 
characteristic of their exterior consists principally 
in an oval shape of the face ; a finely pointed nose ; 
a well proportioned mouth, with lips of moderate 
thickness, not in the least turned out; lively eyes: 


well placed teeth ; somewhat curled or smooth 
hair ; and a middle stature. The greater number 
of the inhabitants of the high mountains of Samen, 
and of the plains round Lake Tzana, as well as the 
Falasha or Jews, the heathen Gamant, and the 
Agows, notwithstanding the variety of their dialects, 
belong to this class. A second numerous division 
of the Abyssinian people, according to the same 
traveller, is identified, as far as physical traits are 
concerned, with the race which he has designated 
under the name of Ethiopian. ' This last type ' 
says Dr. Ruppell ' is distinguished chiefly by a 
less acute and uniformly somewhat flattened nose ; 
by thick lips ; by long and not very sparkling eyes ; 
and by very strongly crisped and almost wooly 
hair, which stands very thickly upon the head. A 
part of the inhabitants of the Abyssinian coast, of 
the province Hamasen, and other districts along the 
nothern borders of Abyssinia, belongs to this Ethio- 
pian race.' These are the characters which Rup- 
pell, in a previous work, had ascribed to the Ber- 
berines of the Nile and the Ababdeh. He says that 
the portrait of the Suakiny Arab, given in Lord 
Yalentia's travels, of which the figure in page 272 
is taken is a very good exemplification of this type 
of countenance and general character. This last 
physical type, which Ruppell terms Ethiopian, and 
declares to be common to a considerable part of 
the Abyssinian and Nubian tribes, with the Ber- 
berines, and Ababdeh, and Bishari, is precisely that 
character of physiognomy which, by Larrey and 
most other writers, is described as the prevalent 


type of the Abyssinian countenance. Baron Lar- 
rey, in particular, who has entered very fully into 
the physical history of these races, describes one 
type as common to the Copts, or native Egyptian race, 
the Barabra, or Berberines, and the Abyssinians ; 
and he separates this by a broad line from the charac- 
ter peculiar to the Negro races, and by almost as broad 
a line from that of the Arabian. I shall cite his 
observations, as he may be considered to be the 
greatest authority on this subject. The Egyptians, 
or Copts, who, as he says, form one branch of 
this assemblage of races, have a ' yellow, dusky 
complexion, like that of the Abyssinians. Their 
countenance is full, without being puffed ; their 
eyes are beautiful, clear, almond shaped, languishing; 
their cheek bones are projecting ; their noses nearly 
straight, rounded at the point ; their nostrils dilated ; 
mouth of moderate size ; their lips thick ; their teeth 
white, regular and scarcely projecting ; their beard 
and hair black and crisp.' In all these characters, the 
Egyptians, according to Larry, agree with the Abys- 
sinians, and are distinguished from the Negroes. 284 

'* With this discription he contrasts that of the 
Abyssinians, who are distinguished by large eyes, 
and a fine expression of countenance, the inner cor- 
ner of the eye displaying a slight curve ; the cheek 
bones are more prominent, and form, with the 
marked and acute angle of the jaw and the corner 
of the mouth, a more regular triangle ; the lips are 
thick, without being turned out as in the Negroes ; 
and the teeth are well formed, regular, and less 



projecting; the alveolar edges are less extensive. 
The complexion of Abyssinians is the color of copper. 
* These characters/ says M. Larry, are common, 
with slight shades of difference, to the Abyssinians 
and the Copts. They are likewise * recognised in 
the statues of the ancient Egyptians, and, above all, 
in the Sphinx, as well as several of the Egyptian 
mummies. He says that the mummy heads 
found at Saqqarah displayed precisely the same 
character, namely, the prominence of the cheek 
bones and of the Zygomatic arches, the peculiar 
shape of the nasal fossse, and the relatively slight 
projection in the alveolar edges, when compared 
with the corresponding structure in the Negro 
skull. 286. 

"11. The region which I have last mentioned 
has been the great seat of the exportation of Negro 
Slaves, and the tribes on the coast have been re- 
duced to the lowest state of physical and moral degra- 
dation by the calamities and vices attendant on that 
traffic. Throughout Negroland, and especially this 
part of it, the inhabitants of one district in the inter- 
ior, the dwellers on one mountain are ever on the 
watch to seize the wives and children of the neigh- 
boring clans, and sell them to strangers ; many sell 
their own. Every recess, and almost every corner of 
the land, has been the scene of hateful rapine and 
slaughter, not to be excused or palliated by the 
spirit of warfare, but perpetrated in cold blood 
and for the love of gain. 308—309. 

"12. The Hottentot tribes, who are believed to 
have occupied, or rather to have traversed, in their 


pastoral, roving- life, many regions of South Africa, 
long since wrested from them, by the more warlike 
Kafirs, may be considered from their situation, as 
in all probability the descendants of the earliest in- 
habitants. In them we find, most fully developed, 
the characters, both physical and moral, which the 
condition of their existence is fitted to impress. 
Before the ill omened hour when a Christian navi- 
gator espied the Cape of Tempests, the Hottentots 
were a numerous and happy people, divided into 
many tribes, under the patriarchal government of 
chiefs or elders ; they wandered about with flocks 
and herds, associated in companies of three or four 
hundred persons, living in kraals, or moveable 
villages of huts constructed of poles or boughs, and 
covered with rush mats, which were taken down 
and carried on pack oxen. A mantle of sewn sheep- 
skins was their clothing; their arms were a bow 
with poisoned arrows, and a light javelin or assegai, 
They were bold and active in the chase, and, 
although mild in their dispositions, were courageous 
in warfare, as their European invaders frequently 
experienced. Kolben enumerates eighteen nations 
or tribes of the Hottentot race. The greater num- 
ber of these tribes have been exterminated by Euro- 
pean colonists. Others have been robbed of all 
their possessions, and driven into forests and deserts, 
where their miserable descendents now subsist, 
under the name of Saabs, by the colonists termed 
Bushmen. The Bushmen are thus described by 
the missionary Adulph Bonatz : — ' These people,' 
he says, ' are of small stature, and dirty yellow 


color ; their countenance is repulsive, — a prominent 
forehead, small, deeply seated, and roguish eyes, a 
much depressed nose, and thick projecting lips, are 
their characteristic features. Their constitution is 
so much injured by their dissolute habits and the 
constant smoking of durha, that both old and young 
look wrinkled and decrepid ; nevertheless, they are 
fond of ornament, and decorate their ears, arms, and 
legs, with beads, iron, copper, or brass rings. The 
women also stain their faces red, or paint them 
wholly or in part. Their only clothing, by day or 
night, is a mantle of sheep-skin thrown over their 
bodies, which they term a kaross. The dwelling 
of the Bushman is a low hut, or a circular cavity, 
on the open plain, in which he creeps at night, with 
his wife and children, and which, though it shelters 
him from the wind, leaves him exposed to the rain. 
They had formerly their habitation among the rocks, 
in which are still seen rude figures of horses, oxen, 
or serpents. Many of them still live, like wild 
beasts, in their rocky retreats, to which they return 
with joy after escaping from the service of the 
colonists. I have never seen these fugitives other- 
wise occupied than with their bows and arrows; 
the bows are small, the arrows are barbed, and 
steeped in a potent poison, of a resinous apperance, 
distilled from the leaves of an indigenous tree. These 
they prefer to fire-arms, as weapons that make no 
report. On their return from the chase they feast 
till they become drowsy, and hunger only rouses 
them to renewed exertion. In seasons of scarcity, 
they devour wild roots, ants' eggs, locusts, and 


snakes. As enemies, the Bushmen are not to be 
despised. Their language seems to consist of snap- 
ping, hissing, grunting sounds, all of them nasal. \ 
The Hottentots, still existing in tribes or communi- 
ties, call themselves Qusequas, and are divided into 
several races. Mr. Barrow, first described these 
people with accuracy. He says, < the Hottentots 
are well proportioned, erect, of delicate and effemi- 
nate make, not muscular ; their joints and extremi- 
ties small ; their faces generally ugly ; but different 
in different families, some having the nose remark- 
able flat, others considerably raised. Their eyes 
are of a deep chesnut color, long and narrow, distinct 
from each other, the inner angle being rounded, as 
in the Chinese, to whom the Hottentots bear a 
striking resemblance. The cheek-bones are high 
and prominent, and with the narrow pointed chin, 
form nearly a triangle. Their teeth are very white. 
The women when young, are graceful and well 
made, but after the birth of the first child, their 
breasts become flaccid and pendent, and in old age 
greatly distended ; the belly becomes protuberant, 
and the posteriors are covered with a huge mass of 
pure fat.' There are few skulls belonging to this 
race in European collections. The cranium of a 
Bushman female has been described by Blumen- 
bach, and another by Cuvier. Dr. Knox, who has 
seen the people in their native country, assures us, 
that the face of the Hottentot resembles that of the 
Kalmac, excepting in the greater thickness of their 
lips, and he sets them down as a branch of the 
Mongolian race. The width of the orbits, their 



distance from each other, the large size of the oc- 
cipital foramen, are points in which the Hottentots 
resemble the northern Asiatics, and even the Es- 
quimaux. The annexed outline represents the cran- 
ium of a Bushman, in which, however, the jaw pro- 
jects more than in other skulls of the same race." 

" 13. The Missouri Indians of the male sex exceed 
in height the ordinary average of the Europeans; 
but the women are in proportion shorter and thicker. 
The average facial angle is 78°, that of the Chero- 
kees being 75°; the transverse line of direction of 
the eyes is rectilinear; the nose acquiline; the lips 
thicker than those of the Europeans ; the cheek- 
bones prominent, but not angular. The recently 
born infants are of a reddish brown color, which 
after a while becomes whiter, and then gradually as- 
sumes that tint, which is not perfectly uniform 
amongst all the Indians, and which, for want of a 
better approximation, we call copper color. They 
designate that of the Europeans by words which 
mean white or pale. Theirs is not the effect of ex- 
posure, as all parts of the body present the same 
appearance. The women marry very young, bear 
children from the age of thirteen to forty, and have 
generally from four to six." 400. 

" 14. The nature of the hair is, perhaps, one of 
the most permanent characteristics of different races. 
The hair of the Negro has been termed woolly ; it 
is not wool, and only differs from the hair of other 
races in less important respects." 476. 

" 15. Let us imagine, for a moment a stranger 


from another planet to visit our globe, and to con- 
template and compare the manners of its inhabi- 
tants, and let him first witness some brilliant spec- 
tacle in one of the highly civilized countries of 
Europe, — the coronation of a monarch, the installa- 
tion of St. Louis on the throne of his ancestors, sur- 
rounded by an august assembly of peers, and barons, 
and mitred abbots, anointed from the cruise of sa- 
cred oil brought by an angel to ratify the divine 
privilege of kings, — let the same person be carried 
into a hamlet in Negroland, in the hour when the 
sable race recreate themselves with dancing and 
barbarous music, — let him then be transported to 
the saline plains over which bold and tawny Mon- 
goles roam, differing but little in hue from the yel- 
low soil of their steppes, brightened by the saffron 
flowers of the iris and tulip, — let him be placed 
near the solitary den of the Bushman, where the 
lean and hungry savage crouches in silence like a 
beast of prey, watching with fixed eyes the birds 
which enter his pitfall, or the insects and reptiles 
which chance brings within his grasp, — let the 
traveller be carried into the midst of an Australian 
forest, w r here the squalid companions of kangaroos 
may be seen crawling in procession in imitation of 
quadrupeds, — can it be supposed that such a person 
would conclude the various groupes of beings whom 
he had surveyed to be of one nature, one tribe, or 
the offspring of the same original stock ? It is 
much more probable that he would arrive at an op- 
posite conclusion." 487 — 488. 

" 16. Of all species of men; [Bushmen] this race, 


approaching as it does in its form most nearly to the 
second genus of bimanous animals, is still more 
closely allied to the orangs through the inferiority of 
its intellectual faculties. ' Happily for themselves ' 
he continues ' these people are so brutish, lazy, and 
stupid, that the idea of reducing them to slavery 
has been abandoned.' No picture of human deg- 
radation and wretchedness can be drawn which ex- 
ceeds the real abasement and misery of the Bush- 
men, as we find it displayed by the most accurate 
writers who describe this people. Without houses, 
or even huts, living in caves and holes in the earth, 
these naked and half starved savages wander 
through forests, in small companies or separate 
families, hardly supporting their comfortless exis- 
tence, by collecting wild roots, by a toilsome search 
for the eggs of ants, and by devouring, whenever 
they can catch them, lizards, snakes, and the most 
loathsome insects. It is no matter of surprise that 
those writers who search for approximations between 
mankind and the inferior orders of creation fix upon 
the Bushman as their favorite theme. But accur- 
ate observers, who cannot be suspected of undue 
prepossession towards opposite sentiments and rep- 
resentations of human nature have drawn a less un- 
favorable picture of the moral and intellectual char- 
acter of the Bushmen. Mr. Burchell, who sought 
and obtained opportunities of conversing with them, 
and observing their manner of existence, though 
he found them, in the most destitute and miserable 
state, yet discovered among them traits of kind and 
social feelings, and all the essential attributes of 


humanity. It must not be forgotten that the Bush- 
men are not a distinct race, but a branch or subdi- 
vision of the once extensive nation of Hottentots. 
This was at one time denied. Lichtenstein, who 
was followed by other writers, asserted, that the 
Bossesmen are a peculiar family of men : he re- 
garded them as entirely distinct from all the other in- 
habitants of Southern Africa. A careful compari- 
son of their language with that of the Korah and 
other Hottentots convinced Professor Vater that 
there is an essential affinity between them ; and in 
recent times this conclusion has been fully estab- 
lished by local inquiries, and no diversity of opin- 
ion at present exists upon the subject. We are as- 
sured by one of the latest and best writers on South 
Africa, that the Bushmen are the remains of Hot- 
tentot hordes, who subsisted originally, like all the 
tribes of Southern Africa, chiefly by rearing sheep 
and cattle ; but who have been driven by the grad- 
ual encroachments of European colonists, and by 
internal wars with other tribes, to seek for refuge 
among the inaccessible deserts and rocks of the in- 
terior, ' Most of the hordes/ says the same writer, 
' known by the name of the Bushmen, are entirely 
destitute of flocks and herds, and subsist partly by 
hunting, partly on the wild roots of the wilderness, on 
reptiles, locusts, and the larvss of ants, or by plun- 
dering their hereditary oppressors, the colonists of 
the frontier. Having descended from the pastoral 
to the state of robbers and hunters, the Bushmen, 
as we are assured, have necessarily acquired, with 
their increased perils and privations, a more resolute 


and ferocious character : from a mild, confiding, and 
■unenterprising race of shepherds, they have been 
gradually transformed into wandering hordes of 
fierce, suspicious, vindictive savages ; by their fel- 
low men they have been treated as wild beasts, un- 
til they have become assimilated to wild beasts in 
their habits and dispositions.' Difficult as it may 
be to imagine a change from the state of herdsmen 
to that of the miserable Bushmen, the transition 
has been actually observed and described. Among 
the Hottentot tribes the Koranas are well known to 
be the most advanced in all the possessions and im- 
provements which belong to the pastoral life. A 
late traveller in Africa, whose narrative is replete 
with good sense and the marks of accurate know- 
ledge, has traced from observation the process by 
which hordes even of the Korah race have been re- 
duced from the life of peaceful herdsmen to the con- 
dition of hunters and predatory savages. 

" The Koranas as visited by Mr. Thomson on the 
Hartebeest river, had actually undergone this trans- 
ition ; having been plundered by their neighbors, 
and driven out into the wilderness to subsist upon 
wild fruits, they had adopted the habits of the 
Bushmen, and had become assimilated in everv es- 
sential particular to that miserable tribe. Consider- 
ing the pastoral Hottentots and the Bushmen as 
one race, I shall make some remarks on their men- 
tal character in general, in order to furnish the 
ground for a comparison between this and other 
families of men. We must attempt to estimate the 
character of the Hottentot race, not from their 


present degraded condition, after the cruelty and op- 
pression which they have endured from European 
colonists during so many generations have broken 
their spirit, and reduced them to bondage or exile, 
but from the accounts left by older writers of the 
condition of these tribes soon after the first settle- 
ment of the Dutch colony. The voyager Kolben 
has given us a full and circumstantial account of 
the Hottentots at this time, and many of his state- 
ments are singularly at variance with the de- 
scription which late writers have drawn. Kolben 
extols the good moral qualities of the Hottentots. 
1 They are, perhaps, the most faithful servants in 
the world. Though infinitely fond of wine, tobacco, 
and brandy, they are safely intrusted with them, 
and will neither themselves take, nor suffer others to 
diminish, any such articles when committed to their 
trust. To this quality they add the greatest human- 
ity and good nature. Their chastity is remarkable, 
and adultery, when known among them, is punished 
with death. They are dirty in their habits, slothful 
and indolent; and, though they can think/ as he 
says, ' to the purpose, they hate the trouble of 
thought.' Kolben considered their intellect as by no 
means deficient. He declares that ' he has known 
many of them who understood Dutch, French, and 
Portuguese, to a degree of perfection ; one particu- 
larly, who learned English and Portuguese in a 
very short time, and having conquered the habits of 
pronunciation contracted from his native language, 
was said by good judges, to understand and speak 
them with surprising readiness and propriety. They 


are even employed by Europeans in affairs that re- 
quire judgment and capacity. A Hottentot, named 
Cloos, was instructed by Van der Stel, the late Gov- 
ernor of the Cape, with the business of carrying on a 
trade of barter for cattle with the tribes at a great dis- 
tance, and he generally returned, after executing 
his commission, with great success. The internal 
character of the mind is best known by discovering 
the religious ideas and impressions. It has often 
been said, that the Hottentots are destitute of all 
belief in a deity or a future state. Enslaved and 
separated from their fellows ; and scarcely able, 
without constant toil, to support life, some may have 
lost the power and habit of reflection and all traces 
of sentiment ; but Kolben assures us, that the Hot- 
tentots of his time had a firm belief in a supreme 
power, which they termed ' Gounza Tekquoa,' or 
the God of all Gods, saying that he lived beyond 
the moon. They paid him no adoration ; but they 
worshipped the moon at the full and change, by 
sacrifices of cattle, with distorted faces and postures, 
shouting, swearing, singing, jumping, stamping, 
dancing, and making numerous prostrations, repeat- 
ing an unintelligible jargon of words. ' They also 
pay singular veneration to a peculiar kind of beetle, 
the appearence of which is supposed to be particu- 
larly fortunate. They have an evil deity, called 
Toutouka, whom they represent as a little crabbed, 
ill-natured being, a great enemy to the Hottentots, 
and the author of all the mischief in the world. 
They offer sacrifices to him in order to soften his 
temper. All sudden pain, accidents, or sicknesses, 


are attributed to witchcraft. Charms and amulets 
are in high esteem among them/ Kolben thinks 
they have not the least notion of rewards and pun- 
ishments ; ' Yet ' says he, ' that they believe in the 
immortality of the soul, seems evident from these 
particulars ; first, that they offer up prayers to saints, 
or good Hottentots departed; secondly, that they 
are apprehensive of the return of the departed 
spirits to molest them ; for which reason, on the 
death of any person, they remove their kraal, be- 
lieving that the departed souls remain about the 
place which they formerly inhabited : thirdly, they 
believe it is in the power of the witches or wizards 
to lay these spirits." 514 — 519. 

" 17. The country of Doko is a month's journey 
distant from, Xaffa, and it seems that only those 
merchants who are dealers in. slaves, go farther than 
Kaffa. The most common route passes Kaffa in a 
south westerly direction, leading to Dambaro, after- 
wards to Kootcha, Kooloo and then passing the river 
Omo to Tooffte, where they begin to hunt the slaves 
in Doko, of which chase I shall give a description, as 
it has been stated to me, and the reader may use 
his own judgment respecting it. ' Dilbo begins 
with stating that the people of Doko, both men and 
women, are said to be not taller than boys nine or 
ten years old. They never exceed that height, 
even in the most advanced age. They go quite 
naked ; their principle food are ants, snakes, mice, 
and other things which commonly are not used 
as food. They are said to be so skilful in finding 
out the ants and snakes, that Dilbo could not refrain 



from praising them greatly on that account. They 
are so fond of this food, that even when they have 
become acquainted with better aliment in Enarea 
and Kaffa, they are nevertheless frequently punish- 
ed for following their inclination of digging in 
search of ants and snakes as soon as they are out 
of sight of their masters. The skins of snakes are 
worn by them about their necks as ornaments. 
They also climb trees with great skill to fetch down 
the fruits, and in doing this they stretch their hands 
downwards and their legs upwards. They live in 
extensive forests of Bamboo and other woods, which 
are so thick that the slave hunter finds it very diffi- 
cult to follow them in these retreats. These hun- 
ters sometimes discover a great number of the 
Dokos sitting on the trees, and then use the artifice 
of shewing them shining things, by which they are 
enticed to descend, when they are captured with- 
out difficulty. As soon as a Doko begins \o cry he 
is killed, from the apprehension that this, as a sign 
of danger, will cause the others to take to their 
heels. Even the women climb on the trees, where 
in a few minutes a great number of them may be 
captured and sold into slavery. ' The Dokos live 
mixed together; men and women unite and separ- 
ate as they please ; and this Dilbo considers as the 
reason why that tribe has not been exterminated, 
though frequently a single slave hunter returns 
home with a thousand of them reduced to slavery. 
The mother suckles the child only as long as she 
is unable to find ants and snakes for its food. She 
abandons it as soon as it can get its food by itself. 


No rank or order exists among the Dokos. No- 
body orders, nobody obeys, nobody defends the 
country, nobody cares for the welfare of the nation. 
They make no attempt to secure themselves but 
by running away. They are as quick as monkeys ; 
and they are very sensible of the misery prepared 
for them by the slave hunters, who so frequently 
encircle their forests and drive them from thence 
into the open plains like beasts. When there press- 
ed, they are often heard praying. They put their 
heads on the ground, and stretch their legs upwards, 
and cry, in a pitiful manner, ' Yer ! Yer !' Thus 
they call on the Supreme Being, of whom they 
have some notions, and are said to exclaim, ' If you 
do exist, why do you suffer us to die, who do not 
ask for food or clothes, and who live on snakes, ants 
and mice V Dilbo stated that it was no rare thino- 
to find five or six Dokos in such a position and state 
of mind. Sometimes these people quarrel among 
themselves when thev eat the fruit of the trees. 
Then the strongpr f*ne throws the weaker one to the 
ground, and the latter is thus frequently killed in a 
miserable way. In their country it rains almost 
incessantly from May to January, and even later 
the rain does not cease entirely. The climate is 
not cold, but very wet. The traveller, in going 
from Kaffa to Doko, must pass over a very high 
country, and cross several rivers, which fall into 
the Gochob. The language of the Dokos is a kind 
of murmuring, which is understood by no one but 
themselves and their hunters. The Dokos evince 
much sense and skill in managing- the affairs of 


their masters, to whom they are so much attached, 
and they render themselves valuable to such a de- 
cree, that no native of KafFa ever sells one of them 
to be sent out of the country, as Captain Clapper- 
ton says of the slaves of Nyffie. The very slaves 
of this people are in great request, and when once 
obtained are never again sold out of the country. 
The inhabitants of Enearea and KafFa sell only 
those slaves which they have taken in their border 
wars with the tribes living near them, but never a 
Doko. The Doko is also averse to being sold ; he 
prefers death to separating from his master, to 
whom he has attached himself. ' The access to the 
country of Doko is very difficult, as the inhabitants 
of Dambaro, Koolloo, and Tooffte, are enemies to the 
traders from KafTa, though these tribes are depen- 
dant on KafTa and pay a tribute to its sovereigns. 
For these tribes are intent on preserving for them- 
selves alone the exclusive priviledge of hunting the 
Dokos, and of trading with the slaves thus obtained. 
1 Dilbo did not know whether the tribes residing 
south and west of the Dokos persecute this unhap- 
py nation in the same cruel way. ' This is Dilbo's 
account of the Dokos, a nation of pygmies, who are 
found in so degraded a condition of human nature 
that it is difficult to give implicit credit to his ac- 
count. The notion of a nation of pygmies in the 
interior of Africa is very ancient, as Herodotus 
speaks of them in 11. 32." 554 — 557. 

"18. A most interesting and really important ad- 
dition has lately been made to our knowledge of the 
physical character of the ancient Egyptians. This 


has been derived from a quarter where local proba- 
bilities would least of all have induced us to have 
looked for it. In France, where so many scientific 
men have been devoted, ever since the conquest of 
Egypt by Napoleon, for a long time under the pa- 
tronage of government, to researches into this sub- 
ject; in England, possessed of the immense advan- 
tage of wealth and commercial resources; in the 
academies of Italy and Germany, where the arts of 
Egypt have been studied in natural museums, 
scarcely any thing has been done since the time of 
Blumenbach to elucidate the physical history of the 
ancient Egyptian race. In none of these countries 
have any extensive collections been formed of the 
materials and resources which alone can afford a 
secure foundation for such attempts. It is in the 
United States of America that a remarkable ad- 
vancement of this part of physical science has 
been at length achieved. ' The transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society' contain a memoir 
by Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, in which that able 
and zealous writer, already distinguished by his 
admirable researches into the physical characters 
of the native American races, has brought forward 
a great mass of new information on the ancient 
Egyptians." 570—571. 

I have by selections from Prichard placed the 
opinions of this Naturalist before the reader. Let 
the reader remember that "Prichard is the great ad- 
vocate of the natural equality of races." The quota- 
tions already afforded will indicate that his position 
is rather a difficult one. It cannot fail to strike 


even a casual reader, that this writer has to make 
so many admissions regarding the inferiority of 
the colored races and the superiority of the white, 
as to prove most conclusively the doctrine I have 
advocated ever since I devoted any attention to this 
subject. It is a curious fact that those writers who 
have not had a full opportunity to observe the ne- 
gro by actual communication are the very persons 
who are strongest in advocating the original equality 
of the various races of men, while those who have mix- 
ed among the colored races become more and more 
convinced of the absurdity of maintaining any such 
proposition. Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton Smith, 
and Robert Knox M. D., both of whom I shall cite, 
are proofs of the latter, and Prichard of the former. 
Prichard states that the wool upon the negro's head 
is not wool but hair, to this assertion I intend to 
offer the investigations of Peter A. Brown Esq., a 
scientific gentleman of Philadelphia, who is well 
qualified to give a decisive opinion upon the subject. 
Having thus quoted " Prichard's Natural History of 
Man," I will reserve further extracts from " Physi- 
cal Researches into the Natural History of Mankind" 
by the same author, for another place in these 
pages and will now place before the reader the 
laborious, learned and scientific investigations of 




"1. Certain external circumstances, as food, cli- 
mate, mode of life, have the power of modifying the 
animal organization, so as to make it deviate from 
that of the parent. But this effect terminates in the 
individual. Thus, a fair Englishman, if exposed to 
the sun, becomes dark and swarthy in Bengal ; but 
his offspring, if from an Englishwoman, are born 
just as fair as he himself was originally : and the 
children, after any number of generations, tjiat we 
have yet observed, are still born equally fair, pro- 
vided there has been no intermixture of dark 
blood." 68. 

" 2. In opposition to these views it has been con- 
tended that thought is not an act of the brain, but 
of an immaterial substance, residing in or connected 
with it. This large and curious structure, which, 
in the human subject, receives one-fifth of all the 
blood sent out from the heart, which is so peculiarly 
and delicately organized, nicely enveloped in suc- 
cessive membranes, and securely lodged in a solid 
bony case, is left almost without an office, being 
barely allowed to be capable of sensation. It has, 
indeed, the easiest lot in the animal economy ; it is 
better fed, clothed, and lodged than any other part, 
and has less to do. But its office — only one remove 
above a sinecure— is not a very honorable one : it 
is a kind of porter, intrusted to open the door, and 
introduce new comers to the master of the house, 


who takes on himself the entire charge of receiving, 
entertaining, and employing them. 

" Let us survey the natural history of the hu- 
man mind ; — its rise, progress, various fates, and 
decay ; — and then judge whether these accord best 
with the hypothesis of an immaterial agent, or with 
the plain dictates of common sense, and the analogy 
of every other organ and function throughout the 
boundless extent of living beings. 

" You must bring to this physiological ques- 
tion a sincere and earnest love of truth ; dismissing 
from your minds all the prejudices and alarms 
which fcave been so industriously connected with it. 
If you enter on the inquiry in the spirit of the bigot 
and partisan, suffering a cloud of fears and hopes, 
desires and aversions, to hang round your under- 
standings, you will never discern objects clearly; 
their colors, dimensions, will be confused, distorted, 
and obscured by the intellectual mist. Our business 
is to inquire what is true; not what is the finest theory, 
not what will supply the best topics of pretty com- 
position and eloquent declamation, addressed to the 
prejudices, the passions, and the ignorance of 
our hearers. We need not fear the result of inves- 
tigation : truth is like a native rustic beauty, most 
lovely when unadorned, and seen in the open light 
of day : your fine hypothesis and specious theories 
are like the unfortunate females who supply the 
want or the loss of native charms, and repair the 
breaches of age or disease by paint and finery, and 
decorations, which can only be exhibited in the 
glaring lights, the artificial atmosphere, and the un- 


natural scenery of the theatre or saloon. When- 
ever it is thoroughly discussed, truth will not fail to 
come, like tried gold from the fire. Like Ajax, it 
requires nothing but daylight and fair play. 

" Reason and free inquiry are the only effectual 
antidotes of error. Give them full scope, and they 
will uphold the truth by bringing false opinions 
and all the spurious offspring of ignorance, preju- 
dice, and self-interest, before their severe tribunal, 
and subjecting them to the test of close investiga- 
tion. Error alone needs artificial support: truth 
can stand by itself. 

" Sir Everard Home, with the assistance of 
Mr. Bauer, and his microscope, has shown us a 
man eight days old from the time of conception ; 
about as broad, and a little longer than a pin's head. 
He satisfied himself that the brain of this homuncu- 
lus was discernible. Could the immaterial mind 
have been connected with it at this time ; or was 
the tenement too small for so ethereal a lodger ? At 
the full period of utero-gestation it is still difficult 
to trace any vestiges of mind, and the believers in 
its separate existence have left us quite in the dark 
on the precise time at which the spiritual guest ar- 
rives in his corporeal dwelling, the interesting and 
important moment of amalgamation or combination 
of the earthly dust and the ethereal essence. The 
Roman Catholic church has cut the knot, which no 
one else could untie, and has decided that the little 
mortal, on its passage into this world of trouble, has 
a soul to be saved ; it accordingly directs and 
authorizes midwives, in cases of difficult labour, 


where the death of the infant is apprehended, to 
baptize it by means of a syringe introduced into the 
vagina, and thus to save it from perdition. 

" They, whose scruples are not quite set at rest 
by the above-mentioned decision of the church, nor 
by being told that the mind has not yet taken up 
its quarters in the brain, endeavor to account for 
the entire absence of mental phenomena at the time 
of birth by the senses and brain not having been 
yet called into action by the impressions of external 

"These organs begin to be exercised as soon as 
the child is born ; and a faint glimmering of mind 
is dimly perceived in the course of the first months 
of existence ; but it is as weak and infantile as the 

" As the senses acquire their powers, and the 
cerebral jelly becomes firmer, and the mind gradual- 
ly strengthens ; slowly advances, with the body, 
through childhood to puberty, and becomes adult 
when the development of the frame is complete : 
it is, moreover, male or female, according to the sex 
of the body. In the perfect period of organization, 
the mind is seen in the plentitude of its powers ; 
but this state of fall vigor is short in duration both 
for the intellect and the corporeal fabric. The 
wear and tear of the latter is evidenced in its mental 
movements ; with the decline of organization the 
mind decays : it becomes decrepit with the body ; 
and both are at the same time extinguished by 

" What do we infer from this succession of phe- 


nomena ? — The existence and action of a principle 
entirely distinct from body ? or a close analogy to 
the history of all other organs and functions ? 

" The number and kind of the intellectual phe- 
nomena in different animals correspond closely to the 
degree of development of the brain. The mind of 
the Negro and Hottentot, of the Calmuck and the 
Carib, is inferior to that of the European ; and 
their organization is also less perfect. The large cran- 
ium and high forehead of the orang-outang lift him 
above his brother monkeys ; but the development 
of cerebral hemispheres and his mental manifesta- 
tions are both equally below these of the negro. 
The gradation of organization and of mind passes 
through the monkey, dog, elephant, horse, to other 
quadrupeds ; thence to birds, reptiles, and fishes ; 
and so on to the lowest links of the animal chain." 

" 3. All the simiae, and the lemurs likewise, are 
quadrumanous ; that is, they possess opposable 
members, or thumbs on the hind, as well as on the 
fore limbs ; they have perfect clavicles ; perfect 
pronation and supination of the fore-arm ; long and 
flexible fingers and toes : hence they have the 
power of imitating many human actions ; hence, 
too, they are excellent climbers. On the other hand, 
they cannot easily stand or walk upright, because 
the foot rests on its outer edge, the heel does not 
touch the ground, and the narrowness of the pelvis 
renders the trunk unsteady. Consequently, they 
are neither biped, nor strictly quadruped. They 
resemble man in the general form of the cranium, 


and in the configuration of the brain ; of which, 
however, the cerebral hemispheres are greatly re- 
duced. The face is turned forwards; the optic 
axes are parallel ; the orbits complete, and separate 
from the temporal fosse. The nose is flat (hence 
the name simia, from simus, flat-nosed), and has a 
single triangular os nasi. 

" In this quadrumanous order there is a constant- 
ly increasing deviation from the human structure, 
by increased elongation of the muzzle, and advances 
to the quadruped attitude and progression. They 
have the same number and kinds of teeth as man ; 
and an alimentary canal very much like the human. 
Their pectoral mammae and loose penis are other 

" In so large a family as the monkeys we shall 
expect to meet with considerable varieties of form, 
and to find that the human character is strongly ex- 
pressed in some, while others exhibit successive de- 
grees of approximation towards the neighboring ani- 

"The division of orancs, which is the most 
strongly anthropomorphous, and includes the two 
simian confounded together under the names of 
orang-outang, pongo, jocko, barris, &c. and two 
others called gibbons (S. Lar, or long-armed mon- 
key ; S. Leucisca, or wouwou), is characterised by 
the slight prominence of the jaws, so that they have 
a large facial angle ; by the want of tail ; by pos- 
sessing an os hyoides, liver, and ccecum like the 
human : the latter part as an appendix vermiformis 
as in man. They have very long arms. 


" The simia satyrus is the true animal so much 
celebrated under the name of orang-outang. It is 
principally if not solely, found on the great island 
of Borneo, whence it has been sometimes brought 
to us through Java. It is about three feet in height ; 
as specimens conveyed hither have been young, 
we may suppose that it would reach to between 
three and four feet when grown up ; but none have 
been seen in Europe exceeding three feet. The 
body is covered with long reddish brown hair. 
The front of the head has a very human character, 
the forehead being large and high, and the facial an- 
gle consequently considerable : indeed no amimal ap- 
proaches to man so nearly as this, in the form of 
head and volume of the brain. The face is bluish 
or lead-colored : there are no cheek pouches nor 
collosities of the buttocks. Two large membranous 
bags cover the front of the neck under the skin, 
and open into the larynx between the os hyoides 
and thyroid cartilage : a structure which spoils him 
from speaking. The thumb of the hind hand has no 
nail. It is a mild and gentle animal, with some ac- 
tions similar to ours, and some appearances of human 
feeling. It soon becomes attached, and imitates 
very quickly whatever we do. A state of captivity, 
in climates and with diet unfriendly to its nature, 
is not well calculated to devolope its feelings and 
powers, or to lead to a just estimate of its faculties 
and intelligence. 

" The reports of travellers concerning its immense 
strength and ferocity, its stature represented as 

equal or superior to that of man, its carrying off 



women and so forth, do not accord either with the 
size or the disposition of the creature as observed 
in the examples brought into Europe. They must 
probably be referred partly to exaggeration and 
partly to the circumstance of other large simiae (par- 
ticularly the pongo of Borneo) having been con- 
founded with the true orang-outang. 

" The simia troglodytes is a native of Angola and 
Congo, where it is called by the native chimpanse. 
It resembles the former in size ; but differs from it 
in being covered with black hair ; in having a 
lower forehead, and large ears ; and nails on the 
thumbs of the hind hands. It is very susceptible 
of education, and quickly learns to imitate human 
actions. This is the animal of which Tyson has 
given an excellent anatomical description, accom- 
panied with very good engravings. In both these 
simise, the hair of the upper and fore arm takes op- 
posite directions ; that is, it slants in each part of 
the limb towards the elbow." 89 — 91. 
4 " The Mosiac account does not however, make it 
quite clear that the inhabitants of all the world de- 
scended from Adam and Eve. Moreover, the en- 
tire or even partial inspiration of the various writ- 
ings comprehended in the Old Testament has been, 
and is doubted by many persons, including learned 
divines, and distinguished oriental and biblical 
scholars. The account of the creation and of sub- 
sequent events, has the allegorical figurative char- 
acter common to eastern compositions ; and it is 
distinguished among the cosmogonies by a simple 
grandeur and natural sublimity, as the rest of these 


writings are by appropriate beauties in their respect- 
ive parts not inferior to those of any human com- 

" To the grounds of doubt respecting inspira- 
tion, which arise from examination of the various 
narratives, from knowledge of the original and 
other oriental languages, and from the irreconcila- 
ble opposition between the passions and sentiments 
ascribed by the Deity to Moses, and that religion 
of peace and love unfolded by the Evangelists, I 
have only to add, that the representations of all 
the animals being brought before Adam in the first 
instance, and subsequently of their being all collect- 
ed in the ark, if we are to understand them as ap- 
plied to the living inhabitants of the whole world, 
are zoologically impossible. 

" The collection of living beings in one central 
point, and their gradual diffusion over the whole 
globe, may not be greatly inconsistent with what 
we know of our own species, and of the few more 
common quadrupeds, which accompany us in our 
various migrations, and are able to sustain with us 
great varieties of climate, food, situation, and all 
external influences. 

" But when we extend our survey to the rest of 
the mammalia, we find at all points abundant proofs 
of animals being confined to particular situations, 
and being so completely adapted by their structure 
and functions, by their whole organization, econo- 
my, and habits, to the local peculiarities of temper- 
ature, soil, food, &c. that they cannot subsist where 
these are no longer found. In proportion as our 


knowledge of species becomes more exact, the 
proofs of this locality are rendered stronger, and the 
examples of admirable conformity between the or- 
ganic capabilities of animals and the circumstances 
of the regions which they inhabit, are multiplied 
and strengthened. 

" The peculiar adaptation of the camel to the sandy 
deserts in which he is placed, strikes the most curso- 
ry observer. The herds of antelopes and other rumi- 
nant animals, and the great troops of solidungular 
quadrupeds, are not less suited to the boundless 
plains of Asia and Africa; the vast assemblages 
of elk and buffalo, to the uninhabited wilds of 
America ; the tiger to the jungles and the thickets 
of the East Indies ; and the troops of sapajous, with 
their prehensile tails, to the lofty forests of Guiana 
and Brazil. 

" Even when the external circumstances are nearly 
alike, remote regions are occupied in most cases by 
distinct genera or species. The lion so common in 
Africa, is hardly found in Asia, while the tiger is 
peculiar to the latter ; the elephants and rhinoce- 
roses of these two quarters of the world are specifi- 
cally distinct. 

" The instances of America, New Holland, and 
some other islands, afford unanswerable arguments 
against the creation of all animals in one spot. 
None of the mammalia of the southern hemisphere, 
the torrid zone, or even the two northern temperate 
regions, are common to the two continents. When 
the Spaniards landed in the new world, they did 
not find a single animal they were acquainted with ; 


not one of the quadrupeds of Europe., Asia, or 
Africa. On the other hand, the puna, the jaguer, 
the tapir, the cabiai, the llama, the vicugna, the 
sapajous were creatures altogether new to them. 
No quadrupeds are found in both continents except 
such as dwell north of the Baltic in the old, and of 
Canada in the new world ; such, in short, as are 
capable of bearing the cold of those regions, where 
the two continents approximate to each other. 

" Here indeed, we must guard against the mis- 
takes, which the inconsiderate application of the 
same names to animals, really different, though 
more or less analogous to each other, might occasion. 
We read of American lions ; but the creature so 
called (the puma), although a carnivorous animal, 
is widely different from the lion of Africa : Ameri- 
can monkeys again form a very distinct family, with- 
out any specific affinity to those of the old world. 

" A similar phenomenon was again experienced 
in our own times on first exploring the coasts of New 
Holland and the adjacent isles. A dog was indeed 
found here, whether of the same species with those 
we are acquainted with, and introduced from the 
neighboring islands, is not perhaps yet clearly ascer- 
tained. This great southern continent contained no 
other mammiferous animals previously known to 
naturalists ; but on the contrary, it has furnished 
about forty species, altogether new ; of which the 
kangaroos, the phascolomys, the dasyuri, the per- 
ameles, the flying phalangers, the ornithorhynchi, 
and the echidnse, have astonished zoologists by the 

novelty and singularity of their conformation, con- 



trary to all tne rules hitherto established, and at 
variance with all their systems. Even the island 
called Van Diemen's Land, although situated so 
near to New Holland, and in a some degree connect- 
ed to it by intervening islands, has its own peculiar 

" The orang-outang is found only on the island 
of Borneo ; and the makis are confined to that of 
Madagascar, while the neighboring continent of 
Africa has none of them, but numerous monkeys 

" Even marine animals are confined to particu- 
lar situations, although it might apppear so proba- 
ble a priori, that the waves and currents of the 
ocean would carry them into all situations, and the 
medium in which they live seems so favorable for 
their transportation. Peron and Le Sueur assert 
that there is no well-known animal of the northern 
hemisphere, which is not specifically distinct from 
every other equally well-known of the southern; and 
that this is true even of those possessing the lowest 
and simplest organization. 

u If all the difficulties connected with the facts 
just recited, and with the numerous analogous ones, 
which every department of natural history could 
furnish, were removed, insurmountable obstacles 
would still be found to this hypothesis of the whole 
globe having received its supply of animals from 
one quarter. How could all living beings have been 
assembled in one climate, when many, as the white 
fox (isatis), the polar bear, the walrus, the manita, 
can exist only in the cold of the polar regions, 


while to others the warmth of the tropic is essen- 
tial ? How could all have been supplied with food 
in one spot, since many live entirely on vegetables 
produced only in certain districts ? How could 
many have passed from the point of assemblage to 
their actual abode, over mountains, through deserts, 
and even across the seas ? How could the polar 
bear, to whom the ice of the frozen regions is neces- 
sary, have traversed the torrid zone ? If we are 
to believe that the original creation comprehended 
only a male and female of each species, or that one 
pair only was rescued from an universal deluge, 
the contradictions are again increased. The car- 
nivorous animals must have soon perished with 
hunger, or have annhilated most of the other 

" Such an assumption, in short, is at variance 
with all our knowledge of living nature. Why 
should we embrace an hypothesis so full of contra- 
dictions? — to give to an allegory a literal construction, 
and the character of revelation ; which is so much 
the less necessary here, because we do not follow the 
same rule in other points. The astronomer does 
not pourtray the heavenly motions, or lay down the 
laws which govern them, according to the statements 
in the Jewish scriptures; nor does the geologist 
think it necessary to modify the results of exper- 
ience according to the contents of the Mosiac writ- 
ings." 168—172. 

" 5. In the first generation, the offspring of Euro- 
peans and Negroes are called Mulattos (mulatre, 
Fr.). The word Creole (criollo) has been fre- 


quently confounded with this, even by good writers ; 
but that name, originally applied by the first Ne- 
groes conveyed to America in the sixteenth century, 
to their children born in that country, and borrowed 
by the Spaniards from them to denote their own off- 
spring in the new world,* belongs properly to 
the children of the European or Negro parents born 
in the East or West Indies. 

" In color, figure, and moral qualities, the Mul- 
atto is a medium between the European and African. 
The color is more or less yellow, brown, or tawny, 
according as the European father may have been 
fair or dark j and the countenance has the middle 
form between that of both parents f There is no 
redness of the cheek. The hair is curled and black, 
but much longer than that of the Negro ; and the 
iris is dark. In cleanliness, capacity, activity, and 
courage, they are decidedly superior to the Negroes. 

* " When the facial angles of the anthropo-morphous simiae, as above 
stated, are compared to those of some Negroes, as, for example, the skull 
delineated in pi. vii. which has an angle of 65°, and that in Sandifort's 
Museum Acad. Lugduno-Batavum, v. 1, which has nearly the same, we 
find this method insufficient, even to distinguish man and animals. An 
American monkey figured by Humboldt (simia melano-cephala) has as 
good a facial line as the generality of Negroes. Recueil d'Obs. de Zool. 
et d'Anat. comp. i. pi. 29. He ascribes to it ' facias nigra, anthropo-mor- 
pha, fero ^thiopis ;' p. 317." 

" The woman and children on the coast of Sierra Leone wear nothing 
on their head, either in rain or sunshine. The mean heat is only 84°: but 
the thermometer rises in the sun to 130 or 140. Winterbottom on the 
Native African, v. i. p. 38. 

Garcilasso del Origen de los Jncas, p. 255. We can easily understand 
how the use of the word may have been extended in the West Indies to 
the animals which have been produced from stocks imported from the old 

f Whether either color or sex affects the offspring more strongly than 


"Europeans and Mulattos produce Tercerons 
(sometimes also called Quarterons, Moriscos, and 
Mestizos). The hair and countenance of these re- 
semble the European ; the former has nothing of 
the grandmother's woolly curl; the skin has a slight 
brown tint, and the cheeks are red. In the Dutch 
colonies they often have blue eyes and fair hair. 
The stain of the black blood is principally visible 
in the organs of generation : the scrotum is blackish 
in the male, and the labia pudendi dark or purplish 
in the female. 

11 In political rights these class with the Mulattos 
in the European colonies. 

" Europeans and Tercerons produce Quarterons 
or Quadroons (ochavones, octavones, or alvinos), 
which are not to be distinguished from whites: but 
they are not entitled, in Jamaica at least, to the 
same legal privileges as the Europeans or white 
Creoles, because there is still a contamination of 
dark blood, although no longer visible. It is said 
to betray itself sometimes in a relic of the peculiar 
strong smell of the great-grandmother. 

" The genealogy of these hybrid races is carried 
into the fifth generation, the children of Europeans 
and Quarterons being called Quinterons* (puchue- 

the other, is an interesting question, which we have not the means of 
answering satisfactorily. I find an opinion expressed, that in the union 
of the European and Negress the nobler blood predominates. Estwick, 
History of Jamaica, ii. 335. There is the same authority for an opinion that 
male and female Mulattos do not produce so many children together, as 
if they were united respectively to Negresses and Europeans. Mr. Long, 
in his History of Jamaica, gives a similar testimony on this point, and 
that in strong terms. 

* The offspring of a Quadroon woman and white man is called Mes- 


las Spar). It is not credible that any trace of 
mixed origin can remain in this case, according to 
the observations of the most judicious eye-witnesses 
concerning the third generation, viz. that in color 
and habit of body they cannot be distinguished 
from their European progenitors. Accordingly, 
even the law is now satisfied, and considers them 
sufficiently whitened to enjoy its full protection : they 
are legally white, and free. 

" By an opposite course of proceeding the Mul- 
atto offspring of the European and Negro may be 
reduced again to the characters of the latter. If 
the Mulatto be paired with a Negro, and the chil- 
dren again and again with Negroes, the fourth gen- 
eration is perfectly black. 

" Thus, in obedience to that principle by which 
the properties of the offspring depend on those of the 
parents, we have the power of changing one species 
into another by repeated intermixture. If the off- 
spring of a white woman and a black be matched 
with a black man, and this process be repeated two 
or three times, the form of the original mother is 
entirely lost, and that of the father substituted ; or 
vice versa. In this manner the color of the race 
may be completely changed in three or four gener- 
ations ; while it never has been changed by climate, 
even in the longest series of ages. 

" The offspring of an European and Indian 
(American) is named Mestizo* (mestee, Eng). 

tize, or Mustee, according to Edwards, Hist, of the West Indies ; ii. 18 : 
and Winterbottom, Account of the Native Africans ; i. 188. 

* They also are somtimes called Mestindi, Metifi, Mamelucki. 



The hair is black and straight; the iris dark : the 
skin various according to the tint of the American 
parent. As the latter is by no means so dark-colored 
as the Negro, the Mestizo is much lighter than the 
Mulatto. Many native Americans are nearly as 
fair as Europeans ; hence Mestizos are often not dis- 
tinguishable by color from Europeans. 

"'A Mestizo,' says Humboldt,* 4s in color 
almost a pure white, and his skin is of a particular 
transparency. The small beard, and small hands 
and feet, and a certain obliquity of the eyes, are 
more frequent indication of the mixture of Indian 
blood, than the nature of the hair/ 

" They have often some parts of the body darker 
than others ; and this is always the case with the or- 
gans of generation in both sexes. E uropean fathers 
and Mestee mothers produce Quarterons, Quatralvi, 
or Castizos, corresponding to Tercerons in the Negro 
breed, and not distinguishable from Europeans ;f 
Quarteron women with Europeans, Ochavons, or 
Octavons; and Europeans with female Octavons, 
Puchuelos, which are not only not distinguishable 
in any respect from native Europeans, but also 
enjoy full legal rights and privileges in the Spanish 

" The offspring of Negroes and Americans are 

* Political Essay, v. i. p. 244. The testimony of Ulloa is to the same 
effect. "The inhabitants (of Conception) consist of Spaniards, and of 
Mestizos, who in color are hardly distinguished from the former ; both 
being very fair, and some have even fresh complexions." Voyage to 
South America ; ii. 237. 

t " If a Mestiza marry a white man, the second generation differs 
hardly in any thing from the European race." Humboldt, loc. cit. 


Zambos or Sambos ; * and sometimes Mulattos. 
Negroes with Mulattos produce Zambos f de Mulata 
(griffos, or cabros); an European and Zambo, a 
Mulatto; an American and Zambo, a Zambaigo. 
The offspring of the Zambos are styled, in derision, 
by the Spaniards Cholos ; that of a Negro and 
Zamba is called Zambo prieto (black Zambo). J 

" ' In a country governed by whites, the families 
reputed to have the least mixture of Negro or Mul- 
atto blood are naturally the most honored. Thus, 
in (Spanish) America, the greater or less degree of 
whiteness of skin decides the rank of an individual 
in society. A white, who rides barefooted on horse- 
back, thinks he belongs to the nobility of the coun- 
try. When a common man disputes with one of 
the titled lords of the country, he is frequently 
heard to say, ' Do you think me not so white as 
yourself?' It becomes, consequently a very inter- 
esting business for the public vanity to estimate 
accurately the fractions of European blood which 
belong to the different castes/ 

" ' It often happens that the families suspected of 
being of mixed blood demand from the high court 

* " The descendants of Negroes and Indian women bear at Mexico. 
Lima, and even at the Havannah, the strange name of Chino, Chinese. 
On the coast of Caraccas, and, as appears from the laws, even in New 
Spain, they are called Zambos. This last denomination is now princi- 
pally limited to the descendants of a Negro and female Mulatto, or a Negro 
and a Chinese female." Humboldt, loc. cit. 

j- " The offspring of a Negro or Negress with a Mulatto man or woman 
is called in the English colonies Sambo. Edwards' Hist, of the West 
Indies ; v. ii. p. 18. 

X If a Mulatto and Terceron, or Tercon and Quarteron, intermix, the 
offspring are called Tenti en ayre by the Spaniards ; because they remain 
in the same legal condition, neither advancing nor receding. Ulloa, 
Voyage, i. 30. 


of justice (audiencia) to have it declared that they 
belong to the whites.* These declarations are not 
always corroborated by the judgment of the senses. 
We see very swarthy Mulattos, who have had the 
address to get themselves whitened (this is the vul- 
gar expression). When the color of the skin is 
too repugnant to the judgment demanded, the peti- 
tioner is contented with an expression somewhat 
problematical. The sentence then simply bears, 
' that such individuals may consider themselves 
as whites (que se tengan por blancos).'f 

'• Where several races are brought together, as 
in some European- Asiatic settlements, their mix- 
ture with each other, and the several crossings be- 
tween the original races and their various decend- 
ants, give rise to a vast number of mixed breeds, 
and every possible variety of color. The dark 
races, and all who are contaminated by any visible 
mixture of dark blood, are comprised under the gen- 
eral denomination of people of color. It is not 
however, merely by this superficial character that 

* " The proportions are represented below according to the principles 
sanctioned by usage. 

Parents. Offspring. Degree of Mixture. 

Negro and European .... Mulatto .... £ white § black. 

European and Mulatto . . . Terceron f ^ 

Negro and Mulatto .... GrifFo, or Zambo . . f black £ white. 
European and Terceron . . . Quarteron .... I white § black. 

Negro and Terceron I black £ white. 

European and Quarteron. . . Quinteron . • . . \\ white £ black. 
Negro and Quarteron \\ black ^ white. 

The two latter are respectively white and black ; and of these the 
first are white by law, and consequntly free in our West India Islands. 
All remains of color are so completely banished, that they are not dis- 
tinguishable from the whites in any respect." 

f Humboldt, Polit. Essay / i, 246, 247. 



they are distinguished ; all other physical and moral 
qualities are equally influenced by those of the 
parents. The intellectual and moral character of 
the Europeans is deteriorated by the mixture of 
black or red blood, while on the other hand an in- 
fusion of white blood tends, in an equal degree, to 
improve and ennoble the qualities of the dark varie- 
ties." 200—204. 

" 8. The skin differs in some other properties be- 
sides its color. Travellers have described it as re- 
markably soft and smooth, and as it were, silky in 
certain races: as in the Carib, Negro, Otaheitean, and 
Turk. It secretes a matter of peculiar odor in some 
races. 'The Peruvian Indians,' says Humboldt, 
- who in the middle of the night distinguished the 
different races by their quick sense of smell, have 
formed three words to express the odor of the Euro- 
pean, the Indian American, and the Negro: they call 
the first pezuna, the second posco, and the third 
graio.' He adds, that the casts of Indian or African 
blood preserve the odor peculiar to the cutaneous 
transpiration of those primitive races." 208. 

" 9 The various races of mankind exhibit consider- 
able differences in the beard and the hair on other 
parts of the body, as well as in that of the head. 
One of the most general characters of the dark col- 
ored nations, at least of those which belong to the 
Mongolian, American, and African varieties, is 
either an entire want of beard, or a very thin one 
developed at a more advanced age, than is usual 
with us : on the contrary, a copious beard has al- 
ways been the pride of the white races : and, from 


its being a distinguishing attribute of the male, 
has been commonly regarded as a mark of mas- 
culine strength. Dark-colored nations with strong 
beards are as uncommon as individuals of the white 
races with an inconsiderable growth of this cover- 
ing. A general smoothness of the whole body is 
combined with this diminution of the beard ; and 
these characters are rendered more striking by the 
very common pratice among the dark-coloured na- 
tions of carefully eradicating or destroying the 
hair ; which affords another example of their great 
disposition to exaggerate by artificial means what- 
ever may be deemed imperfect or defective in their 
bodily formation. In some instances neither the 
eyebrows nor eyelashes are spared ; nor even the 
hair of the head. 

" The beardlessness of the Mongolian variety, 
which attracted the attention of the older writers, 
has been fully confirmed by the testimonies of 
modern travellers. ' In all the Mongolian tribes/ 
says Pallas, 'the adult males have much less beard 
than in the Tartars and European nations ; it also 
grows later. The Calmucks have the most, yet 
they are very poorly furnished; they commonly 
have small mustachios, and some preserve besides 
a tuft on the lower lip.' ' They have very little 
hair on the body, and the mothers seek to extermin- 
ate it in their children. But in certain parts, which 
the Tartar women like to keep quite smooth, those, 
of the Calmucks leave the hair undisturbed.' ' The 
Mongols have less beard and thinner hair of the 
head than the Calmucks. The Burats are nearly 


as beardless as the Tungooses and other hordes of 
Eastern Siberia. Without any means of destruc- 
tion having been resorted to, their chin often re- 
mains quite smooth even to advanced age. It is 
not common to see a Burat with a beard at the 
usual commencement of adult age ; and they are 
constantly smooth and bald in the rest of the body. 
Gmelin observes, ' that it is not easy to find a beard 
among the Tungooses or the neighboring tribes. 
For they eradicate the hair as soon as it appears, 
and repeat this constantly, till at last no more is 
produced.' " 

" The Chinese resemble the Mongolian tribes, 
to which they owe their origin, in this deficiency 
of beard ; although they preserve it, and encourage 
the growth as much as they can. 

" The practice of exterminating is mentioned by 
Kjsmpfer as prevalent in Japan and among the 
Malays; by Forrest, among the Mindanao island- 
ders ; Wilson, in the Pelew Islands ; Langsdorff, 
in the Marquesas ; Carteret, among the Papuas ; 
Bougainville, in the Navigators' Islands ; Mr. 
Marsden, in Sumatra ; &c, &c. 

" There has been a great dispute about the Amer- 
icans ; some asserting their entire and natural want 
of beard, and assigning this as a proof of their physi- 
cal inferiority, of that degeneracy, which is supposed 
to have affected all animal nature in the new 
world : while others are inclined to ascribe the ap- 
parent difference entirely to the practice of eradica- 

" We have abundant evidence that the American 

NEGR0MAN1A. 101 

race is characterized generally by a small and im- 
perfect beard ; yet there are tribes, particularly in 
North America, with a more copious growth. The 
tall and robust stature of some of the American 
nations which have little beard, proves that the 
absence of this excrescence is not a sure sign of 
weakness ; while its existence in New Holland, the 
people of Tanna Mallicollo, &c, shows that its 
presence does not necessarily indicate vigor or 

" The very competent and respectable testimony 
of Ulloa, establishes a general deficiency of beard 
among the South Americans. ' The Indians have 
no beard; and the greatest alteration occasioned by 
their arriving at the years of maturity is only a few 
strawling hairs on the chin ; but so short and thin, 
as never to require the assistance of a razor.' He 
states in another place, that grey hair and beards 
indicate in the American race a very advanced age : 
the former is not seen till before or about the seven- 
tieth year ; the latter about the age of sixty, and then 
slender and thin. Bouguer, Charlevoix, the 
Chevalier De Pinto, Dobrizhoffer, Molina,* 

* "'The Chilians, like the Tartars, have but little beard; and the cus- 
tom of plucking out the hair, as fast as it grows, makes them appear as 
if beardless ; for this purpose they always carry with them a small pair 
of pincers, which forms a part of their toilette. There are some of them, 
however, who have as thick a beard as the Spaniards. The hair which 
marks the age of puberty, they have in still greater quantities than the 
beard. The opinion that a thin beard is the mark of a feeble body is not 
verified in the case of these people. The Indians are generally vigor- 
ous, and are better able to endure fatigue than the Creoles ; for which 
reason they are always preferred in those employments that require 
strength.' " Natural History of Chili, p. 275. 


and Humboldt,* give similar testimony on this 

" There is some contradiction in the reports of 
travellers concerning the native North Americans : 
it is, however, easily explained on the probable sup- 
position that the proportions of the beard varies in 
different tribes. 

"Mr. Hearne observed, of those whom he saw on 
his journey to the Copper Mine River, ' that few 
of the men have any beard : this seldom makes its 

"'The Araucans 'have scarcely any beard, and the smallest hair is 
never to be discerned on their faces, from the care they take to pluck out 
the little that appears.' 'The same attention is paid to removing it from 
their bodies, where its growth is more abundant.' " Civ. His. of Chili, p. 55. 

* "'The Chaymas are almost without beard on the chin, like the Tun- 
gooses, and other nations of the Mongol race. They pluck out the few 
hairs that appear; but it is not correct to say they have no beard, merely 
because they pluck out the hairs. Independently of this custom, the 
greater part of the natives would be nearly beardless.' No controversy 
would have arisen on this point, if the correct account given by the first 
historians of the conquest of America had been sufficiently attended to. 
(See the Journal of Piagfetta, published by Amoretti, 1800, p. 18. Ben- 
zoni, Storia del Mundo Nuovo 1572, p. 85. Bembo, Hist. Tenet. 1557, p. 
86.) 'The Patagonians and Guaranies in South America have beards. 
When the Chaymas, instead of extracting the little hair they have on the 
chin, shave themselves frequently, their beard grows. I have seen this 
experiment tried with success by young Indians, who served at mass, 
and who anxiously wished to resemble the Capuchin fathers, their mis- 
sionaries and instructors. Most of the people, however, have as great 
an antipathy to the beard as the Eastern nations have veneration for it. 
This antipathy is derived from the same source as the predilection for 
flat foreheads, which is seen in so singular a manner in the statues of the 
Azteck heroes and divinities. Nations attach the idea of beauty to every 
thing which particularly characterizes their own physical conformation, 
their natural physiognomy. Hence it results, that if nature have be- 
stowed very little beard, a narrow forehead, or a brownish red skin, 
every individual thinks himself beautiful, in proportion as his body is 
destitute of hairs, his head flattened, and his skin covered with annatto 
or chica, or some other coppery red color.' " Personal Narrative, iii. 237. 


appearance, till they are arrived at middle age ; and 
then in by no means equal quantity to what is ob- 
served in the generality of the Europeans : the little 
they have, however, is exceedingly strong and 
bristly.' He mentions the practice of eradication ; 
and adds, that ' neither sex have any hair under 
their armpits, and very little on any other part of 
their body, particularly the women. 

" Mr. Mackenzie states that the Knisteneaux 
'very generally extract their beards; and both 
sexes manifest a disposition to pluck the hair from 
every part of their body and limbs.' Among the 
Chepewyans ' the men in general extract their 
beards ; but some men seem to prefer a bushy black 
beard to a smooth chin.' 

" Respecting the Canadian Indians and the ad- 
joining tribes, we have a curious statement in the 
Philosophical Transactions, communicated by a 
celebrated Mohawk chief named Thayandaneega, 
but better known to the English by the name of 
Capt. Brant, whose portrait is represented in 
Plate IV. 

" ' The men of the Six Nations have all beards 
by nature, as have likewise all other Indian nations 
of North America, which I have seen. Some allow 
a part of the beard on the chin and upper lip to 
grow ; and a few of the Mohawks shave with razors 
like Europeans ; but the generality pluck out the 
hairs of the beard by the roots, as soon as they 
begin to appear ; and, as they continue this practice 
all their lives, they appear to have no beard, or at 
most only a few straggling hairs, which they have 


neglected to pluck out. I am, however, of opinion, 
that if the Indians were to shave, they would never 
have beards, altogether so thick as the Europeans ; 
and there are some to be met with, who have actu- 
ally very little beard.' 

" The beardlessness of the natives at Nootka 
Sound is ascribed by Cook entirely to their practice 
of eradication ; and the same opinion is expressed 
respecting the Chopunnish, a tribe on Lewis's river, 
which joins the Columbia, by Captains Lewis and 
Clarke, w T ho are of opinion that several of them 
would have good beards if they adopted the prac- 
tice of shaving. 

" Perouse reports that about one-half of the adult 
Indians in New California had beards, which in 
some were ample : that he could not ascertain 
whether the deficiencv observed in the others arose 
from natural defect, or from the beard being plucked 

" The genuine Negroes have very little growth 
of hair on the chin, or on other parts of the body. 
In a full-grown lad of seventeen, there was not the 
smallest appearance of beard, nor of hair on any 
other part except the head. I never saw any hair 
on the arms, legs, or breasts of Negroes, like what 
is observed on those parts in Europeans." 213-218. 

"10. In the first, or white variety of man, to 
w T hich Blumenbach has given the epithet Cauca- 
sian, including the ancient and modern inhabitants 
of Europe, the western Asiatics, or those on .this 
side of the Caspian Sea, the rivers Ob and Ganges, 
and the northern Africans ; — in a word, nearly all 


the inhabitants of the world as known to the an- 
cients, the skull presents the finest intellectual or- 
ganization ; proportions indicating the greatest pre- 
dominence of the rational faculties over the instru- 
ments of sense and of the common animal wants. 
The upper and front parts of the skull are more 
developed than in any other variety, and their ample 
swell completely hides the face, when we survey 
the head according to the norma verticalis. The 
facial line must, therefore, be nearly vertical : and 
the facial angle nearly a right angle. The face is 
comparatively small, and its outlines rounded, with- 
out anything harsh or unpleasantly prominent. 
The cheek-bones are small, and do not stand out, 
but descend in a nearly straight line from the ex- 
ternal angular process of the frontal bone. The 
alveolar margin of the jaws is rounded ; and the 
front teeth are perpendicular in both. The chin is 
full and prominent. 

" Since this conformation is exhibited in the var- 
ious nations of Europe, its leading traits must be 
familiar. As a specimen, I have selected from 
the third decade of Blumenbach's work the skull 
of a Georgian woman, because it comes from a 
quarter near the supposed original seat of our race, 
and from a tribe celebrated for personal beauty. 
From the elegance and symmetry of its formation, 
it may be regarded as the model of a female head ; 
and is certainly far preferable in this point of view, 
to that of 

" The bending statue which enchants the world." 

Gall and Spijrzheim judiciously observed that the 


head of the Venus was too small for an intellectual 
being ; and that the goddess of Love was thus rep- 
resented as an idiot. In this Georgian head the 
physical and moral attributes are well combined ; 
the personal charms, which enchant the senses, are 
joined to those rational endowments which com- 
mand esteem and respect, and satisfy the judgment. 

" The form of this head is of such distinguished 
elegance, that it attracts the attention of all who 
visit the collection, in which it is contained. The 
vertical and frontal regions form a large and smooth 
convexity, which is a little flattened at the temples; 
the forehead is high and broad, and carried forwards 
perpendicularly over the face. The cheek-bones 
are small, descending from the outer side of the or- 
bit, and gently turned back. The superciliary 
ridges run together at the root of the nose, and are 
smoothly continued into the bridge of that organ, 
which forms an elegant and finely-turned arch. 
The alveolar processes are softly rounded, and the 
chin is full and prominent. In the whole structure 
there is nothing rough or harsh ; nothing disagree- 
ably projecting. • Hence it occupies a middle place 
between the two opposite extremes of the Mongolian 
variety, in which the face is flattened, and expanded 
laterally : and the Ethiopian, in which the fore- 
head is contracted, and the jaws also are narrow 
and elongated anteriorly. 

" Blumenbach observes that the form of this 
head corresponds exactly to that of the marble stat- 
ue of a nymph in the collection of the late Mr. Town- 
ley, of which he possesses a plaster cast. It tends 


also to confirm trie testimony of the numerous trav- 
ellers, who have unanimously concurred in extoll- 
ing the beauty of the inhabitants of Georgia and the 
neighboring countries. The expressions of Char- 
din are so warm and animated, that I subjoin the 
original passage. ' Le sang de Georgie est le plus 
beau de 1'orient, et je puis dire du monde. Je n'ai 
pas remarque un visage laid en ce pais-la, parmi, 
1'un et 1'autre sexe ; mais j'y en ai vu d'angeliques. 
La nature y a repandu sur la plupart des femmes 
des graces qu'on ne voit point ailleurs. Je tiens 
pour impossible de les regarder sans les aimer. 
L'on ne peutpeindre de plus charmans visages, ni 
de plus belles tallies, que celles des Georgiennes.' 
The head of the Jewish girl engraved in Plate 
XII. exemplifies equally well the Caucasian forma- 

" The characters above described belong to the 
following people, whether ancient or modern ; viz, 
the Syrians and Assyrians, Chaldeans, Medes, Per- 
sians, Jews, Egyptians, Georgians, Carcasians, 
Mingrelians, Armenians, Turks, Arabs, Afghans, 
Hindoos of high cast, Gipseys, Tartars, Moors and 
Berbers in Africa, Guanches in the Canary Islands, 
Greeks, Romans, and all the Europeans except the 
Laplanders. The enumeration includes all the 
human races in which the intellectual endowments 
of man have shone forth in the greatest native 
vigor, have received the highest cultivation, and 
have produced the richest and most abundant fruits 
in philosophy, science and art, in religion and mor- 
als, in poetry, eloquence, and the fine arts, in civili- 


zation and government ; in all that can dignify and 
ennoble the species. We cannot, therefore, won- 
der that they should in all cases have not merely 
vanquished, but held in permanent subjection, all 
the other races. 

" Much uncertainty has prevailed respecting the 
physical characters of the ancient Egyytians : and 
some have maintained the opinion that they were 
Negroes. The question is certainly interesting, 
particularly if it should appear that this opinion is 
well grounded. That a race ever devoted, within 
the period embraced by authentic history, to slav- 
ery, or to an independent existence not much better, 
and possessing, under the most favorable circum- 
stances, only the rudiments of the common arts, and 
the most imperfect social institutions, should have 
accomplished in the remotest antiquity under- 
takings which astonish us even now by their gran- 
deur, and prove so great a progress, in civilization 
anft social life, in arts and sciences ; that they 
should have subsequently lost all traces of this sur- 
prising progress, and never have exhibited the 
smallest approximation to such a pre-eminence in 
any other instance, would be a fact extremely diffi- 
cult to explain. 

" Egypt was venerated even by antiquity, as the 
birthplace of the arts, and still retains innumera- 
ble monuments of their former splendor, after so 
many ages of desolation. Her principal temples, 
and the palaces of her kings, still subsist, although 
the least ancient of them were constructed before 
the war of Troy. With our present experience of 


the capacity of Negroes, and our knowledge of the 
state in which the whole race has remained for 
twenty centuries, can we deem it possible that they 
should have achieved such prodigies ? that Homer, 
Lycurgus, Solon, Pythagoras, and Plato, should 
have resorted to Egypt to study the sciences, reli- 
gion, and laws, discovered and framed by men with 
black skin, woolly hair, and slanting forehead ? 

" The situation of Egypt favors the notion of a 
mixed population, which may have flowed in at 
various times from different quarters of Africa, 
Asia, and Europe. 

" The Caucasian races of Arabia, Syria, and the 
surrounding parts, must have found their way into 
this fertile and flourishing country : the Red sea 
offers an easy medium of communication both with 
Arabia and India ; while the freest access exists on 
the south and west to the Negroes and Berbers of 
Africa. Hence specimens of various races may be 
naturally expected to occur among the mummies ; 
and may have afforded models to the painter and 
sculptor. If, however, among the myriads of em- 
balmed bodies, of the sculptured figures, which 
cover the walls of temples and palaces, and of other 
w r orks of art, we should meet with one or two of 
Negro formation, are we thence to conclude that 
the original Egyptians were Negroes ? or that men 
of the latter race possessed those distinguished 
powers of knowledge and reflection, which the ear- 
ly history of this wonderful country compels us to 
assign to its ruling race? Ought we not rather to 

draw our conclusions from the most prevalent 



forms, those which are most numerous and abun- 
dant in the oldest specimens? If, among a profusion 
of mummies and figures, bearing the stamp of the 
Caucasian model, a few should occur with a little 
dash of the Negro character, may we not suppose 
the individuals who furnished the pattern of the lat- 
ter to have been in Egypt, as they have been every 
where, slaves to the race of nobler formation? 
To give the new Negroes the glory of all the dis- 
coveries and achievements of this first civilized race, 
and overlook the more numerous individuals of dif- 
ferent character, would be in opposition to the invar- 
iable tenor of our experience respecting human na- 
ture." 227—231. 

" 11. I proceed to an osteological examination of the 
mummy heads; which, if performed with accuracy 
and discrimination, will supply us with sure data, as 
far as they go. We shall find that the bodies thus 
preserved have the characters of the Caucasian va- 
riety, and .we shall hardly discover, among a great 
multitude of examples, a single unequivocal in- 
stance of Negro formation." 

" In his Decades Cramorum, No. I, and XXXI, 
Blumenbach has represented two Egyptian skulls. 
The first bears no marks of Ethiopian origin, nor 
does the author assign to it any such characters. 
4 In universum hujus cranii habitus eundem'cha- 
racterem prse se ferre videtur, quem et ingentia, 
iEgyptiacae artis veteris opera spirant, non quidem 
elegantem et pulchellum, ast magnum.' P. 13. 

" The European or Caucasian character of the 
second is quite obvious; yet, in the description, 


there appears a desire of fixing on it some mark of 
Negro descent. ' Quod vero universum vultum at- 
tinet, differt quidem ille satis luculenter a genuino 
iste Nigritarum, qui Anglis vulgo facies Guineensis 
audit ; JEtliiopici tamen aliquid spirat, ita ut pro- 
prius absit ab Habessinico, qualem curata icon ex- 
hi'bet, proxime autem ab eo, quern tot antiquissima 
iEgyptiacse artis monumenta pra3 se ferunt.' The 
Abysinians, to whom a comparison is here made, 
are of Arab descent, and have all the characters of 
the Caucasian variety. 

" Soemmerring describes the heads of four mum- 
mies which he has seen : two of them differed in no 
respects from the European formation; the third 
had the African character of a large space marked 
out for the temporal muscle ; no other proof of 
Negro descent is mentioned, and what is stated con- 
cerning the face rather contradicts the supposition : 
the characters of the fourth are not particularized. 

" ' Caput mumise, quod Cassellis in museo ser- 
vatur, nil fere ab Europseo differt. 

" ' Caput etiam mumise in theatro anatomico Mar- 
purgensi servatum, cujus exacta delineatio ad manus 
est, nil a capite Europseo deflectit. 

" k Pulcherrima et optime servata, forsan virilis 
mumise calvaria optimse setatis, qua me Mieg, Pro- 
fessor Basileensis benevole donavit, quseque olim in 
collectione F. Plateri fuit, distincte formam Afri- 
canam, alte progrediente vestigio insitionis rnusculi 
temporalis, reprsesentat ; vertex non est compressus, 
neque ossa faciei robustiora sunt ossibus Europceo- 
rum. Densum ordinem integri pulchri dentes sis- 


tunt, non isi inferiores incisores et canini oblique 
priora et inferiora versus attenuati sunt, plurimum 
vero medium incisorum par, brevioribus ea de causa 
coronis instructum. 

" ' Calvaria mumise hominis senis confecti, ab 
eodem Mieg mihi data, yEgyptiacam ossium faciei 
formam minus accurate reprsesentat, verum dentes 
incisores exteriores inferiores, et dentes canini modo 
quern supra indicavi, se habent; distant nimirum 
inter se, et in planum sunt attenuati.' 

" Denon states of the female mummies, ' que 
leurs cheveux etoient longs et lisses ; que le carac- 
tere de la tete de la plupart tenoit du beau style. 
Je rapportois une tete de vieille femme, qui etoit 
aussi belle que celles des Sibylles de Michel Ange. 

" The embalmed heads from the catacombs of 
Thebes (Quournah,) engraved in the great French 
work, are of the finest European form, to which 
their abundant, long, and slightly flowing hair fully 
corresponds. There is a male head, with the broad 
and fully developed forehead, small perpendicu- 
lar face, and all the contours of our best models. 
1 L'angle facial se rapproche beaucop d'un angle 
droit ; et les dents incisives sont plantees verticale- 
ment, et non inclinees ni avancees, comme elles le 
seroient dans une tete de Negre.' The nose is finely 
arched; the jaws perpendicular; the mouth and 
chin well-formed. The front -and profile views of a 
female head are of the same character ; the face 
completely European, the hair copious, and dis- 
posed in small masses or locks, a little turned. The 


same remarks are also applicable to another head, 
of which a section is also exhibited. 

"The skulls of four mummies in the possession 
of Dr. Leach, of the British Museum, and casts of 
three others, agree with those just mentioned in 
exhibiting a formation not differing from the Eu- 
ropean, without any trait of Negro character. 

" Lastly, so far as osteological proofs go, the 
question may be considered as completely decided 
by the strong evidence of Cuvier. 

" ' It is now clearly proved — yet it is necessary to 
repeat the truth, because the contrary error is still 
found in the newest works — that neither the Gallas 
(who border on Abyssinia) nor the Bosjesmen, nor 
any race of Negroes, produced that celebrated peo- 
ple who gave birth to the civilization of ancient 
Egypt, and from whom we may say that the whole 
world has inherited the principles of its laws, 
sciences, and perhaps also the religion. 

" ' Bruce even imagines that the ancient Egyp- 
tians were Cushites, or woolly-haired Negroes; he 
supposes them to have been allied to the Shangallas 
of Abyssinia. 

"'Now that we distinguish the several human 

races by the bones of the head, and that we possess 

so many of the ancient Egyptian embalmed bodies, 

it is easy to prove that, whatever may have been 

the hue of their skin, they belonged to the same 

race with ourselves ; that their cranium and brain 

were equally voluminous; in a word, that they 

formed no exception to that cruel law, which seems 

to have doomed to eternal inferiority all the tribes 



of our species which are unfortunate enough to 
have a depressed and compressed cranium. 

" ' I present the head of a mummy, that the 
Academy may compare it to those of Europeans, 
Negroes, and Hottentots. It is detached from an 
entire skeleton, which I did not bring on account 
of its brittleness ; but its comparison has furnished 
the same results. I have examined, in Paris, and 
in the various collections of Europe, more than fifty 
heads of mummies, and not one amongst them pre- 
sented the characters of the Negro or Hottentot.' 

" By examination of the bony head we learn that 
the Guanches also, or the race which occupied the 
Canary Islands at the time of their first discovery 
by the Europeans in the fourteenth century, be- 
longed to the Caucasian variety. The name Guan- 
ches signifies men or sons in their language. The 
Spaniards, who conquered them, represent them as 
a people of strength and courage, of powerful bodies 
and intelligent minds, advanced in social institu- 
tions, and of pure morals. They made the bravest 
resistance to their European invaders, who did not 
completely subject them until after a hundred and 
fifty years of repeated contests. They had a tradi- 
tion of their descent from an ancient, great, and 
powerful people. 

" We now know them, as we do the Egyptians, 
only by their mummies, the race being completely 
extinct. The entire head, engraved in Blumen- 
bach's fifth Decade, offers no essential difference 
from the European form. 

" The testimony of Cuvier is to the same effect. 


' I present to the Academy the head of a Guanche ; 
a specimen of that race which inhabited the Cana- 
ries before they were conquered by the Spaniards. 
Some authors, believing the tales of Timseus con- 
cerning the Atlantis, have regarded the Guanches 
as the wreck of the supposed Atlantic people. 
Their practice of preserving dead bodies in the 
mummy form might rather lead us to suspect some 
affinity to the ancient Egyptians. However that 
may be, their head, like that of the Egyptian mum- 
mies, demonstrates their Caucasian origin. 233-237. 

" 12. The tribes in the south of Africa, that is, 
near the European colony at the Cape — the Hot- 
tentots, Kaffers, Bosjesmen, &c, are not enough 
yet known to enable us to decide whether they ought 
to be arranged under the Ethiopian variety, or 
whether they belong to a different type. Blijmen- 
bach has figured and described a skull in his last 
Decade ; and, more recently, Cuvier has published 
an account of a female head. In some points these 
two specimens differ from each other remarkably. 

" In the male Bosjesman's head represented by 
Blumenbach, the cranium is less compressed than 
in the Negro. The orbits and cheek-bones are 
wide, the jaws not at all prominent, the incisor tooth 
with their alveoli and chin in the same perpendicu- 
lar line. The latter is remarkably narrow and 
sharp. The nasal bones are very small, and nearly 
in the same plane with the nasal processes of the 
superior maxillae. 

" ' The bony head of our female Bosjesman,' 
says Cuvier, i presented a striking combination of 


the traits of the Negro with those of the Calmuck. 
In the Negro the mouth is prominent, the face and 
cranium compressed laterally : in the Calmuck the 
jaws are flattened, and the face wide. In both, the 
bones of the nose are smaller and flatter than in the 
European. Our Bosjesmanhad the jaws more pro- 
jecting than the Negro, the face wider than the 
Calmuck, and the nose flatter than either. In the 
latter respect particularly, her head came nearer to 
that of the monkey than any I ever saw. From 
these general arrangements many particular traits 
of structure result ; the orbits are very wide in pro- 
portion to their height ; the entrance of the nostrils 
has a peculiar form ; the palate has a larger sur- 
face ; the incisor teeth are more oblique ; the tem- 
poral fossa more extensive, &c. 

" ' I also find that the occipital foramen is pro- 
portionally larger than in other heads ; which, ac- 
cording to the views of Soemmerring, would in- 
dicate an inferior nature.' 

" The characters of the Ethiopian variety, as ob- 
served in the genuine Negro tribes, may be thus 
summed up: 1. Narrow and depressed forehead; 
the entire cranium contracted anteriorly : the cavity 
less, both in its circumference and transverse mea- 
surements. 2. Occipital foramen and condyles 
placed farther back. 3. Large space for the tem- 
poral muscles. 4. Great development of the face. 
5. Prominence of the jaws altogether, and particu- 
larly of their alveolar margins and teeth ; conse- 
quent obliquity of the facial line. 6. Superior in- 
cisors slanting. 7. Chin receding. 8. Very large 


and strong zygomatic arch projecting towards the 
front. 9. Large nasal cavity. 10. Small and flat- 
tened ossa nasi, sometimes consolidated, and run- 
ing into a point above. 

" In all the particulars just enumerated, the Ne- 
gro structure approximates unequivocally to that of 
the monkey. It not only differs from the Cauca- 
sian model, but is distinguished from it in two re- 
spects; the intellectual characters are reduced, the 
animal features enlarged and exaggerated. In 
such a skull as that represented in the eighth plate, 
which indeed has been particularly selected, be- 
cause it is strongly characterized, no person, however 
little conversant with natural history or physiology, 
could fail to recognise a decided approach to the 
animal form. This inferiority of organization is at- 
tended with corresponding inferiority of faculties ; 
which may be proved, not so much by the unfor- 
tunate beings who are degraded by slavery, as by 
every fact in the past history and present condition 
of Africa." 245—246. 

" 13. The observations in the following chapter, 
respecting the varieties of form in general, include 
the subjects of national features and form of the 
skull. I shall only make a few remarks here on 
some attempts at explaining the latter subjects. 

" Climate has generally been brought forward 
as the cause of the varieties that distinguish man. 
It has been almost universally represented as the 
source of differences in color, and not much less 
depended on for solving the great problem of varieties 
of form. ' The inquiry into the causes of difference 


of features is exposed,' says Blumenbach, ' to such 
serious difficulties, that we can only expect to arrive 
at a problem solution. 

" ' That climate is the principle agent in produc- 
ing difference of features is proved to my satisfac- 
tion by three arguments. 

til l. In the natives of certain regions a national 
countenance is so common and "universal in persons 
of all conditions, that it can be referred to no othe; 
cause. The Chinese may serve as an example ; 
the characteristic flattened countenance being as 
general among them, as great symmetry and beauty 
are among the English and Majorcans. 

" l 2. Unless I am greatly deceived, there are in- 
stances of people who, after leaving their old abodes, 
have in progress of time assumed new features, 
corresponding to their new situations. Thus the 
Yakuts are referred, by those who have investigat- 
ed northern antiquities, to the Tartar race : but 
their countenance is now completely Mongolian, 
according to the reports of the most accurate observ- 
ers, and to a Yakut skull in my collection. Thus 
also it has been observed that the Creole offspring 
of European parents in the West India Islands 
have, in some degree, exchanged their native Brit- 
ish features for those characteristic of the American 
aborigines, and have acquired their deeper eyes and 
higher cheeks.' He adds, that the northern inva- 
ders, who have at different times entered India, 
have gradually assumed the character which the 
climate has impressed on the native Hindoos. 

3. Nations, which can be deemed only colon- 

it i 


ies of one and the same race, have acquired differ- 
ent characteristic countenances in different climates. 
It is now proved that the Hungarians and Laplan- 
ders come from one stock. The latter have acquir- 
ed, in their northern abodes, the cast of counten- 
ance peculiar to the inhabitants of those cold re- 
gions ; while the former have assumed a more 
elegant formation in their milder seats near Greece 
and Turkey.' 

" That so able a writer could find no better proofs 
in support of his opinion, only shows how com- 
pletely unfounded that opinion is. 

" The flat face of the Chinese not only extends 
throughout that vast empire, which covers nearly 
forty degrees of latitude, and seventy of longitude, 
but also over the neighboring regions of Central and 
Northern Asia, the north of Europe, and of Ameri- 
ca ; over a very large portion of the globe, includ- 
ing every possible variety of heat and cold, eleva- 
tion and lowness, moisture and dryness, wood, 
marsh, and plain. 

" That European Creoles in the West Indies, in 
America, and in the East, have preserved their na- 
tive features in all instances where no intermixture 
of blood has occured, is proved by the uninterrupt- 
ed experience of the Spaniards, Portuguese, and 
English, who have had foreign colonies, in climates 
most different to their own, longer than any other 

" If the Yakuts, which are now decidedly Mon- 
golian in their features, had originally the Cauca- 
sian formation, and if the northern invaders of In- 


dia have assumed the Hindoo countenance, the 
change must have been affected by intermarriages. 
All who have visited India and attentively examin- 
ed its various people, unanimously represent that 
the Afghauns and Mongols of pure blood are at this 
moment just as distinct in features from the Hin- 
doos, as the parent races are in their original seats. 

" Respecting the case of t&e Hungarians and 
Laplanders, if we admit their descent from one 
stock, which is probable, let us next ascertain what 
the amount of the differences between them may 
be, and then inquire whether mixture with other 
races may not have produced these. 

" Blumenbach proceeds to observe, that the in- 
termixture of races has a great effect in modifying 
the natural countenance ; and that the ancient Ger- 
mans, the modern Gipseys, and the Jews, afford 
examples of peculiar and distinctive casts of coun- 
tenance being preserved in every climate. These 
well-known facts are quite sufficient to overturn 
the hypothesis which refers the difference of fea- 
tures to climate ; and a short examination of the 
races in any part of the world will soon supply 
numerous additional ones. Indeed, I do not know 
a single well-established fact or sound argument 
in its favor. 

" Some have even attempted to show how climate 
might operate in producing national features. ' En 
effet,' says Volney, ' j'observe que la figure des Ne- 
gres represente precisement cet etat de contraction 
que prend notre visage lorsqu'il est frappe par la 
lumiere et une forte reverberation de chaleur. 


Alors le sourcil se fronce; la pomme des joues 
s'eleve ; la paupiere se serre ; la bouche fait la raoue. 
Cette contraction, qui a lieu perpetuellement dans 
le pays nud et chaud des Negres, n'a-t-elle pas du 
devenir la caractere propre de leur figure V Unfor- 
tunately for these speculations, the Negro features 
occur in numerous tribes spread over a great extent 
of country, with various climates, and in many in- 
stances where the heat is by no means excessive ; 
the character, too is permanent, after any number 
of generations, when the Negroes are taken into 
other climes. Again the most opposite features 
occur under similar climates in different parts of 
the world. There are races with flattened counte- 
nances as well with narrow and elongated visages 
in hot countries. The whole notion is, however, so 
fanciful and so unphilosophic, that it hardly de- 
serves serious attention ; and I therefore regret to 
find that the idea is so far countenanced by an in- 
structive writer on this subject, that he speaks of 
the numerous gnats which annoy the New Holland- 
ers as contributing to the formation of their peculiar 

" The custom of carrying the children on the back 
has been referred to, in order to explain the flat 
nose and swoln lips of the Negro. In the violent 
motions required in their hard labor, as in beating 
or pounding millet, &c, the face of the young one 
is constantly thumping against the back of the 
mother. This account is seriously quoted by Blu- 


" The testimonies concerning the employment of 



pressure* in order to flatten trie nose, are so numer- 
ous and circumstantial, that we cannot doubt of the 
attempt being made. It is practised among the 
Negroes, Hottentots, Brazilians, Sumatrans, and 
South S.ea Islanders : we have, however, no proof 
that the figure of the part is ever changed by such 
attempts; while, on the contrary, it can be shown 
most clearly, that the well-known flatness of the 
nose is the natural formation of the organ in the 
Negro, and the notion of its being produced by 
pressure is justly ridiculed by that intelligent ob- 
server, Dr. Wintereottom. The children of Afri- 
can parents in Europe, America, and other situa- 
tions, where there are opportunities of knowing that 
no means are used to flatten the nose, resemble in all 
respects those born in Africa. Why, indeed, should 
artificial causes be adduced to account for the flatness 
of the part in so many dark-colored races, rather 
than for its convexity and prominence in others ? 
Do not the various parts of the countenance harmo- 
nize equally in both cases ? Would it improve a 
Negro or a Chinese face to introduce into it an aqui- 
line nose ? In short, these flat noses have all the 
characters of natural construction about them, 
equally with those of a different figure, and exhibit 
none of the marks of violence and artificial change, 
which are seen in the foreheads of some Caribs. 
Moreover, the diversities extend so generally through 
the whole bony fabric of the head, and are observa- 
ble in. so many parts where external pressure could 
have no influence, not to mention that they consist, 
in many instances, of formations just the reverse of 


what pressure could effect, that we cannot-have the 
smallest hesitation in rejecting entirely the notion 
of external influence, and ascribing them to native 
variety. This conclusion is confirmed by the fact, 
that all the peculiarities of the Negro cranium exist 
in the fsetus ; that the prominent jaws, flat nose, and 
all other characters, are found as strongly marked 
in the youngest embryo, as in the adult. 

"'I examined,' says Soemmerrtng, 'a Negro 
embryo and a child only a few months old, and 
found the jaws as prominent, the lower part of the 
nose as broad and flat as in the parents. There 
was no vestige of any violence ; but the form of the 
nose was naturally different from that of white chil- 
dren. Camper examined several years ago, with 
the same view, Negroes of various ages, including 
fsetuses. He observed nothing particular in the 
nose; but he concluded that this organ will be less 
prominent, other circumstances remaining the same, 
when the parts below T it come forwards, and that the 
lips must be larger and thicker in order to cover the 
teeth completely. 

" t My friend Blumenbach asserts, from the ex- 
amination of two Negro children in the Tloyal Mu- 
seum at Gottingen, what Buffon also maintained, 
that the flat noses are congenital, not artfiicial, and 
refers to the engravings of Ruysch and Seba in 
confirmation of the same point. Loder possesses 
a Negro embryo of four or five months and a half, 
in which the peculiar form of the nose and jaws is 
very plain.' 

" These arguments receive a further confirmation 


from three of the crania engraved b}' Blumenbach 
of a Jewish girl, five years old; a Burat child, a 
year and a half; and a newly-born Negro; in which 
the characters of the Caucasian, Mongolian, and 
Ethiopian varieties are as strongly represented as 
in the heads of adults. As these skulls are very 
characteristic, I have added an engraving of them 
to this work. " (See Plate XII.) 262—267. 

" 14. There are no essential differences in the or- 
gans of generation ; their construction and functions 
are the same in the various races of mankind. The 
Negroes, indeed, have generally been celebrated 
for the size of a principle member of this apparatus. 
' Nigritas mentulatiores esse vulgo ferter. Respon- 
det sane huic asserto insignis apparatus genitalium 
iEthiopis, quern in supellectill et mea anatomica 
servo. Num vero constans sit hasc prserogativa et 
nationi propria, nescio.' Two specimens in the Col- 
lege Museum strongly confirm the common opin- 
ion, which is also corroborated by Mr. White, both 
from dissection and observation of living Negroes. 
He mentions an instance where the part in question 
was found on dissection to be twelve inches long. 
In the living and dead Negroes whom I have seen, 
there has been no deviation in size from the Euro- 
pean formation ; but I never injected the part. 

" Mr. White observes that many Negroes have 
no frsenum prseputii ; and that in others it is small 
and imperfect. 

"It has been supposed that the Hottentot women 
have something peculiar in this part of their organ- 
ization ; that they are distinguished from all other 


daughters of Eve by being furnished with a natural 
fig-leaf of skin, produced from the lower and front 
part of the abdomen, and covering the sinus pudor- 
is. It has been called a natural apron (tablior, Fr. ; 
ventrale cutaneum ; schurze, Germ.). Although 
the native country of these females has been so 
much visited by Europeans from all quarters for a 
long series of years, and the structure, according to 
ordinary descriptions, must be very recognisable, 
there is a singular discordance among travellers 
concerning this interesting point in natural history. 
Some affirm, others altogether deny its existence; 
and of the former, hardly any two agree in the 
precise nature of the peculiarity, some referring it 
to the labia, some to the nymphss, others to a pecu- 
liar organization ; some deeming it natural, others 

" This discordance is accounted for in great mea- 
sure by two circumstances. First, that the peculiar 
organization is not visible in the ordinary attitude 
of the body, being concealed between the thighs ;* 
and, secondly, that it is confined to a particular 
tribe. It does not exist in the Negroes, where 
the female organs of generation differ from the 
Europeans only in color, the Kaffas, the Booshnan- 
as, at least not in a conspicuous degree, or in 
the Hottentots generally ; but it belongs to that par- 

" * The Hottentot Venus displayed her charms to the French savans 
at the Jardin du Roi, where ' she had the complaisance to undress her- 
self, that she might be drawn naked.' ' On this occasion the most re- 
markable peculiarity of her formation was not observed ; she kept her 
' tablier' carefully concealed, either between her thighs, or still more deep- 
ly, and it was not known, till after death, that she possessed it.' " Cu- 
vier, Memoires du Museum : pp. 264, 265. 



ticular tribe of Hottentots who are called Bosjes- 
men, or Boschismen. 

" This name is equivalent to Bushmen, was given 
by the Dutch to a diminutive race strongly resem- 
bling the Hottentots in general formation. They 
are wild and fugitive beings, frequently engaged 
in rapine and plunder, and retiring for security into 
deserts and thickets; whence their name seems to 
have been derived. Perpetual warfare existed be- 
tween these Bushmen and the Dutch, who hunted 
and destroyed them with as little ceremony as the 
other wild game of the country. That they remain- 
ed in the most savage state, and were very rarely 
seen in the Dutch colony, is easily understood from 
these circumstances. 

" On the authority of Le Vaillant, and of draw- 
ings communicated to him by Sir Joseph Banks, 
Blumenbach describes the peculiarity to consist in an 
elongation of the labia, and represents it as produc- 
ed by artificial means. More careful and accurate 
examinations, both in Africa and Europe, have 
proved most clearly that it resides in the nymphae, 
which acquire a length of some inches, and that the 
formation is natural. 

" Sonnerat had already represented the matter 
nearly corrected. ' Le tablier fabuleux qu'on prete 
a, leurs femmes, et qu'on dit leur avoir ete donne 
par la nature, n'a point de realite ; il est vrai qu'on 
apercoit dans certaines une excroissance des 
nymphes qui quelquefois pend de six pouces, mais 
c'est une phenomene particulier, dont on ne peut 
pas faire une regie gene rale.' 


" ' The well known story/ says Mr. Barrow, 
•' of the Hottentot women possessing an unusual ap- 
pendage, to those parts that are seldom exposed to 
view, which belonged not to the sex in general, is 
perfectly true with regard to the Bosjesmans. The 
horde we had met with possessed it to a woman ; 
and, without the least offence to modesty, there was 
no difficulty in satisfying curiosity. It appeared on 
examination to he an elongation of the nymphse or 
interior labia, more or less extended according to 
the age or habit of the person. In infancy it is 
just apparent, and in general may be said to in- 
crease in length with age. The longest that 
was measured somewhat exceeded five inches, 
which was in a subject of a middle age. Many 
were said to have them much longer. These pro- 
truded nymphse, collapsed and pendant, appear at 
first view to belong to the other sex. Their color 
is that of a livid blue, inclining to a redish tint, not 
unlike the excrescence on the beak of a turkey, 
which indeed may serve to convey a tolerable good 
idea of the whole appearance both as to color, shape, 
and size. The interior lips or nymphse in Euro- 
pean subjects which are corrugated or plaited, lose 
entirely that part of their character, when brought 
out in the Hottentot, and become perfectly smooth. 
Though in the latter state they may possess none of 
those stimulating qualities, for which -some anatom- 
ists have supposed nature to have formed them, 
they have at least the advantage of serving as a 
protection against violence from the other sex, it 
seeming next to impossible for a man to cohabit 


with one of these women without her consent, or 
even assistance.' 

" Mr. Barrow adds, that 'the elongated nymphse 
are found in all Hottentot women, only they are 
shorter in those of the colony, seldom exceeding 
three inches, and in many subjects appearing merely 
as a projecting orifice, or an elliptical tube of an inch 
or less in length. In the bastard (offspring of Eu- 
ropean father and Hottentot mother) it ceases to 
appear.' He observes again, of the Namaaquas, 
that ' they had the same conformation of certain 
parts of the body as the Bosjesman women, and 
other Hottentots ; in a less degree, however, than is 
usual in the former, and more so than in those of 
the latter.' 

" This account is fully confirmed by the accurate 
descriptions of Dr. Somerville, who speaks from 
ample opportunities of observation and dissection. 
He states that the mons veneris is less prominent 
than in Europeans; and either destitute of hair or 
thinly covered by a small quantity of a soft woolly 
nature: that the labia are very small, insomuch that 
they seem sometimes to be almost deficient : that the 
loose, pendulous, and rugous growth, which hangs 
from the pendendum, is a double fold, and proved by 
the situation of the clitoris at the commissure of 
these folds, as well as by all other circumstances, to 
be the nymph ge ; and that they descend in some 
cases five inches below the margin of the labia. 

" The description by Cuvier of the individual 
publicly exhibited in London and Paris, under the 
name of the Hottentot Venus, agrees entirely with 


Dr. Somerville's account. He found the labia 
small; a single prominence descended between 
them towards the upper part; it divided into two 
lateral portions, which passed along the sides of the 
vagina to the inferior angle of the labia. The whole 
length was about four inches. 

" This formation often has been ascribed to arti- 
ficial elongation. l The testimony of the people 
themselves,' says Mr. Barrow, ' who have no other 
idea, but that the whole human race is so formed, 
is sufficient to contradict such a supposition ; but 
many other proofs might be adduced to show that 
the assertion is without any foundation in truth. 
Numbers of Bosjesman women are now in the colo- 
ny who were taken from their mothers when in- 
fants, and brought up by the farmers, who, from the 
day of their captivity, have never had any inter- 
course whatsoever with their countrymen, nor 
know, except from report, to what tribe or nation 
they belong ; yet all these have the same conforma- 
tion of the parts naturally, and without any forced 

" Dr. Somerville observes, that if any practice 
of elongating the nymphse had existed among the 
Hottentots, it could not have escaped his know- 
ledge ; that they do not wish to have them long, nor 
take any pains for that purpose. They, who have 
them longest, are not thought the more beautiful ; 
nor are those slighted, in whom they are short. 

" The extension of the nymphse in the Bosjesman 
and Hottentot females will appear the less remark- 
ble, when we consider that their size varies in Eu- 


ropeans.; that they often project beyond the labia, 
and are of an inconvenient length. A considerable 
development of these organs is more common in 
warm climates, and has been noticed in the Negroes, 
Moors, and Copts, among whom it has been the 
practice for females to be circumcised.* This 
point is even noticed by Pliny. When the Abys- 
sinians were converted to Christianity in the six- 
teenth century, the Catholic missionaries thought fit 
to forbid circumcision, deeming it a relic of Judaism. 
As the taste of the men had been formed on the old 
practice, they did not approve this innovation, and 
the Catholic girls found that they should get no 
husbands. In this dilemma the college of the Pro- 
paganda sent a surgeon from Rome to examine and 
report; and, in consequence of his statement, the 
Pope authorized a renewal of the ancient custom. 
" Although it is not immediately connected with 

"* In the Appendix, No. 1, entitled* An Account of Circumcision as it 
is practised on the windward coast of Africa,' to the second volume of 
his very interesting account of the native Africans, Dr. Winterbottom in- 
forms us, that this operation is performed on the females as well as the 
males ; and that it is equally common to both sexes in many parts of 
Arabia, at Bagdad, Aleppo, and Surat, in Egypt, Abyssinia and the 
neighbouring countries. 'Among the Mahommedan nations on this part 
of the coast (Sierra Leone,) the operation consists in removing the nym- 
phse, together with the prseputium clitoridis, not the clitoris itself, as has 
been imagined.' P. 239- Bruce, who gives a similar account of the cir- 
cumcision, or, as he calls it, excision, practised in Abyssinia, refers the 
origin of the custom to a natural redundancy or excess of the parts, on 
which it is performed. Dr. Winterbottom, however, asserts that on the 
windward coast of Africa there is no physical reason for it; the redun- 
dancy mentioned by Bruce being more rarely met with in these coun- 
tries than in Europe; 'and where the custom of circumcision is un- 
known, which is probably over the greater part cf the continent, no 
complaint is made on this head.' P. 241. 


the generative organs, I may mention here another 
striking peculiarity in the same women. I mean 
the vast masses of fat accumulated on their buttocks, 
and giving to them the appearance of extraordinary 
and unnatural appendages. 

" ' The great curvature of the spine inwards, and 
extended posteriors, are characteristic of the whole 
Hottentot race ; but in some of the small Bosjesmans 
they are carried to a most extravagant degree.' — 
4 The projection of the posterior part of the body in 
one subject, measured five inches and a half from a 
line touching the spine. This protuberance con- 
sisted of fat, and, when the woman walked, had the 
most ridiculous appearance imaginable, every step 
being accompanied with a quivering and tremulous 
motion, as if two masses of jelly were attached 

" The vibration of these substances at every 
movement was very striking in the Hottentot Venus. 
They were quite soft to the feel. She measured 
more than eighteen inches (French) across the 
haunches ; and the projection of the hips exceeded 
six inches. 

" Dr. Somerville found on dissection, that the 
size of the buttocks arose from a vast mass of fat 
interposed between the skin and muscles; and that 
it equalled four fingers' breadth in thickness. Cu- 
vier describes the protuberance to be produced by 
a mass of fat, traversed in various directions by 
strong cellular threads, and easily removed from the 
glutei. The Hottentot Venus stated that this depo- 
sition of fat does not take place until the first preg- 


nancy ; and this statement is confirmed by the testi- 
mony of Mr. Barrow. 

" It seems almost superfluous to add, that the 
sacrum and os coccygis have the same size, figure, 
and direction in these, as in other females ; that the 
latter bone is not turned backwards, much less pro- 
longed into any resemblance or even approach to a 

"If the Negroes and Hottentots approximate in 
some points to the structure of the monkey kind, 
as they very certainly do, this particular of the 
elongated nymphse is rather an instance of the op- 
posite description. For the corresponding cuta- 
neous folds are barely visible in the simise. The 
tremulous masses of fat with which the glutei are 
loaded, constitute, on the contrary, according to 
Cuvier, ' a striking resemblance to those which ap- 
pear in the female mandrills, baboons, &c, and 
which assume, at certain epochs of their life, a truly 
monstrous development." 285 — 291. 

" 15. In his Treatise on Tropical Diseases, Dr. 
Mosely observes that ' the locked-jaw appears to 
be a disease entirely of irritability. Negroes, who 
are most subject to it, whatever the cause may be, 
are void of sensibility to a surprising degree. They 
are not subject to nervous diseases. They sleep 
sound in every disease, nor does any mental dis- 
turbance ever keep them awake. They bear chir- 
urgical operations much better than white people ; 
and what would be the cause of insupportable pain 
to a white man, a Negro would almost disregard. 


I have amputated the legs of many Negroes, who 
have held the upper part of the limb themselves.' 

" Negroes are so seldom affected by the yellow 
fever, that they have often been said not to be sus- 
ceptible of it; and there have been instances in 
which, under a very general prevalence of the com- 
plaint, not one has fallen sick. On other occasions 
some have been seized with this fever ; but the 
number has been small, and they have recovered 
more easily than the whites. 

" If the yellow fever be a highly inflammatory 
affection, produced by those external causes which 
are peculiar to hot climates, we shall not be sur- 
prised that Negroes, who are organized for, and 
habituated to such climates, enjoy, when contrast- 
ed with the whites, a comparative exemption from 
its destructive attacks. 

" A singular instance is recorded, in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, of a very fatal inflammatory 
fever, which appeared in two islands on the coast 
of North America (Nantucket and Martha's Vine- 
yard), and was confined entirely to the Indian 
(American) population ; not a single white person 
having been affected on either island. The whole 
number of Indians on Nantucket was 340 ; of these 
258 had the distemper, in the course of six months, 
and only 36 recovered. Of those who did not take 
the disease, 40 lived in English families, and 8 
dwelt separate. In Martha's Vineyard it went 
through every Indian family into which it came, 
not one escaping it. Of 52 persons affected, 39 

died. A few individuals of mixed breed (European 



and Indian), and one of Indian and Negro, had the 
distemper, bat recovered. None, indeed, died bat 
such as were entirely of Indian blood : hence it 
was called the Indian sickness." 317 — 318. 

" 16. After surveying and describing the diversities 
of bodily formation exhibited in the various races 
of men, and alluding to a few physiological distinc- 
tions, we naturally proceed to a review of their moral 
and intellectual characters, to examine whether the 
latter exhibit such peculiarities as the numerous 
modifications of physical structure lead us to ex- 
pect ; whether the appetites and propensities, the 
moral feelings and dispositions, and the capabilities 
of knowledge and reflection, are the same in all, or 
as different as the cerebral organs, of which they 
are the functions? If the physical frame and the 
moral and intellectual phenomena of man be entire- 
ly independent of each other, their deviations will 
exhibit no coincidence ; the noblest characters and 
most distinguished endowments may be conjoined 
with the meanest organizations : if, on the con- 
trary, the intellectual and moral be closely linked 
to the physical part, if the former be the offspring 
and result of the latter, the varieties of both must 
always correspond. 

" The different progress of various nations in 
general civilization, and in the culture of the arts 
and sciences, the different characters and degrees 
of excellence in their literary productions, their 
varied forms of government, and many other con- 
siderations, convince us beyond the possibility of 
doubt, that the races of mankind are no less char- 


acterized by diversity of mental endowments, than 
bv those differences of organization which I have 
already considered. So powerful, however, has 
been the effect of government, laws, education, and 
peculiar habits, in modifying the mind and charac- 
ter of men, that we experience great difficulty in 
distinguishing between the effects of original differ- 
ence and of the operation of these external causes. 

" From entering at large and minutely into this 
interesting subject, I am as much prevented by 
want of the necessary information, as by the im- 
mediate object and limited length of these Lectures. 
To pass it over in silence would be omitting the 
most important part of the natural history of our 
species ; one of the most interesting views in the 
comparative zoology of man. I shall therefore sub- 
mit a few remarks to illustrate the point in view in 
which the phenomena have appeared to myself, and 
shall be happy if they incite any of my readers to 
a further prosecution of the inquiry. 

" The distinction of color between the white 
and black races is not more striking than the pre- 
eminence of the former in moral feelings and in 
mental endowments. The latter, it is true, exhibit 
generally a great acuteness of the external senses, 
which in some instances is heightened by exercise 
to a degree nearly incredible. Yet they indulge, 
almost universally, in disgusting debauchery and 
sensuality, and display gross selfishness, indiffer- 
ence to the pains and pleasures of others, insensi- 
bility to beauty of form, order and harmony, and 
an almost entire want of what we comprehend al- 


together under the expression of elevated senti- 
ments, manly virtues, and moral feeling. The 
hideous savages of Van Diemen's Land, of New- 
Holland, New Guinea, and some neighboring islands, 
the Negroes of Congo and some other parts exhibit 
the most disgusting moral as well as physical por- 
trait of man. 

" Heron describes the wretched beings, whom 
he found on the shores of Van Diemen's Island, 
and of the neighboring island Maria, as examples 
of the rudest barbarism : l without chiefs, properly 
so called, without Laws or any thing like regular 
government, without arts of any kind, with no idea 
of agriculture, of the use of metals, or of the ser- 
vices to be derived from animals : without clothes 
or fixed abode, and with no other shelter than a 
mere shed of bark to keep off the cold south winds ; 
with no arms but a club and spear.' 

" Although these and the neighboring New Hol- 
landers are placed in a fine climate and productive 
soil, they derive no other sustenance from the earth 
than a few fern roots and bulbs of orchises ; and 
are often driven by the failure of their principle re- 
source, fish, to the most revolting food, as frogs, liz- 
ards, serpents, spiders, the larvae of insects, and par- 
ticularly a kind of large caterpillar found in groups 
on the branches of the eucalyptus resinifera. ' They 
are sometimes obliged to appease the cravings of 
hunger by the bark of trees, and by a paste made 
by pounding together ants, their larvae, and fern- 

" Their remorseless cruelty, their unfeeling bar- 


barity to women and children, their immoderate re- 
venge for the most trivial affronts, their want of nat- 
ural affection, are hardly redeemed by the slightest 
traits of goodness. When we add, that they are 
quite insensible to distinctions of right and wrong, 
destitute of religion, without any idea of a Supreme 
Being, and with the feeblest notion, if there be any 
at all of a future state, the revolting picture is com- 
plete in all its features. What an afflicting con- 
trast does the melancholy truth of this description 
form to the eloquent but delusive declamations of 
Rousseau on the prerogatives of natural man and 
his advantages over his civilized brethren ! 

" The same general character, with some soften- 
ing, and some modifications, is applicable to most 
of the native Americans, of the Africans, and of the 
Mongolian nations of Asia ; to the Malays, and the 
greater part of the inhabitants of the numerous 
islands scattered in the ocean between Asia and 
America. In the most authentic descriptions we 
every where find proofs of astonishing insensibility 
to the pains and joys of others, even their nearest 
relations ; inflexible cruelty, selfishness and dispos- 
ition to cheat, a want of all sympathetic impulses and 
feelings, the most brutal apathy and indolence, un- 
less roused by the pressure of actual physical want, 
or stimulated by the desire of revenge and the thirst 
of blood. Their barbarous treatment of women, 
the indiscriminate and unrelenting destruction of 
their warfare, the infernal torments inflicted on 
their captives, and the horrible practice of canni- 



balism, fill the friend of humanity by turns with 
pity, indignation, and horror." 324 — 326. 

" 17. The change in the color of the human skin, 
from exposure to sun and air, is obviously tempora- 
ry ; for it is diminished, and even removed, when 
the causes no longer act. The discoloration, which 
we term tanning, or being sun-burnt, as well as the 
spots called freckles, are most incidental to fair 
skins, and disappear when the parts are covered, or 
no longer exposed to the sun. The children of the 
husbandman, or of the sailor, whose countenance 
bears the marks of other climes, are just as fair as 
those of the most delicate and pale inhabitants of a 
city : nay, the Moors, who have lived for ages under 
a burning sun, still have white children; and the 
offspring of Europeans in the Indies have the ori- 
ginal tint of their progenitors. 

" Blumenbach has been led into a mistake on 
this point by an English author, who asserts that 
Creoles are born with a different complexion and 
cast of countenance from the children of the same 
parents brought forth in Europe. In opposition to 
this statement from one who had not seen the facts, 
I place the authority of Long, a most respectable 
eye-witness, who, in his History of Jamaica, affirms, 
that ' the children born in England have not, in 
general, lovelier or more transparent skins than the 
offspring of white parents in Jamaica/ The ' au- 
strum spirans vultus et color,' which the above- 
mentioned acute and learned naturalist ascribes to 
the Creole, is merely the acquired effect of the cli- 
mate, and not a character existing at birth."347-348. 


"18. I proceed to show that climate does not cause 
the diversities of mankind ; and in this considera- 
tion, my remarks are chiefly directed to the color 
of the skin, as that is the part in which its opera- 
tion has been regarded, by all the defenders of its 
influence as the most unequivocal ; the reasoning, 
however, will apply in general to the other points 
of difference, as well as to this. 

" The uniform color of all parts of the body is a 
strong argument against those who ascribe the 
blackness of the Negro to the same cause as that 
which produces tanning in white people, namely, 
the sun's rays. The glans penis, the cavity of the 
axilla, the inside of the thigh, are just as black as 
any other parts ; indeed, the organs of generation, 
which are always covered, are among the blackest 
parts of the body. Neither is the peculiar color 
of the Negro confined to the skin ; a small circle of 
the conjunctiva, round the cornea, is blackish, and 
the rest of the membrane has a yellowish brown 
tinge. The fat has a deep yellow colour like bees- 
wax, at least in many of them, which may be distin- 
guished by a very superficial inspection, from that 
of an European. The representation that the brain 
of the Negro is darker colored than that of the 
white races, is not correct. 

" The development of the black color in the in- 
dividual does not accord with the notion of its being 
produced by external causes. ' Negro children,' 
says Dr. Winterbottom, < are nearly as fair as Eu- 
ropeans at birth, and do not acquire their colour 
until several days have elapsed. The eyes of new- 


born Negro children are also of a light color, and 
preserve somewhat of a bluish tinge for several days 
after birth/ 

" Camper had an opportunity of observing the 
change in a Negro child born at Amsterdam. It 
was at first reddish, nearly like European children ; 
' on the third day the organs of generation, the folds 
of skin round the nails, and the areolae of the breasts 
were quite black : the blackness extended over the 
whole body on the fifth and sixth days, and the boy, 
who was born iu a close chamber in the winter, and 
well wrapped up, according to the custom of the 
country, in swaddling-clothes, acquired the native 
color of his race over the whole body excepting the 
palms and soles, which are always paler, and al- 
most white, in working negroes.' 

" On the other hand, a black state of the skin is 
sometimes partially produced in individuals of the 
white races. In the fairest women, towards the end 
of pregnancy, spots of a more or less deep black 
color have been often observed ; they gradually 
disappear after parturition. ' The dark color of 
the skin,' says White, ' in some particular parts of 
the body, is not confined either to the torrid or frigid 
zones : for in England, the nipple, the areola round 
the nipple, the pudenda, and the verge of the anus, 
are of a dark brown, and sometimes as- black as in 
Samoide women. It is to be remarked that the 
color of these parts grows darker in women at the 
full period of gestation. One morning I examined 
the breasts of twenty women in the lying-in hospi- 
tal in Manchester, and found that nineteen of them 


had dark-colored nipples ; some of them might be 
said to be black, and the areola round the nipple, 
from one inch to two inches and a half in diameter, 
was of the same color.' Le Cat mentions a wo- 
man near Paris, in whom the abdomen became 
black at each pregnancy, and afterwards recovered 
its color ; in another the same change occurred in 
the leg. 

" Camper dissected at Groningen a young woman 
who died in childbed; her abdomen, and the areola 
round the nipples, were of a deep black. The face, 
arms, and legs were of a snowy wdiiteness. 

" The species of domestic fowls in the East In- 
dies with black periosteum, affords a further proof 
that the operation of the sun's rays is not a necessary 
circumstance to the production of color in animal 

" If we take the trouble of examining the races in 
any particular division of the world, we shall 
quickly find that the opinion, which ascribes their 
distinguishing characters to climate must be given 
up ; that the same race inhabits the most different 
regions, preserving in all an uniformity of charac- 
ter ; that different races are found in the same coun- 
tries, and that those, who have changed their native 
abodes for situations, in which, according to the 
hypothesis, they ought to have undergone a com- 
plete metamorphosis, still retain their original 

" In the north of Europe, as also in the north of 
Asia and America, that is, in countries nearest to 
the pole, in which, according to the opinion above 


stated, the whitest races ought to be found, we have 
very brown and black people : they are much darker 
colored than any other Europeans. The Moors in 
Africa, and the Arabs of the desert, are born with a 
white skin, and continue fair unless adventitious 
causes are applied. But the Laplanders and 
Greenlanders, the Esquimaux, Samoiedes, Ostiacs, 
Tschutski, &c, who hardly ever feel a moderate 
heat from the rays of the sun, are very dark. They 
appear to be all of the same race, who have extended 
and multiplied along the coasts of the North Sea, in 
deserts, and under climates which could not be in- 
habited by other nations. They have broad large 
faces and flat noses, the olive or swarthy color, and. 
all the other colors of the Mongolian variety. 

" It is curious to observe how easily the asserters 
of the power of climate in changing the human 
body get over an instance so fatal to their opinions : 
they tell us roundly that great cold has the same 
effect as great heat : ' when the cold becomes ex- 
treme, it produces effects similar to those of violent 
heat. The Samoiedes, Laplanders, and natives of 
Greenland are very tawny ; we are even assured 
that some of the Greenlanders are as black as the 
Africans; thus the two extremes approach each 
other ; great cold and great heat produce the same 
effect upon the skin, because each of these causes 
act by a quality common to both ; and this quality 
is the dryness of the air, which, perhaps, is equally 
great in extreme cold and extreme heat. Both cold 
and heat dry the skin, and give it that tawny hue 
which we find among the Laplanders. Cold con- 


tracts all the productions of nature. The Lapland- 
ers, accordingly, who are perpetually exposed to 
all the rigours of the frost, are the smallest of the 
human species.' 

" If this reasoning should not convince us, there 
are other arguments in reserve. The state of so- 
ciety is said to have great effect on the conforma- 
tion and color of the body. The nakedness of the 
savage, the filthy grease and paint with which he 
smears his body, his smoky hut, scanty diet, want 
of cleanliness, and the undrained and uncleared 
country which he inhabits, not only, according to 
Smith, darken his skin, but render it impossible 
that it ever should be fair. On the other hand, the 
conveniences of clothing and lodging; the plenty 
and healthful quality of food ; a country drained, 
cultivated, and freed from noxious effluvia; im- 
proved ideas of beauty, the constant study of ele- 
gance, and the infinite arts for attaining it, even in 
personal figure and appearance, give cultivated an 
immense advantage over savage society in its 
attempts to counteract the influence of climate, and 
to beautify the human form. What false notions 
must mankind have hitherto entertained on this 
subject ! We can no longer believe travellers, who 
tell us that the finest forms and the greatest activity 
are to be seen in savage tribes, and that no ill-formed 
individuals can be met with amongst them : and as 
little can we trust the testimony of our own senses, 
concerning the frequency of deformity and disease in 
civilized society ; since there are so many reasons 
why the former should be deformed, black, and 


ugly, and the latter well-proportioned, fair and 
handsome. Unluckily, however, this theory does 
not correspond with a few plain facts. Most of the 
modern European nations existed in a more or less 
complete state of barbarism within times of which 
we have the most authentic records : some of these 
were seen and described by philosophers ; yet the 
permanence of their characters is so remarkable 
after a greater progressive civilization than has hap- 
pened in any other instance, that those descriptions 
are applicable with the greatest exactness to the 
same races of the present day. Instead, therefore, 
of accounting for the dark color, peculiar features, 
and stature of the Greenlander, Laplander, and Sa- 
moide, from their smoke, their dirt, their food, or 
the coldness of the climate, we can have no hesita- 
tion in ascribing them to the same cause that makes 
the Briton and the German of this day resemble the 
portraits of their ancestors, drawn by Csesar and 
Tacitus, viz : their descent from a race marked by 
the same characters as distinguish themselves. 
These tribes owe their origin to the Mongols, and 
retain in the north those marks of their descent, 
which we find so strongly expressed in the Chinese, 
under the widely different latitudes of the south. 
At the same time, the parent tribes live in the 
middle of Asia, equally removed from the former 
and the latter. 

" ' With slight exceptions/ says Dr. Pritchard, 
1 the different countries of Europe are now occu- 
pied by the same nations that have occupied them 
since the date of our earliest authentic accounts. 


Conquests have been made by small numbers, so 
that the races have been little changed by this 
cause. Thus, when Clovis and his thirty thousand 
Franks reduced the large and populous province of 
Gaul under their dominion, the bodily characters 
and the language of the conquerors were lost in 
those of the conquered. The nations which have 
inhabited Europe for the last twenty-five hundred 
years, consist of three great races, distinguished 
from each other by their bodily formation, charac- 
ter, and language. 

" ' 1, The Celtic race, with black hair and eyes, 
and a white skin verging to brown, occupies the 
west of Europe : to this belong the ancient and 
modern inhabitants of France, Spain, Portugal, 
and the greatest part of Italy ; the ancient Britons, 
Welsh, Bretons, Irish, Scotch, and Manks. The 
resemblance of the Silures to the Iberi was noticed 
by Tacitus ; it is obvious to every observer in 
the present time; nor is the observation pecu- 
liar to the Welsh ; it holds good of all other Celtic 
nations. ' Silurum colorati vultus, et torti plerum- 
que crines, et posita contra Hispania, Iberos veteres 
trajecisse, easque sedes occupasse, fldem faciunt.' 
That black hair and a browner complexion belong- 
ed to all the Celts, is not only proved by many direct 
observations, but also because the marks of the san- 
guine constitution were universally considered as 
the distinction of the German race. 

" ' 2. The great German race, characterized by 
its blue eyes, yellow or reddish hair, fair and red 
skin, occupies the middle of Europe, and includes 



the Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, Danes, 
ancient and modern Germans, Saxons and 
English, Caledonians or Pictae, and the Lowland 
Scotch, who have sprung from them, the inhabi- 
tants of the Low Countries, the Vandals and Goths, 
&c. Historical records, and the similarity of lan- 
guage and character both of body and mind, prove 
that all these people belong to the same race. 

" ' 3. The east of Europe contains the Sarma- 
tian and Slavonic tribes, characterized by dark hair 
and eyes, and a darker skin than the German, with 
perhaps larger limbs than the Celts. To this divi- 
sion belong the Russians, Poles, Croats, Slavons, 
Bohemians, Bulgarians, Cossacks, and others who 
speak the Slavonic language.' He proceeds to 
show from Diodorus Siculus, that the Sarmatians 
descended from the Medes, and were found on the 
banks of the Tanais. 700 years before the Christian 
era ; by the authority of Herodotus, that they oc- 
cupied the country between the Tanais and the 
Borysthenes, when Darius Hystaspes invaded 
Syria ; and from Cluverius, that the coasts of the 
Baltic, the banks of the Vistula, Prussia, and the 
country as far as the situation of the Finni and 
Vendedi, were the ancient seats of the Sarmatians. 
Since then, a people of very different race have ex- 
isted in the neighborhood of the Germans from the 
most remote times, how can we explain the differ- 
ences of the European nations, by the operation of 
climate, by heat and cold ? How does the same 
sky cause the whiteness of the German and Swede, 
and the comparatively dark complexion of the Pole 
and Russian ? 


" But these European races are found also in 
Asia and Africa. All that part of the former region, 
which lies to the' west of the river Ob, the Caspian 
Sea, and the Ganges ; all the north of Africa, 
Abyssinia, and perhaps other parts still farther 
south, on the east, are occupied by a race agreeing 
nearly in character with the Sarmatians and Celts. 

" Thus it appears that, excepting the Germans, 
and the Laplanders and Samoiedes, whom we deem 
of Mongolian origin, the same native or congenital 
constitution prevails over the whole of Europe, the 
western parts of Asia and the north of Africa. Black 
hair,dark eyes, and a white skin, tending rather t^a 
brownish tint, than to the peculiar whiteness of the 
German tribes, belong to the French, Spaniards, Por- 
tuguese, Italians and all the Celts ; to the Russians, 
Poles, and others of Slavonic orign ; to the Tartars, 
commonly confounded with the Mongols, the Ar- 
menians, Persians, Circassians, and Georgians, the 
Turks, Greeks, Arabians, Abyssinians, Syrians, 
Jews, and the inhabitants of Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, 
and Morocco. That climate cannot cause similarity 
of character in nations spread over fifty degrees of 
latitude, and that food, dress, state of civilization, 
peculiar customs, or other moral causes, are equally 
inefficacious in accounting for the phenomenon, 
when we consider how various in all these points 
the nations are in whom it occurs, will be allowed 
by every unprejudiced observer. 

"The middle and northern parts of Asia, and 
most of its eastern portion, are occupied by tribes 
and nations, all of w T hich possess the general char- 


acters of the Mongolian variety, although distin- 
tinguished from each other by such modifications 
as usually characterize separate people. They are 
distinct in their conformation from all other races, 
and differ from Europeans quite as decidedly as 
the Negroes. History points out as their original 
seat, the elevated central table-land of Asia, from 
which they have spread in various directions, ac- 
cording to circumstances, every where preserving 
their peculiar traits of organization The Mongols, 
Calmucks, and Burats, are three great divisions, of 
which each includes many tribes, scattered over 
th« middle of Asia, leading generally a pastoral life, 
sometimes practising agriculture, and devoted uni- 
versally to the idolatrous lama- worship. Their first 
distinct appearance in history is under the name of 
Huns (Hiong-nu of the Chinese) in the first cen- 
tury of the Christian era, when they were impelled 
towards the west by the progress of the Chinese 
power. Afterwards three great conquerors appear- 
ed among them at distant periods ; the most con- 
spicuous that the world has ever seen, who made 
all Asia and Europe tremble, but happily, appeared 
and vanished like meteors ; because, though power- 
ful in conquest and desolation, they knew not how 
to possess and govern. Attila, with his Huns, 
penetrated into the centre of Europe. Eight cen- 
turies later, Zingis or Dschingis Khan united not 
only the Mongolian but the Tartaric tribes, and 
with this formidable mass reduced nearly all Asia. 
In two hundred years more, Timurleng or Tamer- 
lane appeared, and rendered himself the terror of 


western Asia and India, which latter country has 
been ruled by his descendants until very modern 
times. The Mantchoos or Mandshurs, the Maour- 
ians, Tungooses, Coreans, Kamschatkans, and per- 
haps other tribes, on the east, the Yakuts, Sam- 
oiedes, Kirgises, on the West, the people of Thibet 
and Bootan on the south, have a similar organiza- 
tion to that of the central tribes. The empires 
of China and Japan, the* islands of Sagalien, Lew- 
chew, and Formosa, are peopled by races of ana- 
logous physical and moral characters. Short stat- 
ure, olive-coloured skin, deviating into lighter yel- 
low, course, straight, and perfectly black hair, 
broad flat face, high and broad cheek-bones, flat 
nose, oblique eyes, entire deficiency or smallness of 
beard, are the common traits of the numerous peo- 
ple spread over this immense portion of the globe. 
Besides this general agreement of the tribes occu- 
pying countries so distant and different from each 
other, it is important to observe that the Samoiedes, 
Kamschatkans, and others in the colder northern 
parts, are darker colored than the Chinese, Tun- 
quinese, and Cochin Chinese in the warm southern 
regions.'' 357—363. 

" 19 On the hypothesis, which assigns the varie- 
ties of mankind to the operation of climate as their 
cause, we should expect to find in Africa all tribes 
under the equator of the most intensely black color ; 
the tinge should become lighter and lighter as we 
proceed thence towards the south, and the complex- 
ion ought to be white when we arrive at regions 
which enjoy an European climate. This, however, 



is by no means the case. The Abyssinians on the 
east, with dark olive color and long hair, are placed 
near the equator, and surrounded by Negroes. In 
the same part also, the Gallas, a great and barbar- 
ous nation, having according to Bruce, long black 
hair, and white skin verging to brown, occupy ex- 
tensive regions under the equator itself. On the 
other hand, as we proceed from the equator towards 
the south, through tribes of Negroes, we find the 
black color continue with undiminished intensity. 
It is known in the West Indies that the Congo Ne- 
groes, in the blackness of their skin and woolly hair, 
equal any race of Africans. Paterson assures us 
that the KafTers w T ithin a few degrees of the Cape 
of Good Hope, where the climate is so far from 
being intolerably hot, that the corn is often hurt by 
the winter frost, are of the deepest color ; and the 
same fact is familiarly known of the surrounding 

" The island of Madagascar, which is cooled by 
the mild breezes of the Indian Ocean, and ought 
therefore to continue a white race, has two kinds of 
natives : one of olive color with dark hair ; the other 
true Negroes. 

" The Hottentots, at one or two degrees from the 
deep black KafTers, are of a brownish-yellow color : 
this distance can hardly account for the difference. 

" When we consider how large an extent of Afri- 
ca is occupied by the black woolly-haired Negroes, 
and that these regions vary in their latitude, their 
elevation, and every other point ; that they include 
sandy deserts, coasts, rivers, hills, valleys, and very 


great varieties of climate ; trie conclusion that these 
adventitious circumstances do not influence the 
color or other properties of the race is irresistible. 

" 20. How does it happen, that the same sun, 
which makes the African black tinges the Ameri- 
can of a copper color ? and that the dark hue, which 
might possibly be produced by heat in the equa- 
torial regions, should be found also in the cold and 
inhospitable tracts of Tierra del Fuego, and the 
most northern part of the continent ? The absence 
of white races can surely not be ascribed to the 
want of sufficiently cold climates. Bougainville 
found the thermometer, in the middle of summer, 
54J° in lat. 52° south ; and Messrs. Banks and 
Sollander, and their attendants, had nearly per- 
ished all together from the cold in an excursion in 
in Tierra del Fuego, in the middle of the summer. 
Two of the servants were actually lost. 

" A very cursory survey of the globe will show 
us that the same regions have been occupied by 
men of different races, without any interchange of 
characters, in many instances, for several centuries. 
The Moors and Negroes are found together in Afri- 
ca ; Europeans, Negroes, and Americans, in North 
and South America ; Celts, Germans, and Slavons 
in Europe, and even in the same kingdoms of Eur- 
ope; Mongols, Afghans, and Hindoos in India, &c. 
&c. The distinctions of these different races, ex- 
cept where they have been confused by intermar- 
riages, is just as easy now as it has been in any 
time, of which we have authentic records. 


" The permanency of the characters of and race 
when it has changed its original situations for a 
very different one, when it has passed into other 
climes, adopted new manners, and been exposed to 
the action of these causes for several generations, 
affords the most indisputable proof that these char- 
acteristics are not the offspring of such adventitious 
circumstances. From the numerous examples, in 
every race, which a slight knowledge of history will 
furnish, I shall select a few of the most striking. 

" In the earliest times, to which our historical re- 
cords ascend, the west of Europe w r as occupied by 
Celtic people with brownish white skin, dark hair 
and eyes ; the characters, in short, which are now 
visible in the Spaniards, most of the French, the 
native Welsh, the Manks, and the Highland 
Scotch. The German race, originally situated 
more to the north and east, have long ago obtained 
settlements by war and conquest in many of the 
countries previously peopled by the Celts ; but 
their light rosy skin, flaxen hair and blue eyes, 
are now, after nearly two thousand years, just as 
strongly contrasted with the very different traits of 
the Celtic character, in those situations and those 
families where the blood has remained pure, as they 
were originally. 

" It was observed by Cesar that the Germans 
had possessed themselves of the Belgic provinces of 
Gaul, and the continguous southern parts of Brit- 
ain. That the Caledonians or Picts (Lowland 
Scotch), were a German people, is rightly represent- 
ed by Tacitus, whose description of the natives oc- 


cupying this island exhibits the same physical 
characters, which exist in the present day. ' Hab- 
itus corporum varii : atque ex eo argumenta ; nam- 
que rutilse Caledoniam habitantium comae, magni 
artus Germanicam originem adseverant. Silurum 
colorati vultus, et torti plerumque crines, et posita 
contra Hispania, Iberos veteres trajecisse easque 
occupasse fldeni faciunt : proximi Gallis, et similes 
sunt : seu durante originis vi, seu procurrentibus 
in diversa terris, postio cseli, corporibus habitum 
dedit.' Under the names of Saxons, Angles, 
Danes, and Normans, numerous supplies of Ger- 
mans successively arrived in England, and grad- 
ually drove the original Celtic population into the 
most distant and inaccessible parts of the island. 
An exposure to the same climate for so many cen- 
turies has not approximated the physical characters 
of the more recent German to those of the older Cel- 
tic inhabitants in the smallest degree ; and both 
descriptions are equally unchanged after a progress 
from barbarism to the highest civilization. A sim- 
ilar permanence of the original distinctive charac- 
ters is observable in France. 'Among us,' says 
Volney, ' a lapse of nine hundred years has not ef- 
faced the discriminating marks which distinguish- 
ed the inhabitants of Gaul from the northern inva- 
ders, who, under Charles the Gross, settled 
themselves in our richest provinces. Travellers, 
who go from Normandy to Denmark, observe with 
astonishment the striking resemblance of the inhab- 
itants of these two countries.' 

" The Vandals passed from Spain into Africa 


about the middle of the fifth century : their descen- 
dants may be still traced, according to Shaw and 
Bruce, in the mountains of Aurez, by their white 
and ruddy complexion and yellow hair. ' Here I 
met,' says the latter writer, ' to my great astonish- 
ment, a tribe, who, if I cannot say they were fair 
like the English, were of a shade lighter than that 
of the inhabitants of any country to the southward 
of Britain. Their hair also was red, and their eyes 
blue,' — ' I imagine them to be a remnant of the 
Vandals. Procopius mentions a defeat of an army 
of this nation here, &c. They confessed their an- 
cestors had been Christians.' The change in the 
race produced by climate must be infinitely small, 
since it is not yet perceptible after a lapse of thir- 
teen centuries. 

" The establishments of the Europeans in Asia 
and America have now subsisted about three cen- 
turies. Vasquez de Gama landed at Calicut in 
1498 ; and the Portuguese empire in India was 
founded in the beginning of the following century. 
Brazil was discovered and taken possession of by 
the same nation in the very first year of the six- 
teenth century. Towards the end of fifteenth, and 
beginning of sixteenth century, Columbus, Cortez, 
and Pizarro subjugated for the Spaniards the West 
India islands, with the empires of Mexico and Peru. 
Sir Walter Raleigh planted an English colony 
in Virginia in 1584 ; and the French settlement of 
Canada has a rather late date The colonists have, 
in no instance, approached to the natives of these 

countries ; and their descendants, where the blood 



has been kept pure, have at this time, the same 
characters as native Europeans. In the hotter sit- 
uations, indeed, as in the warmer countries of 
Europe, the skin is swarthy in parts of the 
body which are not covered ; but the children, at 
the time of birth, and women who are never expos- 
ed to the suns rays, have all their native whiteness. 
This observation admits of no exception : in the tint 
of the skin, the color and other qualities of the hair, 
the features, the form of the cranium, the propor- 
tions and figure of the body, the European colonists 
retain all their original characters. The sanguine 
constitution, with its blue eyes, yellow hair, and 
fair skin, which is so remarkably different from that 
of the natives, is nevertheless transmitted without 
the least alteration from generation to generation. 

" Negroes have been introduced into the new 
world for nearly an equal length of time; in the 
West Indian Islands, in the United States, in the 
various parts of Spanish America, they live under 
new climates, and have adopted new habits. Yet 
they have still woolly hair, black skins, flat noses, 
thick lips, and all the other characters of their race. 

" The inhabitants of Persia, of Turkey, of Arabia, 
of Egypt, and of Barbary,* may be regarded in great 

" * Africa, north of the great desert, has been always inhabited by races 
of Caucasian formation. The original tribes, called Berbers, or Brebers, 
have given the name of Barbary to this division of the continent. We 
know but little of their peculiar physical characters; which, however, 
probably were similar to those of the ancient Egyptians and Guanches, 
(see p. 224.) These Berbers, which constituted the people known to the 
Roman writers by the names of Libyans, Getulians, Numidians, Mauri- 
tanians, Garamentes, have received accessions of Phoenicians, (the Car- 
thaginians,) Greeks, Romans, Vandals, and Arabians. The latter parti- 


part as the same race of people, who, in the time of 
Mahomet and his successors, extended their domin- 
ions by invading immense territories. In all these 
situations the skin retains its native fairness, unless 
the tint be changed by exposure to the sun ; and the 
children are invariably fair. ' II n'y a femme de 
laboureur ou de paysan en Asie (Asia Minor) qui 
n'a le teint frais comme une rose, la peau delicate 
et blanche, si polie et si bien tendue, qu'il semble 
tocher du velours.' The Arabians are scorched by 
the heat of the sun, for most of them are either cov- 
ered with a tattered shirt, or go entirely naked : La 
Boullaye informs us, that the Arabian women of 
the desert are born fair, but that their complexions 
are spoiled by being continually exposed to the sun. 
Another traveller remarks that the Arabian prin- 
cesses and ladies, whom he was permitted to see, 
were extremely handsome, beautiful, and fair, be- 
cause they are always covered from the rays of the 
sun, but that the common women are very much 
blackened by the sun. 

" The Moors, who have lived in Africa since the 
seventh century, have not degenerated in their 
physical constitution from their Arabian progeni- 
tors ; the sun exerts its full influence on their skin, 
but their children are just as white as those born in 

cularly entered the north of Africa in great numbers, destroying or driv- 
ing away the original inhabitants. The general prevalence of Mahomet- 
anism, and of the Arabian language, testifies the impression which they 
made on the country. The remnants of the aboriginal tribes are now 
principally found in the mountains. They may be traced, however, 
south of the great desert, and seem to form even considerable states be- 
tween Tombuctoo and Upper Egypt; where they preserve their distinc 
tive characters in the same climates with the Negro race. 


Europe. They are by no means confined to the 
northern coast, but have penetrated, as the preva- 
lence of the Mahometan religion attests, deeply into 
the interior : here they dwell in countries, of which 
the woolly-haired Negro is the native, but have not 
acquired, in six centuries of exposure to the same 
causes, any of his characters. The intelligent and 
accurate Shaw informs us that most of the Moorish 
women would be reckoned handsome even in Eu- 
rope ; that the skin of their children is exceedingly 
fair and delicate ; and though the boys, by being 
exposed to the sun, soon grow swarthy, yet the 
girls, who keep more within doors, preserve their 
beauty till the age of thirty, when they commonly 
give over child-bearing. * Les Maures,' says Poi- 
ret, 'ne sont pas naturellement noirs, malgre le 
proverbe, et comme le pensent plusieurs ecrivains : 
mais ils naissent blancs, et restent blancs toute leur 
vie, quand leurs travaux ne les exposent pas aux 
ardeurs du soleil. Dans les villes les femmes ont 
une blancheur si eclatante, qu'elles eclipseroient la 
plupart de nos Europeennes ; mais les Mauresques 
montagnardes, sans cesse brulees par le soleil, et 
presque toujours a moitie nues, deviennent, meme 
des l'enfance, d'une couleur brune qui approche 
beaucoup de celle de la suie.' The testimony of 
Bruce is to the same effect. 

" That the swarthiness of the southern Europeans 
is merely the effect of the sun's action on the indi- 
vidual, whose children are born perfectly white, and 
continue so unless exposed to the operation of the 
climate, might be easily proved of the Spaniards 



and Portuguese, the Greeks, Turks, &c. ; but the 
fact is too well known to render this neceesary. 

" The Jews exhibit one of the most striking in- 
stances of national formation, unaltered by the most 
various changes. They have been scattered, for 
ages, over the face of the whole earth ; but their pe- 
culiar religious opinions and practices have kept the 
races uncommonly pure ; accordingly their color 
and their characteristic features are still the same 
under every diversity of climate and situation. 

" The advocates for the power of climate have 
made very erroneous representations respecting 
these people; asserting that their color is every- 
where modified by the situation they occupy. The 
Jews, like all the native people adjoining their ori- 
ginal seats, have naturally a white skin and the 
other attributes of the Caucasian race. In hot 
countries they become brown by exposure, as an 
European does ; but they experience no other influ- 
ence from climate. Their children are born fair ; 
and the countenance and other characters are every- 
where preserved in remarkable purity, because 
their religion forbids all intermixture with other 
races. Dr. Buchanan met, on the coast of Malabar, 
with a tribe, who represented that their ancestors 
had migrated from Palestine after the destruction 
of the temple by Titus, and who have preserved 
their native color and form amidst the black inhab- 
itants of the country, excepting in instances, where 
they have intermarried with the Hindoos. Those 
of pure blood are called white Jews, in contradis- 
tinction from the others, who are termed black 


" The foregoing facts sufficiently prove, that na- 
tive differences in general, and particularly thajt of 
color, do not depend on extraneous causes; I have 
an observation or two to make on some other points. 
That the curled state of the hair in the African is 
not produced by heat, appears from its being found 
in many situations not remarkable for high tempera- 
ture, as in the Moluccas, New Guinea, Mallicollo, 
Borneo, New Holland, and even in the cold regions 
of Van Dieman's Land; as well as from the hot 
regions of Asia and America being inhabited by 
long-haired races. 

" The woolly appearance of the Negro hair is just 
opposite to that which hot climates have been said 
to produce in the covering of sheep, in which it is 
represented that hair is produced instead of wool. 
When we contrast the hairy coat of the argaili or 
mouflon with the beautiful fleeces of our most beau- 
tiful sheep, we see a prodigious difference, which is 
probably owing more to cultivation and attention to 
breed than to climate. It does not appear, at least, 
that change of climate will convert the wool of an 
individual English sheep into hair ; and it is equally 
incapable of conferring a woolly covering on the 
hairy sheep. Dr. Wright, who lived many years 
in Jamaica, speaking of the opinion that the wool 
of sheep becomes more hairy in warm climates, 
says, that in the West India islands there is to be 
found a breed of sheep, the origin of which he has 
not yet been able to trace, that carry very thin 
fleeces of a coarse shaggy kind of wool ; which cir- 
cumstance, he thinks, may naturally have given 
rise to the report. But he never observed a sheep 


that had been brought from England to carry wool 
of the same sort with those native sheep : on the 
contrary, though he has known them live there 
several years, these English sheep carried the same 
kind of close burly fleece that is common in Eng- 
land ; and, in as far as he could observe, it was 
equally free from hairs. 369 — 375. 

The reader will see that greatness in Negroes is 
a moral impossibility. The learned author whom I 
have just quoted has so completely destroyed every 
vestige of evidence of Negro intellectual power, 
that even Negroes themselves would blush to hear 
any white man blarney them with the notion that 
they are mentally our equals. But as there are 
humanitarians in the world who manifest the most 
intense sympathy for the wrongs of the woolly- 
headed race, but who never think of the white 
working-man's wrongs, I deem it advisable to give 
further evidence, if possible, to convince them that 
no system of training, education, food, or climate 
can ever make aught else of a Negro than a Negro. 
The more I examine the question of races, the more 
firmly do I believe in the utter incapacity of the 
Negroes to attain any high state of civilization. 
Educate, colonize, either into Africa or into Europe, 
if the latter were possible, and Negro they will re- 
main through all time. This is evident to every 
man who by careful observation has studied the 
question of races. 

But I resume my plan of giving the opinions of 
men better qualified to speak on the subject than 
I am. 




The Natural History of the Human Species, its Typi- 
cal Forms, Permanent Distribution, Filiations, and 
Migrations, by Lieut. Col Charles Hamilton 
Smith, K. H. and K. W. F. R. and L. S. ; Presi- 
dent of the Devon and Cornwall Natural Histori- 
cal Society. .Edinburgh : W. H. Lizars, No. 
3 St. James Square; Samuel Highley, 32 
Fleet Street, London : 1848. 
I deem this a work of great erudition and fairness ; 
for, although he has strong predilections in favor of 
the oppressed and degraded races, which is proven 
by quotations, yet as he himself states, the na- 
turalist must perform his duty in strictly adhering 
to truth, fact, and natural laws. 

This gentleman proves clearly and demonstrably 
that the Negro ever has been at the mercy of the 
w T hite ; that the mental powers of the former are 
far, infinitely far below that of the white. It can- 
not be denied that this learned gentleman, not at all 
controlled by what the Negromaniacs call southern 
influence, so eminently qualified to judge of the 
races, has arrived at the rational conclusions that 
the physical organization of the Negro is unequal 
to that of the Caucasian, and that his mental organi- 
zation is not any thing better than his physical. 

Lieut. Col. Smith having been located for twelve 
years in the West Indies, had daily opportunities 
to examine the difference of races ; in fact, he com- 



menced his investigations in 1797, and continued 
them during a period of fifty years; great weight 
will therefore be attached to his deductions, after so 
long an experience in every quarter of the globe. 

" We doubt, exceedingly, if a mulatto family 
does, or could exist in any part of the tropics, con- 
tinued to a fourth generation, from one stock. Per- 
haps there is not even one of five generations of 
positive mulattoes (hybrids in the first degree,) from 
different parents, but that all actually require, for 
continuity at least, a long previous succession of 
foreign influences of white or Negro, Mestise, Quar- 
toon, Sambo, native Indian, or Malay blood, before 
the sinew and substance of a durable intermediate 
race can be reared. 

" When the case is referred to Mongolic blood, 
placed in similar circumstances, or when merely 
kept approaching to equal proportions with that of 
a Caucasian or Ethiopian stock, or even with any 
very abberrant, the effect would be the same. If 
the moral and instinctive impulses of the beardless 
stock be taken into account, they will be found to 
operate with a singularly repulsive tendency. 
Where the two types come in contact, it produces 
war, ever aiming, on the Mongolic side, at extermi- 
nation, and in peace striving at an absolute exclu- 
sion of all intercourse with races typically distinct. 
In the wildest conquering inundations, lust itself, 
obeying its impulses only by a kind of necessity ; 
myriads of slaves carried off and embodied, still 
produce only a very gradual influence upon the 
normalisms of the typical form, and passing into 


absorption by certain external appearances, with 
very faint steps.* 

"2. But the white and negro races of Africa 
readily intermix. The wooly haired form has there 
no pretensions on the debatable land between them. 
The Caucasian might have assumed mastery be- 
yond it, had not the force of nature interposed ; for 
this race does not and cannot multiply in the cen- 
tre of negro existence : and in the warmer vallies of 
the intermediate spaces, such as that of the Nile, 
only a mixed Semitic stock possesses durability. It 
has been calculated, that since the introduction of 
the Mameluke power, not less than five millions of 
well chosen colonists, of both sexes, from high cen- 
tral Asia, have been introduced, not to wear out a 
life of slavery, but one of power and rule, yet no 
fourth generation of this stock can anywhere be 
shown in Egypt, even with all the additional aid of 
Syrian and Persian females, to supply the deficien- 
cy. The force of a true Negro expansion is felt 
coming from the centre of Africa. It presses upon 
the Caffres, Abyssinees, and the west coast of Ni- 
gritia. Morocco is already ruled by black sover- 
eigns ; and the antique semi-Caucasian tribes of 
the north part have greatly diminished. 124. 

" 3 All, however, appear to have taken but slight 
notice of numerous races of the several forms of 
Man, which have been entirely extinguished, and 

" * This aversion to interunion with the bearded races is a result of 
experience, proving the superior activity of those who have sprung from 
such races, and become conquerors. Genghiz, Timur, and Nadir Shah, 
were directly, or in their ancestry, descended from Caucasian mothers, 
and hence also the jealous exclusion of European women from China." 


to have assumed, for incontrovertible, that the 
structural differences observable in nations are sole- 
ly the result of changes of climate, food, and other 
conditions of existence, which a careful attention to 
history does not confirm, and which if they oper- 
ated at all, must be a result of the long continued 
action of the same causes upon the portion of man- 
kind placed within the sphere of their operation ; 
such as arid or moist tropical heat ; arctic cold ; 
open mountain ridges, or low swampy forests ; yet, 
there is so little certainty, that such causes do or 
would effect the modifications ascribed to them, that 
it is not even proved they influence the brute crea- 
tion to any extent, except in clothing ; in every re- 
gion which is sufficiently genial to sustain the persist- 
ing duration of one of them, they feel this effect but 
slightly ; and as there are only three who attain this 
typical standard, we have in them the foundation of 
that number being exclusively aboriginal, p. 123. 

" 4. Indeed, their intermediate races, and still 
more and more, as they pass into the purer type of 
the Papua or Negro, have suffered, and continue 
to suffer, the unmitigated oppression of Caucasian 
superiority. In hot regions, where a powerful veg- 
etation supplies the means, some of the most brutal 
tribes such as the Veoas of Ceylon, Cookies, and 
Goands of Chittagong, east of the Bramaputre re- 
side in trees, with little more contrivance, or the 
use of reason, than is evinced by Champanzees, the 
great apes of Africa. The Pouliahs of Malabar are 
no better, for they also form a kind of nest, in trees, 
beyond the reach of elephants and tigers, never as- 


sociating with other nations and not even permitted 
by the Hindoos to approach within one hundred 
yards." — 141. 

" 5. Another outcast race, in Central Africa, are 
the Cumbre Blacks, whose origin is still less known. 
Though they are considered to be genuine Negroes, 
they are not permitted to have a national existence, 
but are treated as slaves by all the other tribes in 
Yaouri and Cugarski. This fact is sufficient to 
prove them of a distinct origin, and their present 
character to be superinduced by the lust and law- 
lessness of conquest and oppression." — 153. 

" 6. "Weight is another element in the considera- 
tion of races, as this quality materially influences 
physical strength, and consequently bestows confi- 
dence, enterprise, and success. An instrument, the 
dynamometor, has been invented to measure the rela- 
tive scale, and they have shown savage nations to 
be strong in proportion to the abundance and whole- 
someness of the food they possess; but in all cases 
hitherto examined, civilized Europeans surpassed 
them;* and, it appears, English exceeded French; 
or perhaps more correctly, the Teutonic stock sur- 
passed the Celtic, both in strength and in weight, 
although the Irish Celts are said to be taller and 
heavier than the English Saxons." 163. 

" 7. Therefore, in reasoning upon them, we must 
be guarded against certain prepossessions of self- 

" * The strongest North American Indians are asserted to fail against 
the ordinary power of wrist of Europeans ; that is, when each side place 
the right elbow to elboWj and cross the fingers through each other's 
hands, striving to bend the opposing wrist back. The fact was establish- 
ed by the 90th. Regiment in Canada. — p. 163. 


esteem, which the educated man of the bearded 
stock, and indeed mankind in general, is apt to 
entertain of strangers." 167. 

" 8. It would be revolting to believe that the less 
gifted tribes were predestined to perish beneath the 
conquering and all-absorbing covetousness of Eu- 
ropean civilization without an enormous load of 
responsibility resting on the perpetrators. Yet this 
fate appears to be sealed in many quarters, and seems 
by a preordained law to be an effect of more myste- 
rious import than human reason can grasp. 

" As therefore we cannot attain in our state of 
knowledge, satisfactory conclusions upon this head, 
it becomes the duty of all to assert the rights of hu- 
manity in their indisputable plenitude although to us 
in particular as mere naturalists it is a bound en 
duty to confine ourselves to known and scientific 
facts."— 168. 

" 9. If we turn to India, although the woolly 
haired stock may have retained, from priority of 
diffusion, a typical nucleus within the tropics, ex- 
panding even westward, there is a master race, of 
a distinct origin, domineering over the oldest dis- 
coverable tribes, gradually more and more intermix- 
ed, till, from pure white, it becomes positive black, 
without therefore being deprived of a superior as- 
pect, which the Caucasian blood alone confers. It 
extends with a few exceptions, down to very near 
the equatorial line, where indeed, contamination is 
still observable ; but the mastery of a foreign race 
evidently disappears. These conditions recur, in a 
south-western direction, along the Persian and Ara- 


bian maratime provinces, and eastern Africa ; the 
Caucasian, whether brownish or black, preponderat- 
ing numerically towards the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, exactly in the ratio structural conformation 
would prefer, if left at liberty. This intermediate 
sub-typical race, in all its shades of color, is the 
Ethiopian of antiquity and seems to have included 
those tribes which were held accursed by several 
of the most ancient white im migrators in Western 
Asia/' 184. 

"10. Thus, we have the southern line represent- 
ing the Himalaya chains with its great streams 
ending at the Indian Ocean; the eastern similarly 
leading to the Pacific ; and the western to a sea grad- 
ually contracted into the Caspian ; and the inter- 
mediate, conducted by geographical necessities, 
reaching the South Seas, the Northern Pacific, and 
from thence to America, the Polar and Western 
Regions, and the Erythrean Seas to Northern 
Africa. Of these, however, the Caucasian alone 
bears evidence of commencing development upon 
the table land, and under the shadows of the west- 
ern chains ; the Mongolic being at first no nearer 
than the eastern extremity of the Gobi and woolly 
haired t}^pe coming up to, and along the skirts of 
the southern chain, rather than commencing pri- 
maeval diffusion so far to the north of its general cen- 
tre of existence. 

" The review of typical and sub-typical forms of 
Man, intended to be submitted here appears to be 
best arranged, by taking in succession — the woolly 
haired, the Malay and mixed races of the south 


Seas — the American abnormal nations — the Mon- 
golic or beardless — and the Ouralian and Yoorkie. 
From these we arrive at the true Caucasian, whose 
early history being best known from the south-east 
side of the central region, will require, that first 
the mixed semi-woolly haired tribes of South and 
Western Asia be examined, in order that the great 
influence and expansion of the bearded stock may 
be established : and records of its principle races 
will form the remaining subject of consideration." 

"11. The woolly haired, tropical dark colored 
stock, improperly called Atlantic and Ethiopic, is 
considered to be most distinctly typical, where the 
maximum of development is found in the peculiar- 
ities of structure and faculties that distinguish it 
from other normal forms. It is that which predom- 
inates in Central and Western tropical Africa — a 
form of Man of good stature, though seldom attain- 
ing six feet in height, and falling as rarely beneath 
five feet six ; the facial angle varying from 65 to 
70 degrees ; the head being small, laterally com- 
pressed ; the dome of the skull arched and dense ; 
the forehead narrow, depressed, and the posterior 
part more developed ; the nose broad and crushed, 
with the nostrils round ; the lower jaw protruding, 
angular, but more vertical in nonage ; the mouth 
wide, with very thick lips, black to the comissure, 
which is red ; the teeth large, solid, and the incisors 
placed rather obliquely forward. The ears which 
are roundish, rather small, standing somewhat high 
and detached, are said like the scalp, to be occasi- 


onally moveable ; the eyes always diffused with a 
bilious tint and the hides very dark. The hair, in 
infants, rises from the skin in small mamillary 
tufts, disposed in irregular quincunx, and is in all 
parts, of a crisp woolly texture, excepting the eye- 
brows and eyelashes. In men it is scanty on the 
upper lip, generally confined to the point of the 
chin, without any at the sides of the face, except- 
ing in late manhood. On the head, it forms a close 
hard frizzle of wool ; in the pure races never hang- 
ing loose, nor rising into a kind of mop ; and the 
breast sometimes has a few tufts ; but the arms and 
legs are without any. The throat and neck is muscu- 
lar ; and, with the chest, shoulders, abdomen, hips, 
back, upper arms, and thighs, very symmetrically 
moulded ; but, compared with the Caucasian, the 
humerus is a trifle shorter, and the forearm longer, 
thereby approximating the form of Simiadse. The 
wrists and ancles are robust ; the hands coarse, with 
phalanges rather short, particularly the thumb; 
and the palms are yellowish. The legs have the shin 
bones slightly bent forward, and the calves placed 
high up ; the feet broad, heavy, squarish, with the 
soles flat ; the os calcis less prominent ; the toes 
short, more equal in length; and all the nails strong, 
short, and broad. The skin is soft, silky to the touch; 
in the new born infant, dull cherry red, gradually 
darkening to the permanent depth of shade ; be- 
neath the epidermis, the mucuous membrane, load- 
ed with a coloring matter in the bile, causes the 
melanic appearance of the skin, which varies, how- 
ever, from deep sallow to intense sepia black ; dark- 



est in health ; and that color always distinctly af- 
fects the external glands. It is likewise the source 
of an overpowering offensive odor, spreading 
through the atmosphere, when many are congregat- 
ed in the hot sun. The silky texture of the epider- 
mis is more liable to erosian from pressure than 
that of white men. It is a character as organic, or 
more so, that the arched dome of the skull, and the 
perpendicularity of the vertebral column, which are 
quoted as the sole cause, why burthens are best 
borne by Negroes on the head instead of the back ; 
for their general structure is athletic, the gait erect, 
free, and in young persons not ungraceful." 190-191. 
" 12. It appears that some tribes in Dongola and 
Sennaar have one lumbar vertebra more than the 
Caucasian and the stomach corrugated.* In gen- 
eral, the female pelvis is wider, the aperture 
round, and both the sexes have the hips remarka- 
bly well proportioned. The bones of the typical 
nations are heavy, well knit, or with the apophyses 
fitted to receive broad insertion of the muscles, and 
the dome of the skull is particularly solid but the 
ribs tender and flexible. Hence Negroes of all hu- 
man beings are distinguished for fighting by occa- 
sionally butting with their heads foremost like rams 
at each other, the collision of their skulls giving a 
report that may be heard at some distance. Even 
women in their brawls have the same habit. The 
dense spherical structure of the head likewise ena- 

" * Observations sur les battaillons Negres du Cordofan au servire de 
Mehemit Ali en Egype et qui servirent en Candie.' By a German Sur- 
geon. The same remarks are likewise offered, we believe by Dr. Mad- 
den, Travels Sec. 


bles several tribes to shave their crowns and in this 
exposed state to remain with the lower half of the 
body immersed in water under a tropical sun. 
This very structure may influence the erect gait 
which occasions the practice common also to the 
Ethiopian or mixed nations of carrying burthens 
and light weights even to a tumbler full of water 
upon the head. 189 — 192. 

" 13. The voice of Negroes is feeble and hoarse in 
the male sex, exceedingly high and shrill in females. 
The sense of sight is acute, that of taste sufficiently 
delicate, hearing sharp, with notions of time, but very 
little of melody. Yet fond of music, and constantly 
handling instruments of the most imperfect kind they 
have not mechanical genius to construct any instru- 
ments of music, excepting a species of harmoneon, 
made of slips of bamboo or of a set of sounding 
stones ; if it be that they are of their own invention. 
They have drums, and a kind of castanet, but 
stringed instruments are derived from a Moorish 
source. Though the physical qualities are well de- 
veloped, the intellectual are low ; yet the moral 
impulses are not unfrequently of a most noble 
nature. They offer therefore a discordant mixture 
of qualities, wherein the good predominates till the 
European, not misguided by personal interests or 
prejudices cannot refrain from feelings of affection 
for them. They all believe in some kind of a future 
state, though religious sensations are with them su- 
perstitions, and childish mummeries, too often con- 
nected with fetiche necromancy, which deals in 
the crimes of poisoning and murder. Thought is 


habitually dormant, and when roused it is manifes- 
ted by loud soliloquy and gesticulations regardless 
of circumstances. War is a passion that excites in 
them a brutal disregard of human feelings ; it entails 
the deliberate murder of prisoners, and victims are 
slain to serve the manes of departed chiefs. Even 
cannibalism is frequent among the tribes of the in- 
terior. Notwithstanding the listless torpidity caused 
by excessive heat, the perceptive faculties of the 
children are far from contemptible; they have a 
quick apprehension of the ridiculous, often surpass- 
ing the intelligence of the white, and only drop 
behind them about the twelfth year, when the re- 
flective powers begin to have the ascendancy. 

" Collectively, the untutored Negro mind is con- 
fiding and single-hearted, naturally kind and hospi- 
table. Both sexes are easily ruled, and appreciate 
what is good under the guidance of common justice 
and prudence. Yet where so much that honors 
human nature remains — in apathy the typical 
woolly-haired races have never invented a reasoned 
theological system, discovered an alphabet, framed 
a grammatical language, nor made the least step in 
science or art. They have never comprehended 
what they have learned, or retained a civilization 
taught them by contact with more refined nations 
as soon as that contact had ceased. They have at 
no time formed great political states, nor commenced 
a self-evolving civilization. Conquest with them 
has been confined to kindred tribes, and produced 
only slaughter. Even Christianity of more than 
three centuries duration in Congo has scarcely ex- 
cited a progressive civilization. 


" Thus even the good qualities given to the Ne- 
gro by the bounty of nature, have seemed only to 
make him a slave trodden down by every remorse- 
less foot, and to brand him for ages with the epithet 
of outcast. The marked, unceasing proof of a curse 
as old as the origin of society, not even deserving 
human forbearance, and true it is that the worst 
slavery is his lot even at home, for he is there ex- 
posed to the constant peril of becoming also a vic- 
tim, slaughtered with the most revolting torments. 
Tyrant of his blood he traffics in slavery as it were 
merchandise, makes war purposely to capture neigh- 
bors, and sells even his own wives and children. 

"14. A second stem of the typical group is the 
eastern tropical or Samang, which we shall continue 
to denominate Papua. 

"The Papuan stock, notwithstanding mental and 
physical deficiencies, has advanced to the pastoral 
and even agricultural conditions when not molested 
by invaders, and favored by foreign emigration, for 
in a pure unmixed state, no eastern negro tribe has 
passed beyond the profession of hunter. The map- 
prehensive character of their constitutions, or an im- 
pulse which leads them to the sea, induces both 
African and Papuan stems readily to accept a ma- 
rine mode of life. They are generally excellent 
swimmers, they dive fearlessly, and will fight the 
shark in his own element; yet they have never 
invented the construction of large canoes, such as 
the Malay and American make with so much skill. 

" In what manner the black Caribs of St. Vin- 



cent first reached the western hemisphere is narra- 
ted upon questionable evidence. Those said to be 
the remains of this adventitious race are still excel- 
lent boatmen, and if Peter Martyr (Decad) may be 
credited, there was a Negro population already es- 
tablished on the coast of America before the arrival 
of the Spaniards.* 

" On the west coast of Africa the most energetic 
tribes are Coromantees ; very black, and marked on 
the cheek with tribal scars. They are a daring and 
martial people, when enslaved often rebellious. 
The Eboes, on the contrary, are less vigorous, paler 
in color, with a more slender form and elongated 
features. They are a gentle race, yet more truly 
savages ; and though addicted to despondency and 
suicide, they were formerly sought for house ser- 
vants. The Widohs or Fidohs are of the stem 
usually called Papwas and Nagas in Africa. They 
resemble the Papuras of the Indian Ocean more 
than any other race, and they assimilate likewise 
with the Eboes, but are still more submissive as 
slaves. They have a baboon like expression, and 
the peculiarities of the Negro type strongly marked. 
Of the African stock the most conspicuous is the 
Kafir or Caffree, a race which having a Semitic in- 
nervation has arisen in stature, intelligence, and 
beauty. They have formed states of some extent. 
They build large towns, possess the art of smelting 

"* Peter Martyr, who wrote from the manuscript documents of the first 
discoverers, then still living, cites Vasco Nunes, meeting with a colony 
of Negroes at Quanqui, in the Gulf of Darien. This, it should be re- 
marked, is anterior to the introduction of black slaves. 


and working metals, are very considerable graziers, 
and have some agriculture. 

"As the woolly -haired type in the oriental portion 
of its distribution is often of the smallest and ill 
made proportions, there are instances (perhaps, in- 
deed, of races some already somewhat mixed) where 
they rise to six feet high, and possess powerful 
frames, as was lately discovered in the interior of 
Australia. But in all, where any religious senti- 
ment has been observed, they seem to be infected, 
or sink into the lowest puerilities. This is also the 
case in Africa, where the divinities are spectres, or 
are lizards, insects, birds or beasts, gods in one sea- 
son, and game in another; or they are wretched 
little idols they call Fetiche, a word derived from 
pet, 7tazai%vg, of Phoenician or Egyptian origin ; and, 
as it evidently means, further shows that in the first 
acceptation was implied veneration for departed 
tribal or family ancestors, but became degraded to a 
kind of idolatrous worship, which, in the hands of 
Negroes is bestowed alike upon monkey skulls, bits 
of bone, rag, or is a gross scarecrow set up under a 
canopy of straw. The Negro has always shown a 
great propensity to incantation, and sorcery has re- 
course to protective amulets, which he calls Gris- 
gris. 197—200. 

" 15. Before concluding, we may mention the 
gradations through which intermixture of the typi- 
cal stocks are distinguished in the West India islands. 
The offspring of a black and a white parent is de- 
nominated a Mulatto ; a black and a Mulatto pro- 
duces a Sambo; a black and Sambo a Mungroo; 


and a black and a Mungroo is again completely 
black. But in this case the distinction in the intel- 
lectual qualities is not again obliterated, it remains 
to a considerable degree of a more developed character 
than in a true Negro of unmixed origin. A Mulatto 
and a white generate a Quartoon, a Quartoon and a 
white a Mestic, and a Mestic and a white a complete 
white. Yet tins class of persons still in general 
have black and curly hair, the nails on the fingers 
remain darker and ill shaped. The feet are indif- 
ferently formed, and in their propensities much of 
the Negro origin continues to be traced. The 
Spaniards carry their distinctions to a seventh 

" 16. The decay amounting to prospective ex- 
tinction among the American races, is moreover a 
further proof that they are not a typical people, but 
that they are stems occupying a debateable ground 
which we have before shown are alone liable to 
annihilation, or to entire absorption. 259. 

"* Our personal observations on the Negro races it is proper to men- 
tion, commenced in 1797, on the coast of Africa. They were continued 
on both portions of the American continent and in the West Indies to 
1807, during which period the slave trade remained in activity, and new 
Negroes as they were termed, coming from different nations could be ex- 
amined, and their characteristics compared at most of the tropical sea 
ports. The distinctive characters then possessed by them are now con- 
fined or obliterated by commixture of the different races, by education 
and other changes of circumstances in the western hemisphere, and are 
no longer accessible on the coast of Africa. Hence several remarks 
above made cannot now be entirely verified in any quarter. From what 
is here stated, it follows that the observations more or less carefully made 
extended over hundreds belonging to very different tribes of western and 
central Africa, exclusive of North and South American and West Indian 
colonial born Negroes. 


" 17. At that period, (375,) most of the nomad 
tribes of Asia were in his (Attila's) service, hence 
the nation might have been called ferocious and ill- 
favored ; but here also the Caucasian element had 
already so greatly influenced the external form of 
the Ipans or higher chiefs, that there were not infe- 
rior to any other privileged races of Europe. 321. 

"18. Thus the Atrak Turks, more especially the 
Osmanlis differ from the other Toorkees by their 
lofty stature, European features, abundant beards, 
and fair complexions, derived from their original 
extraction, being Caucasian of Yuchi race, as from 
an early intermixture with it and with the numer- 
ous captives they were incorporating for ages from 
Kashmere, Affghanistan, Persia, Syria, Natalia, 
Armenia, Greece, and Eastern Europe. Both these 
conjectures may be true, because the Caucasian 
stock wherever we find it continues to rise into 
power, from whatever source it may be drawn. 326. 

" 19. There cannot be, however, a doubt that in 
the Mulatto state or half breed Caucasian that pecu- 
liar structure of the skin must be in part remaining, 
since in the character of the hair we find it in pro- 
portion of the bearded parentage, the frizzled and 
mop like passes into spiral curls, then undulates, 
and at last is wholly straight; while descending the 
scale the mop becomes crisp and returns to that low 
state of humanity which, in the warm regions of the 
east was branded with the reproach of being 
accursed. 333. 

"20. The styles of sculpture, architecture, and 
excavation of Egypt, notwithstanding the remote 


period of their origin, have more affinity to the Bac- 
trian Hindoo than to any other colossal ponderous 
detail, such as a compound of what remains at Nin- 
eveh, and the earliest cavern temples would produce 
shining traces of the natural development of art 
when working upon the same kind of materials with 
similar means. 

" The statues retain the normal pillar in all but 
the parts of architectural combination advanced 
beyond mere excavation, as it still was in the most 
ancient cavern temples of India; not so complete 
and less appropriate than the Egyptian, indicating 
an older date though it was wielded in both regions 
by sacerdotal supremacies over great populations. 
The system of worship in Egypt was likewise allied 
to the Indian. British sepoys forming part of the 
expedition that was to co-operate with General Sir 
Ralph Abercrombie in the re-conquest of Egypt, no 
sooner entered the sacred temples in the valley of 
the Nile, than they asserted their own divinities 
were discovered on the walls, and worshipped them 
accordingly. They even pointed out the Cresvami- 
nam or Brahmin distinguishing cord, as likewise a 
decoration of the painted divinities. 359 — 360. 

"21. The bearded intermediate or Caucasian 
type is so named because neither of the other two 
typical forms is distinguished by a well grow r n 
beard. Intermediate form is applicable with refer- 
ence to the boreal and tropical position of other 
types. The appellation of Caucasian remains like- 
wise appropriate when understood to apply to the 
Indians or true Caucasians, or Imaus of the ancients, 


for by these names the region of Hindoo, Koosh, 
and the vicinity must be understood, and it is to 
that locality careful examination ultimately traces 
the first habitation of at least the white races of the 
bearded stock, for the term white, though it is in 
general sufficiently correct, is still not quite admis- 
sible for the whole, since the color varies from pure 
white down to mealanism nearly as deep as a genu- 
ine Negro. Albinos are frequent, and both the phe- 
nomenon of an entire horny skin and of total hir- 
suteness seem to belong exclusively to the bearded 

" It being to the form under consideration that the 
tribe class that have peopled Europe and western Asia 
almost exclusively belongs, therefore its typical char- 
acters are easily ascertained. The beard is neither 
villous nor woolly, but spreading over the lips, chin, 
and the whole of the nether jaw, it fringes the sides 
of the face up to the temples, and is crisp, curly, or 
undulating, but never quite straight or lank as in the 
Mongolian. The skull is larger than in the other 
forms, it is oblong, rounded, with the cerebral por- 
tion more developed, containing from seventy-five 
to one hundred and nine cubic inches; the facial 
angle is more vertical, rising from seventy-five to 
ninety degrees. The face is oval, the eyes large, 
open horizontal, the pupils passing from hazel to 
brown on one hand, to dark nearly black, and on 
the other to deep blue, grey, light blue, and even 
greenish, (pink colored pupils occur rarely, and only 
in extreme cases of albinos.) The hair is abun- 
dant on the head, curly, waving, or lank, varying 


in shades of colors from very dark brown to auburn 
xanthous and fiery red, usually corresponding but 
not always, to the beard and eyebrows, and some- 
times from infancy marked with grey, which, in 
advancing life in both sexes is sure to come on till 
the whole is turned white. In general, the hair 
harmonises with the complexion, which varies in the 
white races from ruddy to fair. Health has its in- 
fluences upon the color of the skin in all races, but 
in the fair the cheeks are frequently colored. The 
typical races have the mouth small, the teeth set 
vertically, the lips not turned, and more delicately 
graceful in outline, the nose is more prominent, and 
the wings less spread than in the other forms of man, 
nor is the nether form so angular. The forehead is 
broad, often high, the occipital part less developed, 
and the arch of the cranium less solid. Man of the 
bearded type attains the highest standard, is in gen- 
eral above the middle size, and in symmetry excels all 
others. The arms are in better proportion, the 
hands more beautifully shaped, and the feet and 
toes more delicate, and more obliquely arranged. 
His movements are more decisive of purpose, more 
graceful, the poise of his head places the counte- 
nance vertically to the horizon.* 

" * A weight being placed on the head, such as when a Dutch milkmaid 
skates to market, the heavy pail is so poised upon a kind of pad, that it 
bears equally upon the dome of the cranium, so also is water carried by 
the abnormal Egyptian peasantry. In both, the weight rests on the per- 
pendicular axis of the body, through the centre of the skull, whereas in 
the Negro weight on the head is always poised near the forehead, and 
consequently the chin is elevated. With the Mongolian and American 
the strain appears to be downward, the muscles of the neck being rigid. 
Weight is carried not on the shoulders like a Caucasian, nor on the head 


" The shoulders are ample, the chest broad, the 
ribs firm, and the loins well turned ; the thighs, and 
in particular the calves of the legs symmetrical, the 
whole frame constructed for the endurance of every 
kind of toil, being protected in some measure with 
a partial growth of hair, which is scarcely traceable 
in the other types excepting on the chest. Thus 
he is constructed with physical powers equal to his 
intellectual organization, fitted to sustain protracted 
thought. Continuous attention alike excited by an 
activity of disposition stimulating his brain, which 
is larger and more fully developed in the anterior 
portion than in any other form of man. In the mere 
animal senses of feeling, hearing, smell, sight, and 
tasting, the social position of civilized nations may 
render them in part less quick, because they are less 
called into activity ; but the Kaufir mountaineer of 
Hindoo Koosh, and the Arab wanderer are we doubt 
equal if not superior to the acutest perceptions of 
Negro, American, or any other wild race in the 
world. Again, the Caucasian form of man combines 
above the rest, strength of limb with activity of mo- 
tion, enabling it to endure the greatest vicissitudes 
of temperature in all climates, to emigrate, colonise, 
and multiply in them, with. the sole exception of the 
positive extremes. His longevity is more generally 
protracted, even in the midst of the enervating habits 
of high civilization his solid fibre gives a reasoned 
self possession and daring in vicissitudes arising 

like the woolly-haired races, but by a strap pressing against the forehead, 
and passing to the back. The true Caucasian trusts to the shoulders 
and loins. 



from the passions, from accident, or from the ele- 
ments, and his reflective power finds expedients to 
brave dangers with self possession and impunity. 

" The moral and intellectual character we find to 
be in unison with his structure, the reasoning pow- 
ers outstripping the mere process of comparing sen- 
sations, and showing in volition more elevated 
thought, more reasoning, justice, and humanity; he 
alone of the races has produced examples of free and 
popular institutions, and his physical characteristics 
have maintained them in social life. By means of 
his logical intellect he has arrived at ideas requisite 
for the acquisition of abstract truths, resorting to 
actual experiment he fixed bases whereon to build 
demonstrable inferences when the positive facts are 
not otherwise shown. 

" He invented simple arbitrary characters to rep- 
resent words and musical sounds, and a few signs 
which, nevertheless denote in their relative positions 
all the possible combinations of numbers and quan- 
tity. He has measured time and distance, making 
the sidereal bodies unerring guides to mark locality 
and give nautical direction. He has ascended to the 
skies, descended into the deep, and mastered the 
powers of the deep. By mechanical researches the 
bearded man has assuaged human toil, multiplied 
the results of industry, and created a velocity of 
locomotion superior to the flight of birds. By his 
chemical discoveries he has modified bodily pain, 
and produced numberless discoveries useful in medi- 
cine, in arts, and manufactures. He has formed a 
sound and connected system of the sciences in gen- 


eral, and acquired a critical literature, while for 
more than three thousand years he has been the 
principal possessor of all human knowledge, and the 
asserter of fixed laws. He has instituted all the 
great religious systems in the world, and to his 
stock has been vouchsafed the glory and the condi- 
tions of revelation. 

" The Caucasian type alone continues in rapid 
development, covering with nations every congenial 
latitude, and portending at no distant era to bear 
rule in every region, if not by physical superiority 
at least by that dominion which religion, science, 
and enterprise causes, constituting, as we have 
shown, the most important, the most elevated, and 
highly organized type of man. 368 — 373. 

" 22. Of the three varieties of color and tempera- 
ment most distinctly marked in the Caucasian type, 
the first is characterized by brown complexion, and 
dark eyes and hair, very symmetrical proportions, 
a round domed skull, and an intelligence most 
vividly imaginative. The temperament sensual, 
the vindictive passions active, the perceptive facul- 
ties quick, and the physical energies demanding 
mental excitement more than reason for exertion. 
Such are the ardent nations of the south. 

" Opposed to them in form and disposition are the 
tribes of the north; with a loftier stature, a fair, 
often a ruddy skin, xanthous hair, rather ponderous 
limbs, a squarer skull, and coarser features; they 
have little comparative vivacity, but are endowed 
with the faculty of thought and reason, less under 
the control of petulant desires ; more reflective, and 


therefore more continuously attached to conclusions 
once formed; slow, but patient in perseverance, and 
brave, without requiring the stimulus of enthusiasm. 
They are sincere and single-minded, but addicted 
to gluttony and drunkenness. Between these two 
we irnd 'the typical root still more essentially ; 
mountaineer in habit, with clear complexions, light 
brown, auburn, light or dark hair. It has the skull 
formed like the southern stem, but broader in the 
forehead. By nature and locality possessed of the 
highest endowments of the other two, excepting, 
perhaps, the quality of reasoned patience ; it is im- 
aginative, poetical, inventive, artful, eloquent, val- 
iant, and indefatigable. It has been the master 
stem from all antiquity ; and in particular that 
ambitious race which is distinguished by high fea- 
tures, has ever been the conquering, the imperious 
form, that commands in battle and rules in peace 
wherever it is found mixed in the social life of 
nations. Although beauty, valor, and logical capa- 
city may not by any means be denied the more 
vertical profiles, yet mathematical, linguistic, and 
experimental science belong more permanently to 
the less admired lines of features. It is by the ex- 
ercise of these faculties, tempered with forbearance 
that the resolute tenacity of the last mentioned 
maintains its ground, and the public will obtain 
modifications of the arbitrary canons which the 
others have imposed. It is the Caucasian man 
who, in all regions and times, has been the sole de- 
positor of religion. The Papua and Negro races of 
antiquity do not appear to have possessed creeds at 


any period deserving to be classed with reasoned 
allegorical dogmas ; they were merely absurd in- 
junctions to commit revolting bloodshed. Even 
when palliated, remodelled, and systematized by 
the influence of Caucasian rulers, they continued 
more to degrade the masters than to elevate the 
vanquished. 380—381. 

"23. The Circassian and Georgian Tribes of the 
Caspian Caucasus. While others coming more 
from the north, with, as it appears, a portion of 
Finnic blood in their veins, held possession of the 
plains on the Kouban and the Don, these extended 
westward in the Crimea, and along the shores of the 
Euxine, until they were in part swept onwards, and 
partly driven back to take shelter in the fastnesses 
they now hold. The Don Cossacks are of the same 
stem, for although all the tribes are in various pro- 
portions of mixed origin, the typical form is always 
evident. The women of Circassia are beautiful, 
probably the most beautiful in features and com- 
plexion of the whole earth. They have often light 
hair and blue eyes, tall, graceful, and erect forms, 
with straight or slightly aquiline noses, well-formed 
lips, and beautiful teeth ; while the men justly pride 
themselves on their broad shoulders, slender waists, 
expressive features, stalwart height, and martial 
gait. Indeed, this inherent superiority of form is 
so dominant, that the unceasing practice which the 
Osmanli Turks have of purchasing female slaves of 
this race has caused them to have become, from the 
most ill-shaped and wretched looking of barbarian 

Mongoles, a people that can now dispute the palm 



of beauty with the handsomest of Europe. For, and 
with these nations, commencing in central Asia, 
Kaufirs, Aflfghans, Georgians, Circassians, Cos- 
sacks, tribes of Asia Minor, Greece, Rome, and the 
Gothic people of the north, on to the west of 
Europe, there are very sympathetic feelings, an 
enduring interest, independent of religious motives, 
political considerations, or commercial purposes. 
In England, especially, we feel for them more than 
curiosity ; travel among them, overlook or palliate 
their barbarism, nay, so strong and deep is the incli- 
nation, that among British captives made during 
the disastrous winter months in Cabul, most spoke 
highly of the urbanity they had experienced ; sev- 
eral of the softer sex felt unwilling to be released, 
and some, it is said, actually escaped from those 
who were to restore them to their homes. Nothing 
but original consanguinity could reproduce such 
effects. To that cause alone we must ascribe the 
long duration of a Macedonian monarchy subsisting 
for so many generations among the most warlike 
people in existence, and in more modern times, that 
the fierce bigotry of Islamism has not obliterated 
that tendency; for beyond this line of consanguinity, 
the Tartar race now in possession of Thibet and 
Bokhara, or the Arab on the south, never excite 
similar affections, nor feel themselves yearning for 

Let the reader refer to quotation first, and he 
will see that this eminent ethnologist testifies against 


amalgamation, as a hybrid race is never permitted 
to exist by nature. He also clearly confirms the 
truth of a sound principle — that wherever greatness 
manifests itself it must always be associated with 
the white race, for even Timour Ghengis Khan, 
and Nhadir Shah had Caucasian mothers. 

The second proves that where the Negro escapes 
from the domination of the white it is the unhealthi- 
ness of the climate which saves him, and not his 
own intellect or courage. The third explodes the 
idea that woolly-headedness is the effect of climate. 
The fourth and fifth show that the more thoroughly 
Negro the tribe is, the more degraded it is. The 
sixth establishes the physical superiority of the 
white. The seventh and eighth are well worthy 
of attention, as the gallant colonel has to acknow- 
ledge, despite of his humanity, that the Negro is 
immeasurably inferior to the Caucasian, in every 
thing that distinguishes and elevates man. The 
ninth and tenth do the same thing. The eleventh 
and twelfth ought to be most carefully perused. 
The thirteenth gives the true character of the 
Negro. The fourteenth and fifteenth trace the 
Negro to the typical form. The sixteenth takes the 
ground that the North American Indian is a cross, 
and that according to the inevitable laws of nature 
he cannot exist, he must either be absorbed into 
one of the typical races or become extirpated. 
The seventeenth and eighteenth again prove that 
greatness can only emanate from Caucasian blood. 
The nineteenth shows that intermixture degrades 


the white. The twentieth demonstrates to a cer- 
tainty that the Hindoos, and the ancient Egyptians, 
the builders of the tombs, temples, palaces, and 
pyramids, were closely related, and destroys the 
absurd notion that Negroes ever could have risen 
from barbarism. The twentieth, twenty-second, 
&,c., completely settle the entire and perfect supe- 
riority of the white over the Negro. 




" 1. Egypt and Carthage, when in their glory, 
ranked among the most civilized and opulent states 
then existing. Even after the first ravages of the 
Saracens, learning and science distinguished the 
splendid courts established in the west of Barbary. 
The continued influence, however, of a gloomy 
superstition, and the separation caused by it from 
all the refined modern nations, have induced among 
these states a general relapse into barbarism. The 
population of the continent may now, in a large 
view be divided into Moors and Negroes. The 
Moors, including the descendants of the original 
Arab invaders, and those whom conquest and reli- 
gion have assimilated with them, fill all northern 
Africa, and the Great Desert. They reach the 
banks of the Senegal and the Niger, which may be 
considered as the boundary of the two races, though 
they mingle and alternate on the opposite sides, 
where sometimes one, sometimes the other, holds 
chief sway. The Moors are a rough, roving race, 
keeping numerous herds, chiefly of camels, with 
which they perform immense journeys through the 
most desolate tracts, and across the greatest breadth 
of the continent. Africa is indebted to them for all 
the literature she possesses; at least, few of the 
Negroes can read or write who have not learned 
from them. The Moors, however, at least all that 
scour the desert, are a race peculiarly unamiable. 


A furious bigotry, joined to the most embittered 
hatred of the Christian name, renders them mortal 
foes to every European traveller who falls in their 
power. The Negroes, on the contrary, though in- 
ferior in arts and attainments, are generally cour- 
teous, gay, and hospitable. Like all barbarous 
nations, they are fond of war, and cruel to their 
enemies; but their domestic intercourse is friendly 
and they receive with kindness the unprotected 
stranger. They are led away with fantastic super- 
stitions, charms, witchcraft, ordeals, &c, but these 
errors never impel them to hate or persecute those 
who entertain the most opposite belief. Their ex- 
ternal aspect is well known, being marked by a deep 
black color, flat nose, thick lips, and coarse hair, 
like wool. The Moors are deeply embrowned by 
the influence of the sun, but have not the least of 
the Negro color or aspect. 534. 

" 2. Hieroglyphics, painted sculptures, colossal 
statues, and all the ornaments which characterize 
Egyptian temples are profusely employed. Battles, 
storming of castles, triumphs, particularly over the 
Ethiopians, (Negroes,) with captive groups of that 
race, are the subjects chiefly represented. The ex- 
terior of the temple is one hundred and seventeen 
feet wide, and eighty-six feet high ; but the most 
remarkable feature consists of four colossi, which, 
with the exception of the Sphynx, are the largest 
sculptured figures in Egypt or Nubia. Burck- 
hardt, w r ho saw only the shoulder of one of them 
above the sand, conjectured, from its dimensions, 
that the whole would be sixty-five or seventy feet. 


Belzoni, after removing the sand found it fifty-one 
feet, not including the cap, which was fourteen feet. 
Of these colossi, one is still buried, and another 
thrown down. 577. 

" 3. In this region, human nature cannot be said 
to appear under a dignified form. Even the exter- 
nal aspect of the Negro is, in our eyes especially, 
mean, coarse, and ugly. The deep black of his 
complexion has been supposed by some to be con- 
nected with the barbarism of his habits. But the 
thick lips, flat nose, woolly hair, and the line of the 
face' sloping backwards, are at variance with every 
idea of beauty, and suggest very little of the exer- 
cise of intellectual energy. Vol. 3, pp. 37 — 38. 

" 4. It is impossible to name a region tolerably 
peopled, where any progress at all has been made 
in the arts, which is so completely illiterate as Ne- 
gro Africa. It is not enough to say that it has nei- 
ther books, authors, or learned men. In no part of 
this extended region is there an alphabet, a hiero- 
glyphic, or even a picture, or symbol of any descrip- 
tion. All those refined processes, by which the 
ideas of one mind are made to pass into those of 
another, are entirely unknown. The universal 
amusement of the Negro, above tHose of mere sen- 
sation, are dancing and music. The former is in- 
variably performed in the open air. As soon as the 
sun declines, and its intense heat abates, there is 
dancing from one end of Africa to the other. 
Twenty-five hundred years ago, Hanno and his 
companions were surprised, immediately after sun- 
set, to see lights glittering along the shore, and to 

192 NEGR0MAN1A. 

hear on every side the sound of musical instruments. 
The passion, however, with which this amusement 
is pursued, has not led to any refinement in the art. 
Their performance consists chiefly of violent and 
grotesque movements; leaping, stamping on the 
ground, bowing their heads, and snapping their 
fingers. In their music, also, noise appears the 
chief if not the sole object. Their drums and their 
trumpets, or horns, produce a horrid dissonance, 
against which, according to some travellers, a whole 
bale of cotton would be required to stop the ears. 
Polygamy, throughout all tropical Africa, has no 
limit but that of the ability to maintain a considera- 
ble number of wives. By the great it is practised 
to the utmost extent that their circumstances can 
admit. To have numerous wives and children is 
considered a matter of state, and is always made 
their first boast. It forms even a source of wealth; 
for, except the principal wife, who is mistress of the 
household, and the sacred wife, who is consecrated 
to the fetiche, all are made to work hard, both in 
tilling the fields, and in manufacturing mats and 
cloths. Even the principal wife often urges her 
husband to take fresh mates, as a means of increas- 
ing the importance of the establishment over which 
she presides; it is also customary to make her a 
handsome present on the occasion. In the towns 
on the coast, the more wealthy take usually from 
three to twenty wives, while the kings raise the 
number to eighty or a hundred ; but in Ashantee, 
Dahomey, and other despotic interior kingdoms, the 
privilege knows no bounds, and the number is often 


carried to several thousands. It is swelled, not only 
by the captives taken in war, but by the selection 
which the king- has a right to make of the fairest 
and most accomplished females within the circuit 
of his own dominions. A great part of the nation 
are thus reduced to celibacy, and very dissolute 
habits prevail. In many of the towns on the Gold 
Coast a body of courtesans are maintained by the 
state, and are considered as public servants. Not a 
few even of the wealthy are willing to derive a profit 
from the irregular conduct of their secondary wives. 
Notwithstanding the overgrown families of some of 
the great, such habits cannot fail to keep down the 
amount of population, and, by causing a neglect of 
education, to lower the intellectual standard of the 
people. In architecture, and even in masonry, the 
Negro nations rank very low. There is not, per- 
haps, in all native Africa, a house built *of stone. 
Wood, earth, leaves, and grass, are the only mate- 
rials. One traveller compares their villages to 
groups of dog kennels rather than of houses. The 
trunks of four large trees are driven into the ground, 
and connected by poles; this frame-work is then 
covered with earth or clay. The roof is formed by 
a number of branches meeting at the top, and cov- 
ered with leaves or grass. The doors not being 
above two or three feet high, the enterer creeps 
rather than walks in, and he cannot stand upright, 
unless in the part of the roof which is left hollow 
like a pent-house. The floor being raised about 
three feet from the ground, to avoid the damp, and 
the apartment being open for the admission of air, 



resembles a good deal a mountebank's stage in Eu- 
rope. The houses of the rich are scarcely better, 
though more in number, for each wife has a house, 
and the whole establishment is surrounded by a 
wall of earth or twigs. Princes assign similar 
houses to their principal officers, and the group is 
enclosed with a general high wall, so as to make a 
sort of little town. It may be observed, however, 
that the houses of the great kings in the interior, 
though of the same materials, are of somewhat a 
superior description. The regal dwellings display 
brilliant colors on the outside walls, while the 
apartments are sometimes so spacious as to resem- 
ble a good English barn. In the cities, where the 
people have a share in the government, there is a 
hall of assembly, having merely a roof supported by 
poles. The furniture of the house bespeaks as much 
poverty as the house itself. A few seats, cups, and 
pots, all of wood or earth, coverlets of rushes, and 
perhaps a mat to sleep upon, form the entire amount 
of their accommodations. The rich distinguish 
themselves by fine, and occasionally by a brass 
kettle. In point of clothing and ornament, the 
Negroes are not quite content with the same sim- 
plicity. The lower classes, indeed, think it enough 
if they can cover the lower part of their bodies with 
a paan, or loose wrapper of the coarse cloth of the 
country. Until the age of twelve or thirteen, in- 
deed, no attire of any description is considered 
requisite. The rich, however, must appear in 
costly robes of silk, velvet, India chintz, or other 
imported materials. The females of rank wear long 


veils and mantles, which they throw over the 
shoulder ; red is their favorite color, and they orna- 
ment their dress with gold and silver lace, and also 
with ribands. But the great rage is for bracelets 
and rings, which last are accumulated on the ears, 
arms, and small part of the leg. The rich wear 
them of gold, or at least of brass or ivory, but the 
poorer classes are fain to content themselves with 
copper, tin, or in default of better materials, even 
with iron. They have been seen with no less than 
forty small iron rings on their arms. The arrange- 
ment of the hair, or rather wool, is a matter of pro- 
found study to both sexes. They rub it with palm 
oil, curl and dress it in various forms, and largely 
entwine it with gold, and with a species of coral 
valued at its weight in gold. Some of the Negro 
belles paint their face with red and white spots, till 
it looks like a piece of flowered damask. A certain 
degree of tattooing, or marking their skins with 
figures of flowers or other natural objects, is also 
practised. In regard to diet, if the Negroes observe 
a degree of simplicity, it is chiefly the result of ne- 
cessity. Butchers' meat, poultry, and rice, are only 
within the reach of the opulent. The poor must 
content themselves with fish and millet, which, 
when boiled together into a thick mess, and palm 
oil poured over them, form the staple dish. They 
eat coarsely and voraciously, thrusting their hands 
together into the common dish. When good fare 
is placed before them, they are careful to indemnify 
themselves for former privations. On such occa- 
sions they have been known to manifest a sort of 


canine appetite, eating as much as six Europeans. 
The drink of the country is palm wine, with "which 
chiefly they enliven the social circle ; but intercourse 
with Europeans has taught them the more perni- 
cious use of brandy. Vol. iii. 38 — 40. 

" 5. The Foulahs have been supposed to come 
from Fooladoo, on the Upper Senegal, but others 
suppose them of the same race with the Felletahs 
in Central Africa, in which case they must be traced 
to a foreign origin. They have now spread over all 
the banks of that river, besides the great kingdom 
of Foota Jalloo to the south, and many districts on 
the banks of the Gambia. They have not the ex- 
treme Negro characteristics, neither the deep jet 
hue, the flat nose, nor the thick lips ; on the contra- 
ry, their features are high, with an olive tint, and 
an agreeable expression. Vol. iii . p. 40. 

" 6. The king is absolute, with the exception of 
a military council of four principal officers, whom 
he is obliged to consult on questions of peace and 
war, and who usually give their voice in favor of 
the latter. There are, however, some features in 
this monarchy, which surpass in barbarism those of 
almost any other. The fury with which war is 
conducted is, indeed, too general among barbarians, 
but Ash an tee (Negroes) is horribly distinguished 
by the vast amount of human sacrifice. There are 
two annual customs, as they are called, in which 
the king and chief men seek to propitiate the manes 
of their ancestors by a crowd of victims. Foreign 
slaves and criminals are selected in preference, but 
as each seeks to multiply the number, unprotected 


persons cannot walk the streets without the hazard 
of being seized and immolated. At the death of any 
of the royal family, victims must bleed in thousands ; 
and the same is the case when the king seeks from 
the powers above favorable omens respecting any 
great projected undertaking. The abuse of polyg- 
amy also is carried to the highest pitch. The legal 
allowance of wives for the king is upwards of three 
thousand, selected from the fairest damsels in his 
dominions These unfortunate creatures are in 
general no better than slaves, and, on any capricious 
disgust are treated with the greatest cruelty, and 
often put to death. Vol. iii. p. 47." 





1 " The study of the races of men — the tracing, at 
least, some of those great events, distinguishing 
their national histories, to their physical and moral 
natures — has ever been with me a favorite pursuit. 
I early examined the work of Blumenbach, of 
which the laborious writings of Dr. Prichard were 
an extension — an imperfect work, leading to no re- 
sults; teaching a physiology as old as Herodotus 
and Hippocrates. More than thirty years ago, ob- 
servation taught me that the great question of race — 
the most important unquestionably to man — had 
been for the most part scrupulously, shall we say 
purposely avoided by the statesman, the historian, 
the theologian ; by journalists of nearly all countries. 
Unpalatable doctrines, no doubt, to dynasties lording 
it over nations composed of different races. 11. 

" 2. Human history cannot be a mere chapter of 
accidents. The fate of nations cannot always be 
regulated by chance; its literature, science, art, 
wealth, religion, language, laws, and morals, cannot 
surely be the result of mere accidental circumstan- 
ces. If any one insists with me that a Negro or 
Tasmanian accidentally born in England becomes 
thereby an Englishman, I yield the point; but 
should he further insist, that he, the said Negro or 
Tasmanian, may become also a Saxon or Scandina- 
vian, I must contend against so ludicrous an error. 
And yet errors like this are committed daily by 


well-educated and well-informed persons. With 
me, race, or hereditary descent, is every thing ; it 
stamps the man. Setting aside all theories, I have 
endeavored to view mankind as they now exist, di- 
vided as they are, and seem always to have been, 
into distinct races. As the origin of these races is 
lost in the past, I trace them from the present to- 
wards the past; from the partially known to the 
totally unknown. Well meaning, timid persons 
dread the question of race : they wish it left where 
Prichard did, that is, where Hippocrates left it. 
But this cannot be : the human mind is free to 
think, if not on the Rhine or on the Thames, at 
least on the Ohio and Missouri. 12 — 13. 

" 3. With me the Anglo-Saxon in America is a 
Saxon, and not a native : the Celt will prove a Celt 
wherever he is born, wherever he is found. The 
possible conversion of one race into another I hold 
to be a statement contradicted by all history. 22. 

" 4. In presenting this first complete edition of 
my Lectures on the Races of Men to public criticism, 
I have weighed most -anxiously the form of the pub- 
lication, and the order or the method to be followed 
in arranging the lectures. It has indeed been my 
great difficulty. Materials for a systematic history 
of the races of men are wholly wanting ; the great 
problem of human nature has scarcely been touched 
on in any previous history of race. The illustrious 
Prichard, with the best intentions in the world, 
has succeeded in misdirecting the English mind as 
to all the great questions of race. This misdirec- 
tion has told, as we have seen, even on the scholar 


and on the scientific man. As a consequence of its 
misdirection, on the mere mention of the word race, 
the popular mind flies off to Tasmania, the polar 
circle, or the land of the Hottentot. Englishmen 
cannot be made to believe, can scarcely be made to 
comprehed, that races of men, differing as widely 
from each other as races can possibly do, inhabit, 
not merely continental Europe, but portions of 
Great Britain and Ireland. And next to the diffi- 
culty of getting this great fact admitted to be one, 
has been an unwillingness to admit the full impor- 
tance of race, militating as it does against the thou- 
sand-and-one prejudices of the so-called civilized 
state of man ; opposed as it is to the Utopian views 
based on education, religion, government. 25. 

" 5. It is to universities, colleges, and schools that 
we owe the perpetuation of error ; of neatly-formuled 
untruths. I was taught that the round head of the 
Turk depended on his wearing a turban : it was re- 
peated, on the authority of Blumenbach, that the 
small hands of the Hottentots as compared with the 
Caffres was caused by a scarcity of food ! And but 
lately I read, in one of those miserable, trashy, pop- 
ular physiologies,* that the Dutch owe their dulness 
and phlegm to their living amongst marshes ? And 
to this day, I verily believe, this is the physiology 
of the schools. The spindle form of the English 
legs, so slender, ill-made, disproportioned to the 
torso, I have repeatedly heard ascribed by Sir 
Charles Bell, to the early use of heavy shoes or 
clogs : the vigorous calf of the French woman's leg 

* Combe. 


ascribed to there being no side pavements in Paris : 
and in a country where, at any hour of the day, you 
may meet with numbers of persons of all ranks in 
whom the facial angle equals the best of the antique, 
the same excellent man not only persisted in over- 
looking the fact, but denied its possibility. 31. 

" 6. Look more narrowly into the races of men, 
and you will find them to be subject to diseases pe- 
culiar to each; that the very essence of their lan- 
guage is distinct ; their civilization also, if they have 
any. Trace the matter further, and you will find 
that transcendental anatomy can alone explain these 
mysterious circumstances : how all embryos should 
resemble each other ; how they should resemble the 
primitive forms of life when the world was yet 
young ; how deviations in form or varieties, not in- 
tended to be permanent, should repeat primitive 
forms, as proved by fossil remains; or present 
human or bestial forms ; or take unknown shapes, 
referring, no doubt, to the future : lastly, and that is 
the most difficult question, how specializations 
should ever appear at all, and be, for a time at least, 
permanent. Two questions remain, beyond, I fear, 
human inquiry : — 1st. The origin of life on the 
globe; 2d. The secondary laws, for they must be 
so, and can be nothing else, which create out of 
primitive forms, the past, the present, and the future 
organic worlds, clothing them with beauteous sce- 
nery. Endless, but defined variety of forms, adorn 
the earth, the air, the waters ; the scheme of crea- 
tion, in fact, in so far as man's feeble reason can 
judge; not the object of creation; not the object of 


man's creation, which, though wonderful, is not 
more so than that of any other form ; not then the 
object of man's creation as an intellectual being; 
this has been revealed to us by divine minds. But 
I must view this last question also as an anatomist 
and physiologist, confining my remarks to man 
merely as a material being; the most perfect, no 
doubt, that exists. In woman's form I see the per- 
fection of Nature's works : the absolutely perfect ; 
the beautiful, the highest manifestation of abstract 
life, clothed in a physical form, adapted to the cor- 
responding minds of her race and species. 34 — 35. 
" 7. When the word race, as applied to man, is 
spoken of, the English mind wanders immediately 
to distant countries; to Negroes and Hottentots, 
Red Indians and savages. He admits that there 
are people who differ a good deal from us, but not 
in Europe ; there, mankind are clearly of one family. 
It is the Caucasian race, says one ; it is the primi- 
tive race, says another. But the object of this work 
is to show that the European races, so called, differ 
from each other as widely as the Negro does from 
the Bushman; the Caffree from the Hottentot; the 
Red Indian of America from the Esquimaux ; the 
Esquimaux from the Basque. Blumenbach and 
Prichard have misled the public mind so much in 
this respect, that a century may elapse before it be 
disabused. I need not repeat here the antiquated 
division of mankind by Blumenbach, nor its modi- 
fication by Prichard : it leads to no results. With 
the history of the Saxon or Scandinavian race, I 
shall commence the physiological history of man. 



" Of the origin of the Saxon race we know just as 
much as we do of the origin of man ; that is, nothing. 
History, such as it is, shows us that in remote times 
a race of men, differing from all others physically 
and mentally, dwelt in Scandinavia — say in Nor- 
way, Denmark, Sweden, Holstein — on the shores 
of the Baltic, in fact ; by the mouths of the Rhine, 
and on its northern and eastern bank. Caesar met 
Ariovistus at the head of a German army on the 
Rhine. The Germans, as the Scandinavian and 
other transrhenal races were then called, had crossed 
the river, making excursions into the territories of 
their Celtic neighbors, inhabiting Old Gaul. The 
dictator defeated them, compelling them to recross 
the Rhine into their own territories. Bat he did 
not follow them into their native woods : the Ro- 
mans never had any real power beyond the Rhine. 
At no period did they conquer the Saxon or true 
German, that is, Scandinavian race. 

" What had induced the ancient Scandinavians 
to cross the Rhine in Ceesar's time ? What had led 
them long before into Italy, where they encountered 
Marius ? Ask the South African Saxon Boor what 
induces him to spread himself over a land, one 
twentieth part of which could easily maintain him 
in comfort and affluence. What urges him against 
Caffraria — against Natal? It has been said, that 
the Scandinavian or Saxon tribes were pressed for 
space ; that more numerous barbarous tribes pushed 
them on. The over-populousness of their woods, 
and their retiring before another force do not well 


agree ; there is some contradiction here. But the 
Cape Boor of Saxon origin has no such excuse for 
spreading himself in a few years over a vast region, 
which he leaves uncultivated; neither has the 
Anglo-Saxon American. To me it seems referable 
simply to the qualities of the race; to their inordi- 
nate self-esteem ; to their love of independence, which 
makes them dislike the proximity of a neighbour ; 
to their hatred for dynasties and governments; 
democrats by their nature, the only democrats on 
the earth, the only race which truly comprehends 
the meaning of the word liberty. 39 — 41. 

" 8. But I have not yet spoken of the physical 
and mental qualities of the Saxon race; these words 
include all, for "the Chronicle of Events" which 
have happened to them, whether in England or 
elsewhere, is a mere chapter of accidents, influenced 
deeply by the qualities of the average men of the 
race. So soon as I shall briefly have described 
these, it will be proper to consider the import of two 
great physiological laws already mooted — namely : 
Can a mixed race be produced and supported by 
the intermingling of two races ? Can any race 
occupy, colonize, and people a region of the earth 
to which they are not indigenous ? 

"In all climes, and under all circumstances, the 
Saxons are an all powerful, athletic race of men ; the 
strongest, as a race, on the face of the earth. They 
have fair hair, with blue eyes, and so fine a complex- 
ion, that they may almost be considered the only 
absolutely fair race on the face of the globe. Gen- 
erally speaking, they are not a well-made or propor- 


tioned race, falling off most in the limbs; the torso 
being large, vast, and dispropor tioned. They are 
so described by Livy, and have never altered ; the 
mistake of Prichard, and the difficulty experienced 
by the illustrious Niebuhr, the greatest of all histo- 
rians, respecting the complexion of the modern 
German differing from the ancient, arises simply 
from this, that the middle and south German belong 
to another race of men. They are not Scandina- 
vians or Saxons at all, and never were. The mis- 
take centres in the abuse of the word German ; it 
has been applied to two or three different races : so 
also has the word Teuton ; hence my objections to 
these terms. The true Germans or Saxons of mod- 
ern times resemble, or rather are identical, with 
those of antiquity ; they follow the law of hereditary 
descent ; climate exercises no influence over them. 
Two hundred years of Java, three hundred years of 
southern Africa, affect them not. Alter their health 
it may and does, withering up the frame ; rendering 
the body thin and juiceless ; wasting the adipose 
cellular tissue ; relaxing the muscles and injuring 
the complexion, by altering the condition of the 
blood and secretions ; all this may be admitted but 
they produce no permanent results. 

" Under the influence of climate, the Saxon de- 
cavs in northern America and in Australia, and he 
rears his offspring with difficulty. He has changed 
his continental locality ; a physiological law, I shall 
shortly explain, is against his naturalization there. 
Were the supplies from Europe not incessant, he 

could not stand his ground in these new continents 



A real native permanent American, or Australian 
race of pure Saxon blood, is a dream which can 
never be realized. 

" The Saxon is fair, not because he lives in a tem- 
perate or cold climate, but because he is a Saxon. 
The Esquimaux are nearly black, yet they live 
amidst eternal snows ; the Tasmanian is, if possible, 
darker than the Negro, under a climate as mild as 
England. Climate has no influence in permanently 
altering the varieties or races of men ; destroy them 
it may and does, but it cannot convert them into 
any other race ; nor can this be done even by act of 
parliament, which, to a thorough-going Englishman, 
with all his amusing nationalities, will appear as 
something amazing. It has been tried in "Wales, in 
Ireland, in Caledonia — and failed. Explain it, ye 
Utopians, as you choose ; I merely mention the fact. 
When I lectured in Liverpool, a gentleman, of the 
name of Martineau, put forth, a discourse, in which, 
he maintained, that we had forced Saxon laws upon 
the Irish too hurriedly; that we had not given them 
time enough to become good Saxons, into which 
they would be metamorphosed at last. In what 
time, Mr. Martineau, do you expect this notable 
change ? The experiment has been going on already 
for seven hundred years ; I will concede you seven 
times seven hundred more, but this will not alter 
the Celt : no more will it change the Saxon, to whom 
I return. 

"Thoughtful, plodding, industrious beyond all 
other races, a lover of labor for labor's sake; he 
cares not its amount if it be but profitable ; large 


handed, mechanical, a lover of order, of punctuality 
in business, of neatness and cleanliness. In these 
qualities no race approaches him ; the wealthy with 
him is the sole respectable, the respectable the sole 
good; the word comfort is never out of his mouth — 
it is the beau ideal of the Saxon. 

" His genius is wholly applicative, for he invents 
nothing. In the fine arts, and in music, taste can- 
not go lower. The race in general has no musical 
ear, and they mistake noise for music. The mar- 
row bones and cleaver belong to them. Prize fights, 
bull-baiting with dogs ; sparring matches ; rowing, 
horse-racing, gymnastics : the Boor is peculiar to 
the Saxon race. "When young they cannot sit still 
an instant, so powerful is the desire for work, labor, 
excitement, muscular exertion. Their self-esteem is 
so great, their self-confidence so matchless, that they 
cannot possibly imagine any man or set of men to 
be superior to themselves. Accumulative beyond 
all others, the wealth of the world collects in their 
hands. 42 — 45. 

"9. The cap of liberty was raised in vain in 
Paris ; the cautious Hollander was not again to be 
deceived. He knew also that England, commercial 
England was sure to betray him into the hands of 
the brutal Pruss and Russ. Thus, the noblest blood 
of the race is in abeyance : sunk into political insig- 
nificance. Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Holstein, 
Holland, commercial England, have overshadowed 
you. A colony of your own (England,) your first, 
your greatest colony, has exercised over your for- 
tunes that fatal influence which England's first and 


greatest colony may some day exercise over her's : 
we are to you, what America seems destined to be 
to us. Of the same race, commercial, naval, the 
only really good sailors in the world, our American 
colony disputes with us the empire of the seas ; a 
future Paul Jones may yet repay Britain the affair 
of Copenhagen ; but it must come from a Saxon 
race, for the Saxons alone are sailors. 

" The results of the physical and mental qualities 
of a race are naturally manifested in its civilization, 
for every race has its own form of civilization. The 
historian, the talented statesman Guizot, for exam- 
ple, who failed in forty years to learn the character 
of the race amongst whom he lived and ruled, he 
of all others, (always excepting the Prince of Bung- 
lers, Metternich,) the most outrageously mistaken, 
has written a work about European civilization; 
about an abstraction which does not exist. Each 
race has its own form of civilization, as it has its 
own language and arts ; I would almost venture to 
say science ; for although exact science, as being 
based on eternal and indisputable truths, must ever 
be the same under all circumstances and under all 
climes, it does not follow that its truths should even 
be formuled after the same fashion. Civilization, 
or the social condition of man, is the result and test 
of the qualities of every race ; but it would be unfair 
to judge the European Saxon by this standard, 
seeing that the entire race, insular and continental, 
is crushed down by dynasties antagonistic of their 
race. "What is effected at Berlin and Vienna by the 
bayonet, is usually accomplished in London by the 


law. Hence, notwithstanding the wealth of the 
Anglo-Saxon, no nation presents such a frightful 
mass of squalid poverty and wretchedness, render- 
ing it doubtful whether such a form of civilization 
be a blessing or curse to humanity. I lean with 
Tacitus to the latter opinion. 

" No race perhaps — (for I must make allowances 
for my Saxon descent,) — no race perhaps exceeds 
them in an abstract sense of justice, and a love of 
fair play ; but only to Saxons. This of course they 
do not extend to other races. Aware of his strength 
of chest and arms, he "uses them in self-defence : the 
Celt flies -uniformly to the sword. To-day and to- 
morrow is all the Saxon looks to ; yesterday he 
cares not for ; it is past and gone. He is the man of 
circumstances, of expediency without method ; 
" try all things, but do not theorize." Give me 
" constants," a book of constants; this is his cry. 
Hence his contempt for men of science : his hatred 
for genius arises from another cause ; he cannot en- 
dure the idea that any man is really superior in any 
thing to himself. The absence of genius in his race 
he feels ; he dislikes to be told it : he attempts to 
crush it wherever it appears. Men of genius he 
calls humbugs, impostors. His literature is pecu- 
liar to himself, and must not be confounded with 
modern German literature : this latter is chiefly of 
Slavonian origin, mingled with the race occupying 
central Europe and stretching into Flanders. Un- 
certain as to their nature, I have called this race 
Flemish or Belgian ; but the modern Belgians do 



not well represent them. I believe them peculiar ; 
an off-set perhaps of the Slavonian race ; at all 
events not Saxon or Scandinavian. The word 
German, and the equivoque it admits of, has greatly 
confused a very simple matter. It misled Arnold ; 
it misled Niebuhr, and a host of others : my coun- 
trymen have confounded the literature of the mid- 
dle, south German, and Slavonian races, with the 
Scandinavian or north German ; nothing was ever 
more distinct. 

" All that is free in Saxon countries they, the 
Saxons owe to themselves ; their laws, manners, in- 
stitutions, they brought with them from the woods 
of Germany, and they have transferred them to the 
woods of America. They owe nothing to any kings 
or princes or chiefs : originally, they had neither 
chief nor king ; a general in war was elected when 
required. In their ideas of " property in land" 
they differ also from other races ; they do not admit 
that any class or family, dynasty or individual, can 
appropriate to himself and to his hereditary heirs, 
any portion of the earth's surface. Hence their 
abhorrence for feudality, tenures, hereditary rights, 
and laws of primogeniture. Soldiers and soldiering 
they despise as being unworthy of free men : the 
difficulty of teaching them military discipline and 
tactics, arises from the awkwardness of their forms 
and slowness of movement, and from their inordi- 
nate self-esteem. But when disciplined, their in- 
fantry, owing to the strength of the men, becomes 
the first in the world, 46 — 48. 



Section I. — Do races ever amalgamate ? What 
are the obstacles to a race changing its original 
locality ? 

" 10. I have heard persons assert, a few years 
ago, men of education too, and of observation, that 
the amalgamation of races into a third or new pro- 
duct, partaking of the qualities of the two primitive 
ones from which they sprung, was not only possible, 
but that it was the best mode of improving the 
breed. The whole of this theory has turned out to 
be false : — 1st. As regards the lower animals ; 2d. 
As regards man. Of the first I shall say but little : 
man is the great object of human research ; the phi- 
losophy of Zoology is not indeed wrapt up in him ; 
he is not the end, neither was he the beginning : 
still, as he is, a knowledge of man is to him all- 

"The theories put forth from time to time, of the 
production of a new variety, permanent and self- 
supporting, independent of any draughts or supplies 
from the pure breeds, have been distinctly disproved. 
It holds neither in sheep nor cattle : and an author, 
whose name I cannot recollect, has refuted the 
whole theory as to the pheasant and to the domes- 
tic fowl. He has shown that the artifical breeds so 
produced are never self-supporting. Man can 
create nothing : no new species have appeared, ap- 
parently, for some thousand years; but this is 
another question I mean not to discuss here, al- 
though it is obvious that if a hybrid could be pro- 
duced, self-supporting, the elaborate works of Cu- 


vier would fall to the ground. The theory of 
Aristotle, who explained the variety and strangeness 
of the animal forms in Africa, on the grounds that 
a scarcity of water brought to the wells and springs 
animals of various kinds, from whose intercourse 
sprung the singularly varied African Zoology, has 
been long known to be a mere fable. 

" Nature produces no mules; no hybrids, neither 
in man nor animals. When they accidentally ap- 
pear they soon cease to be, for they are either non- 
productive, or one or other of the pure breeds 
speedily predominates, and the weaker disappears. 
This weakness may either be numerical or innate. 

" That this law applies strictly to man himself, 
all history proves : I once said to a gentleman born 
in Mexico, — Who are the Mexicans? I put the 
same question to a gentleman from Peru, as I had 
done before to persons calling themselves Germans 
— neither could give a distinct reply to the question. 
The fact turns out to be, that there really are no 
such persons ; no such race. 

" When the best blood of Spain migrated to 
America, they killed as many of the natives, that is, 
the copper colored Indians, indigenous to the soil, 
as they could. But this could not go on, laborers 
to till the soil being required. The old Spaniard 
was found unequal to this; he could not colonize 
the conquered country ; he required other aid, native 
or imported. Then came the admixture with the 
Indian blood and the Celt-Iberian blood ; the pro- 
duce being the mulatto. But now that the supplies 
of Spanish blood have ceased, the mulatto must 


cease, too, for as a hybrid he becomes non-produc- 
tive after a time, if he intermarries only with the 
mulatto : he can no longer go back to the Spanish 
blood; that stock has ceased; of necessity then he 
is forced upon the Indian breed. Thus, year by 
year, the Spanish blood disappears, and with it the 
mulatto, and the population retrograding towards 
the indigenous inhabitants, returns to that Indian 
population, the hereditary descendants of those 
whom Cortez found there ; whom nature seemingly 
placed there ; not aliens, nor foreigners, but aborigi- 
nal. As it is with Mexico, so it is with Peru. 

11 When Mr. Canning made his celebrated boast 
in Parliament, that he had created the republics of 
Mexico and Peru, Columbia, Bolivia and Argentine, 
I made, to some friends, the remark, that to create 
races of men was beyond his power, and that the 
result of his measure would merely be to precipi- 
tate that return, sure to come at last, the return to 
the aboriginal Indian population, from whom no 
good could come, from whom nothing could be ex- 
pected ; a race whose vital energies were wound up ; 
expiring : hastening onwards also to ultimate 

"If we look to the period of Rome's conquests, 
we shall find that no amalgamation of races ever 
happened; in Greece it was the same. It would 
seem, indeed, that happen what will, no race, how- 
ever victorious they may be, has ever succeeded in 
utterly destroying a native population and occupy- 
ing their place. Two laws seem to me the cause of 
this. Should the conquering party be numerous, 


there is still the climate against them ; and if few, 
the native race, antagonistic of the conquerors, 
again predominates; so that after most conquests 
the country remains in the hands of the original 

" Let us turn now to the ancient world, to Eu- 
rope, and Asia, and Africa, and inquire into the 
history of the pretended amalgamation of races : the 
extinction of one race and the substitution of another, 
for these two questions may be considered together. 

" There has been no amalgamation of the Celtic 
and Saxon races in Ireland. They abhor each other 
cordially. When I publicly asserted this some 
years ago, I was as publicly contradicted. I call on 
those persons now to say whose opinion was the 
correct one ; the Irish Celt is as distinct from the 
Saxon as he was seven hundred years ago. There 
is no mistaking the question now. Mr. Macaulay, 
in his Chronicles of the English People, will have 
it that the pitiable state of the Irish is owing to their 
religion; but the Caledonian Celt is an Evangelical 
Protestant, and so also is the Cymbrii, or Welsh : 
now I ask this plain question : Is the Caledonian 
Celt better off than the Hibernian ? Is he more in- 
dustrious? more orderly, cleanly, temperate? Has 
he accumulated wealth? Does he look forward to 
to-morrow ? Though a seeming Protestant, can you 
compare his religious formula with the Saxon ? It 
is the race, then, and not the religion ; that elastic 
robe, modern Christianity, adapts itself with wonder- 
ful facility to all races and nations. It has little or 
no influence that I can perceive over human affairs, 


further than a great state engine serving political 
purposes ; a tub for the whale. The great broad 
principles of the morality of man have nothing to do 
with any religion. The races of men still remain 
distinct — the gipsies mingle not, neither do the 
Jews. In Swedish and Russian Lapland, the Lap- 
pes remain apart; the Fins are Slavonians, they 
mingle not with the adjoining Saxon race ; the 
Saxons remain distinct from the Slavonians in the 
Grand Duchy of Posen, and in all eastern Prussia. 
An attempt was made by the Germans to destroy 
the Slavonian race in Bohemia; it was a thirty 
years war, conducted by the savage and imbecile 
House of Hapsburg against the Bohemians. It ut- 
terly failed, and the inhabitants are still Slavonian. 
The Muscovite has grasped all northern Asia, yet 
he has not succeeded in destroying any race, neither 
do they amalgamate with the Russ. The French 
Celt has never yet been able to live and thrive in 
Corsica; Algeria, he can, I fear, hold only as a mili- 
tary possession : a colonist, in the proper sense of 
the term, he never can become. On the banks of 
the Nile still wander in considerable numbers the 
descendants of the men who built the pyramids, and 
carved the Memnon and the Sphynx. Yet Egypt 
is in other hands, as if the destinies of the Coptic 
race had been decided. No one has yet clearly ex- 
plained to the world the precise nature of the domi- 
nant race in Egypt; I mean here, the character of 
the great bulk of the population. They do not 
seem to increase in numbers ; if this, then, be the 
case, their ultimate possession of Egypt may be 


doubted : the Coptic blood still lingers in the land, 
waiting the return of an Amenoph, a Sesostris, a 

"Let us attend now to the greatest of all experi- 
ments ever made in respect of the transfer of a popu- 
lation indigenous to one continent, and attempting 
by emigration to take possession of another ; to cul- 
tivate it with their own hands ; to colonize it ; to 
persuade the world, in time, that they are the na- 
tives of the newly-occupied land. Northern Amer- 
ica and Australia furnished the fields for this, the 
greatest of experiments; already has the horse, the 
sheep, the ox, become as it were indigenous to these 
lands. Nature did not place them there at first, yet 
they seem to thrive, and flourish, and multiply ex- 
ceedingly. Yet, even as regards these domestic 
animals, we cannot be quite certain ; will they even- 
tually be self-supporting ? Will they supplant the 
llama, the kangaroo, the buffalo, the deer ? Or, in 
order to effect this, will they require to be constantly 
renovated from Europe? If this be the contingency, 
then the acclimatation is not perfect. How is it 
with man himself? The man planted there by 
nature, the Red Indian, differs from all others on 
the face of the earth; he gives way before the Eu- 
ropean races, the Saxon and the Celtic : the Celt- 
Iberian and Lusitanian in the south ; the Celt and 
Saxon in the north. Of the tropical regions of the 
new world I need not speak ; every one knows that 
none but those whom Nature placed there can live 
there : that no Europeans can colonize a tropical 
country. But may there not be some doubts of their 

NEGR0MAN1A. 217 

self-support in milder regions? take the Northern 
States themselves. There the Saxon and the Celt 
seems to thrive beyond all that is recorded in his- 
tory. But are we quite sure that this success is 
fated to be permanent? Annually from Europe is 
poured a hundred thousand men and women of the 
best blood of the Scandinavian, and twice that num- 
ber of the pure Celt; and so long- as this continues 
he is sure to thrive. But check it; arrest it sudden- 
ly, as in the case of Mexico and Peru ; throw the 
onus of reproduction upon the population, no longer 
European, but native, or born on the spot; then 
will come the struggle between the European alien 
and his adopted father-land. The climate; the 
forests ; the remains of the aborigines not yet ex- 
tinct; last, not least, that unknown and mysterious 
degradation of life and energy which in ancient 
times seems to have decided the fate of all the Phoe- 
nician, Grecian, and Coptic colonies. Cut off from 
their original stock, they gradually withered and 
faded, and finally died away. The Phoenician 
never became acclimatized in Africa, nor in Corn- 
wall, nor in Wales ; vestiges of his race, it is true, 
still remain, but they are mere vestiges. Peru and 
Mexico are fast retrograding to their primitive con- 
dition ; may not the Northern States, under similar 
circumstances do the same? Already the United 
States man differs in appearance from the European ; 
the ladies early lose their teeth ; in both sexes the 
adipose cellular cushion interposed between the 
skin and the aponeuroses and muscles disappears, 

or, at least, loses its adipose portion; the muscles 



become stringy, and show themselves; the tendons 
appear on the surface ; symptoms of premature 
decay manifest themselves. Now what do these 
signs, added to the uncertainty of infant life in the 
Southern States, and the smallness of their families 
in the Northern, indicate? Not the conversion of 
the Anglo-Saxon into the Red Indian, but warnings, 
that the climate has not been made for him, nor he 
for the climate. See what even a small amount of 
insulation has done for the French Celt in Lower 
Canada. Look at the race there ! small men ; small 
horses ; small cattle ; still smaller carts ; ideas smal- 
lest of all ; he is not even the Celt of modern France. 
He is the French Celt of the Regency ; the thing of 
Louis XIII. Stationary, absolutely stationary, his 
numbers, I believe, depend on the occasional admix- 
ture of fresh blood from Europe. He has increased 
to about a million since his first settlement in Cana- 
da ; but much of this has come from Britain, and 
not from France. Give us the statistics of the ori- 
ginal families who keep themselves apart from the 
fresh blood imported into the province ; let us have 
the real and solid increase of the original habitans, 
as they are pleased to call themselves, and then we 
may calculate on the result. Had the colony been 
left to itself, cut off from Europe for a century or 
two, it is my belief that the forest the buffalo, the 
?vilde> and the Red Indian would have pushed him 
into the St. Lawrence, from the banks of which he 
never had the courage to wander far; amalgamating 
readily with the Red Indian by intermarriage, (for 
the Celt has not that antipathy to the dark races 


which so peculiarly characterize the Saxon;) — 
amalgamating with the Red Indian, the population 
would speedily have assumed the appearance it has 
in Mexico and Peru; to follow the same fate, perish 
or return to the original Indian ; and finally, to ter- 
minate in the all but utter destruction of the original 
race itself. 51 — 58. 

"11. That by mere climate, giving to the expres- 
sion its utmost range of meaning, a new race of men 
can be established in perpetuity, is an assertion 
which for the present is contradicted by every well- 
ascertained physiological law, and by all authentic 
history. On the limited habitable territory of the 
Cape of Good Hope, shut in by deserts and by the 
sea, lived, when the Saxon Hollander first landed 
there, two races of men, as distinct from each other 
as can well be imagined, the Hottentot, or Bosjeman, 
and the Amakoso Caffree. To these was added a 
third, the Saxon Hollander. What time the Bos- 
jeman child of the desert had hunted these desert 
and arid regions, for what period the Hottentot had 
listlessly tended his flocks of fat-tailed sheep, how 
long the bold Caffree had herded his droves of cattle, 
cannot now be ascertained : the Saxon Hollander 
found them there three hundred years ago, as they 
are now in respect of physical structure and mental 
qualifications, inferior races, whom he drove before 
him, exterminating and enslaving the colored man; 
destroying mercilessly the wilde which nature had 
placed there ; and with the wilde, ultimately the 
colored man, in harmony with all around him — an- 
tagonistic, it is true, but still in harmony to a cer- 


tain extent ; non-progressive ; races which myste- 
riously had run their course, reaching the time 
appointed for their destruction. 

" To assert that a race like the Bosjeman, marked 
by so many peculiarities, is convertible, by any pro- 
cess, into an Aniakoso CafFree or Saxon Hollander, 
is at once to set all physical science at defiance. If 
by time, I ask what time? The influence of this 
element I mean to refute presently: the Dutch fami- 
lies who settled in Southern Africa three hundred 
years ago, are now as fair, and as pure in Saxon 
blood, as the native Hollander ; the slightest change 
in structure or color can at once be traced to inter- 
marriage. By intermarriage an individual is pro- 
duced, intermediate generally, and partaking of each 
parent; but this mulatto man or woman is a mon- 
strosity of nature — there is no place for such a fam- 
ily : no such race exists on the earth, however closely 
affiliated the parents may be. To maintain it would 
require a systematic course of intermarriage, with 
constant draughts from the pure races, whence the 
mixed race derives its origin. Now, such an ar- 
rangement is impossible. Since the earliest recorded 
times, such mixtures have been attempted and 
always failed ; with the Celt and Saxon it is the 
same as with Hottentot and Saxon, CafFree and Hot- 
tentot. The Slavonian race or races have been 
deeply intercalated for more than twice ten cen- 
turies with the South German, the pure Scandina- 
vian, the Sarmatian, and even somewhat with the 
Celt, and with the Italian as conquerors : have they 
intermingled ? Do you know of any mixed race the 


result of such admixture? Is it in Bohemia? or 
Saxony ? or Prussia? or Finland? 

" This seems to be the law. By intermarriage a 
new product arises, which cannot stand its ground ; 
1st. By reason of the innate dislike of race to race, 
preventing a renewal of such intermarriages; 2d. 
Because the descendants will of necessity fall back 
upon the stronger race, and all traces, or nearly so, 
of the weaker race must in time be obliterated. In 
what time, we shall afterwards consider. If a pure 
race has appeared to undergo a permanent change 
when transferred to a climate materially differing 
from their own, such changes will be found, on a 
closer inquiry, to be delusive. It has been asserted 
of the West-Indian Creole; of the Mexican, Peru- 
vian, and Chilian Creole ; and of the North Ameri- 
can or Saxon Creole, now called a United States 
man; but the pretended changes we shall find are 
either trifling, or not permanent, or do not exist. 
When speaking of the races so located, that is, dis- 
located from the climate and land of their origin, 
and from the pure race which sent them forth, 
swarms of living beings, in search of new lands, I 
shall endeavor to apply those laws practically which 
are here merely announced, discussing also, in 
separate sections, some of the leading doctrines ap- 
plicable to all men. Of other animals I speak not 
here, for this obvious reason — the species of animals 
as they now exist, have their specific laws regulat- 
ing their existence. What is true of one may or 
may not be true of another. Sheep have their spe- 
cific laws ; so have cattle and horses, pigs and ele- 



pliants. Some of the laws regulating their exist- 
ence are applicable to man in a general way — - 
others, and the greater part, are not. When I am 
told that there is a short-legged race of sheep some- 
where in America, the product of accident, my 
reply is simply — I do not believe it, even although, 
to make the story look better, it has been also added, 
that from among the few short-legged sheep acci- 
dentally produced in the flock, the owner was care- 
ful to extrude the long-legged ones, and so at last 
his- whole flock became short-legged, and he had no 
more trouble with it. It is the old fable of Hippo- 
crates and the Macrocephali reduced to something 
like a scientific formula; transferred from sheep it 
has been made the basis of a theory of race, of man- 
kind — reducing all to accident. By accident, a 
child darker than the rest of the family is born ; 
when this happens in the present day, it is also, by 
courtesy, called an accident, but its nature is well 
understood ; not so in former times. This dark 
child, a little darker than the others, separates, with 
a few more, from the rest of the family, and sojourns 
in a land where a hot sun embrowns them with a 
still deeper hue. In time they become blacker and 
blacker, or browner and browner. Should they 
travel north instead of south, it is all the same, for 
extreme cold produces the same effect as extreme 
heat ! This is ancient and modern physiology ! it 
is the old fable of Hippocrates revived. Men's 
minds seem to move in circles, ever reverting to 
ancient errors ; it is as the struggle of a small body 
of men against the gloomy forest, the bog, the 


spreading desert; lovers of truth vainly endeavoring 
to clear away the accumulated ignorance of fifty 

" For my own part, I do not think such theories 
worthy a serious refutation. Man is not a ruminant ; 
he has his own physiological laws, which ought long 
since to have been traced. But the statement in 
question is not even true of sheep, for by no effort, 
save that of a constant never-ceasing intermixture, 
or draught on the pure breeds, can a mixed breed 
be maintained. Leave it to itself, and it ceases to 
be. It is the same with man; with fowls; with 
cattle ; with horses. Distinct breeds, when not in- 
terfered with, mark them all. Man can create 
nothing permanent ; modify he may for a time, but 
he can create no new living element. It is said 
that the cattle fed on the pampas of South America 
have assumed three distinct forms; be it so — the 
fact proves nothing, for they are constantly inter- 
fered with by man. I have been assured that our 
domestic cattle, imported into New Zealand and 
New Holland, return after a generation or two to 
the primitive breeds — nothing more likely, this, in 
fact, being the physiological law. In Britain we 
have a white breed of cattle, confined within the 
domains of two wealthy families ; they remain white, 
merely because all calves which show other colors 
are destroyed. See how difficult the simplest phy- 
siological question becomes. We talk freely of 
men's destiny and races, and their laws, as if we 
knew them, whilst as yet no one has solved so 


simple a question as the origin of the white cattle 
of Britain and Wales. But to return to man. 

" Add to the hypothesis of accidental origin of a 
variety in family, its separation from its tribe, yet 
even this explanation will fail; for the family so 
separated, by the very law which produced the 
variety, will be fertile in other varieties ; they there- 
fore must also appear in numbers at least equal to 
the others. In the history of the Jewish and Gipsy 
races I shall consider this question at greater length, 
and endeavor to show that the application of the 
doctrines of transcendental anatomy made in this 
direction is also false. 

"'Time and development change all things;' 
this is my own belief: but what is the time re- 
quired? when was man different from what we find 
him now ? Development is positive : time has no 
existence. The existing order of things we see, 
though imperfectly ; of the past, but little has been 
preserved in human records — that little is not un- 
derstood. One thing, however, is certain — the 
Pyramids exist, and the ancient tombs of Egypt; 
the ruins of Karnac ; the paintings on the walls of 
these tombs; some Etruscan remains; the Egyptian 
mummies ; the Cyclopean walls — these are nearly 
all the sure data which man has to depend on whilst 
tracing back his history, and the history of the ex- 
isting order of life, towards that unknown past from 
which he sprung. Now what do these amount to? 
"What do they prove ? They are but as yesterday, 
compared with the period through which the globe 
has rolled in space ; through which life has under- 


gone its ever-succeeding developments; yet they 
announce one fact at least, that man, up to the ear- 
liest recorded time, did not differ materially from 
what he is now ; that there were races then as now ; 
that they seemed to be identical (but of this we are 
not quite certain) with those now existing, and that 
neither over them, nor over the living world around, 
has climate or external circumstances effected any 
serious changes, produced any new species, any 
new groups of animal or vegetable life, any new 
varieties of mankind. To the important fact, if it 
really be one, thus made out, the illustrious and 
cautious Cuvier first drew men's attention ; but his 
reserve, his habitual caution, induced him to omit 
all mention of man. So long as he excluded him 
from his line of observation, the Sorbonne, he was 
aware, cared not what he did with the rest. It was 
his practice to leave untouched whatever he thought 
speculative, unsafe, transcendental — whatever he 
fancied shocked too much the present feelings. 
Satisfied with the refutation of St. Fond, and the 
geologists of his day, he desired to proceed no fur- 
ther. ' He had formed an sera — he constituted an 
sera;' to his positive opinions and well-ascertained 
facts were tacked theories by the theologico-geologi- 
cal school of England, which he never acknow- 
ledged, which he never admitted, which he never 
sanctioned by word or writing. We shall consider 
these matters in a future section ; in the meantime 
one thing remains certain, which he either did not 
notice, or avoided mentioning — man has changed 
no more than other animals ; as they were in Egypt 


when the pyramids were built, so are they now, 
men and animals : man seems different, it is true : 
at first it would appear as if a race had become ex 
tinct ; we shall find it is not so. The Coptic race 
is no more extinct than is the ancient Mexican, and 
even now it is questionable whether the mixed bar- 
barian and savage race of slaves, now called Egyp- 
tians, will ultimately stand their ground, fed though 
they be by imports from Nubia and the White 
Nile — from Greece and Asia Minor. They are not 
Arabs: a motley crew, as I understand, destined to 
cease when the imports are withdrawn, and to as- 
sume a form traceable to the dominant blood now 
circulating, be it Copt or Arab, Nubian or Negro. 

" But in claiming for the races of men an anti- 
quity coeval with the historic period, and with 
man's earliest appearance on the earth, I venture to 
caution you from accepting of this deduction or that 
of M. Cuvier, in respect of animals, as being rigor- 
ously accurate. Neither men nor animals seem to 
have changed ; as regards the latter, Cuvier as- 
serted that they had not in the slightest degree. 
Admitting the expression to be sufficiently accurate 
for his and our purpose, yet I think it strong, per- 
haps too strong. Data sufficiently accurate and 
extensive are wanting to enable us to institute a 
very rigorous comparison. I do not mean to cavil 
at the expression : the changes undergone in five or 
six thousand years are so small as to escape notice ; 
but it does not absolutely follow that no changes 
whatever have taken place. On the tombs of 
Egypt, the most valuable of all existing records, 


there stands the Negro, the Jew, and Copt, the Per- 
sian, the Sarmatian, nearly as we find them now ; 
this is enough for our purpose. Herodotus says that 
the Egyptians of iiis days were black men : very 
possibly ; but neither before nor since his period has 
this remark been found to be true. The paintings 
on the tombs and the mummies entombed alike re- 
fute his assertion, if extended beyond his period. 
He gossipped, I am afraid, like some other travel- 
lers, and talked a good deal about what he did not 
understand. Was he ever in Egypt? I feel dis- 
posed to doubt it. His story about the Persian 
skull reminds me of the next assertion of ancient 
and modern physiologists, of the supposed influence 
of external, even mechanical, means over the human 

"It is to Hippocrates we owe the story of the 
Macrocephali, inhabiting at that time the shores of 
the Euxine. They were a race with narrow, elon- 
gated, elevated heads and depressed foreheads, like 
the American Indians, or copper-colored race, and 
more especially like the Carib and the Chenook. 
This variety in form the illustrious Greek explains 
in this way — for of the unity of mankind he never 
doubted any more than any other strictly scientific 
man : he fancied, for it was mere fancy, that this 
extraordinary form of head was at first produced by 
pressure, but that in time this pressure became un- 
necessary, the malformation becoming permanent 
by hereditary descent. Two hypotheses in a breath, 
both opposed to well-ascertained physiological laws. 
That the Carib and Chenook, and the ancient Ma- 


crocephali, fancied that by pressure they could give 
to the human head what form they chose, is certain 
enough; but does it follow that they could do so? 
The form of the head I speak of is peculiar to the 
race; it may be exaggerated somewhat by such 
means, but cannot be so produced : neither will 
such deformation become hereditary. For four 
thousand years have the Chinese been endeavoring 
to disfigure the feet of their women : have they suc- 
ceeded in making the deformation permanent? 
Corsets have been worn time out of mind : Galen 
complains of them ; he ascribes to them all sorts of 
bad results, deformities of spine and chest. Have 
such become hereditary ? All matrons still produce 
virgin daughters. For how long have the Jews, 
with African and Eastern nations, practised circum- 
cision? Has the deformation become hereditary? 
Is there any instance of such accidental or mechani- 
cal deformities becoming transmissible by heredita- 
ry descent? 

" The varieties of form classed under the law of 
deformation, and dependent on the operation of the 
great law of unity of organization, belong to a differ- 
ent category, as will be explained in a distinct chap- 
ter on that head ; but even they are kept in constant 
check by the laws of specialization, restoring man 
and animals to their specific shapes, else what would 
life terminate in ? Varieties in form proceed only 
to a certain length — they are constantly checked by 
two laws, the laws maintaining species as they 
exist — 1, the tendency to reproduce the specific 
form instead of the variety ; 2, non-viability, or non- 


reproduction, that is, extinction. This it is which 
checks deformations of all kinds, and I even think 
I have observed varieties in form to be more com- 
mon in those who die young than in those reaching 
adult years, as if the very circumstance of these in- 
ternal deformations or varieties, however unimpor- 
tant they may seem, coincided at least, if they were 
not the efficient cause of early decay of the vital 
powers and of premature death. Had the heads of 
the Macrocephali of ancient times, and of the Carib 
and Chenook and Peruvian of modern, owed their 
forms to mechanical means, that form would and 
must have ceased with their immediate descendants, 
or the race would have perished. How much more 
singular is the fact, that there should exist naturally 
men with heads and brains so singularly shaped ; 
that it should be in their nature ; that the form 
should still persist — unalterable, dependent on no 
climate, Asiatic — American ; ancient and modern. 
•This curious question we shall discuss when speak- 
ing of the American race ; let us in the meantime 
bring this lecture to a close : the great laws an- 
nounced in it will fall to be examined again in their 
application to race and to human history. 

" It was Herodotus who said, that on a field of 
battle it was easy to distinguish the Egyptian from 
the Persian skull, the former being hard, the latter 
soft. Herodotus must, I think, have studied medi- 
cine ; he gives a reason in such a pleasant off-hand 
way for all natural phenomena. The reason he 
assigns for this difference is, that the Persians cov- 
ered the head — the Egyptians used no head-dress. 



Admitting both facts to be true, and I doubt them 
both, the reason given explains nothing ; if there 
was a difference, it depended on race. The Copt 
was African ; the Persian, Asiatic : they were differ- 
ent races of men — that is all. The black Egyptians 
of Herodotus have not been seen since his time. 

"The theories and errors of Hippocrates and 
Herodotus linger in the physiological schools to this 
day. M. Foville, for example, ascribes to mechani- 
cal pressure on the head of the infant, the wide hol- 
low groove occasionally traversing it over the region 
of the vertex, and so frequently persisting to the 
adult state — a deformation wholly independent of 
such a cause, and occurring in all countries. The 
late Mr. Key persisted in blaming tight and short 
shoes for the most common deformity of the feet; 
and Dr. Combe, still lingering on the gossip of 
Herodotus, finds a Boeotia in Holland, with all its 
presumed results — a marshy, foggy, wet and heavy 
land, giving rise to phlegm and dulness— the grave 
and witless, plodding Dutchman. I put these three 
observations, but not the writers, under the same 
category ; the last is refuted by every observation, 
and is below notice. But to return. 

" To Hippocrates, then, as representing the entire 
class of physiologists, we owe most of the medical, 
philosophical, and theo-philosophical notions of the 
present day ; the theories which teach that cities 
looking to the west differ very materially from cities 
looking to the east, as also their inhabitants; the 
reason why Asiatics differ from Europeans, not one 
word of which is true : how in a country where the 


seasons and climates differ much, the inhabitants 
also must differ much, the reverse of which is near- 
er the truth ; to him we owe the theory, that people 
living under a monarchy are servile and cowardly, 
whilst republicans are bold and brave — a doctrine 
which certainly has some little show of truth, and 
which we may afterwards discuss. His theories he 
transmitted to the scholars of Greece ; they affected 
even Aristotle, a master-mind, who ought to have 
known better; but it is difficult to shake off the pre- 
judices of centuries and education. Aristotle as- 
signs as a cause for the variety of strange and fan- 
tastic forms of animal life w r ith which Africa 
abounds, and abounded also in his time, the scarcity 
of water, which, bringing to the same wells and 
springs all sorts of animals, gave rise to an endless 
variety of offspring ! And this reminds me of a 
mysterious law in nature, not yet fully investigated, 
to which I next beg to call your attention. I know- 
that I have little or no occasion now to tell you, that 
climate in no way influences man's form or color 
permanently; some of the exceptions to this state- 
ment, which will no doubt occur to you, fall to be 
explained in the next section. 65 — 75. 

" 12. But this last element of population, on 
which the Mexican, and Peruvian, and Chilian no 
doubt were thus thrown back, had already myste- 
riously run its course : they were on the decline 
when Cortez landed ; they had passed through their 
determined eras and civilization; on the curved line 
indicating their course they seemed to have passed 
the zenith; their population then as it is now, was 


on the wane— was gradually becoming extinct. 
This the motley group called Mexicans and Peru- 
vians now feel — they are instinctively conscious 
that the period approaches when all again must be- 
come desert or Indian — a moral or a physical desert ; 
absence of life, or absence of mind. But for the 
Saxon invasion from the north, it might have hap- 
pened in Mexico and Peru, and in Chili, that the 
desolation of these countries — say a hundred years 
hence — would have burst on Europe as an astound- 
ing and inexplicable fact. The man of the United 
States, who as yet delights in no name, might have 
walked into the land without any interruption or 
hindrance from any race. Penetrating to the centre 
of the so-called Empire, he might have once more 
seen the sacrificial fires kindled on the pyramids of 
Cholula. A native population of nearly pure In- 
dian would once more have regained its ascendency, 
to perish ultimately — to return to that nothing out 
of which they came. 

"But now the Saxon, grasping at more wealth, 
more land, comes in as a new element upon the 
already effete creations of Canning. Will he fare 
better ? Will he be able to extinguish a race — the 
Indian of South America — and put himself in its 
place ? I believe not, in that climate at least. Will 
he succeed even in North America? Is the boasted 
Union to be permanent? The pettifogging politi- 
cians of the day say, seriously and gravely, that in 
their opinions it must come to a monarchy at last ! 
Profound politicians ! A half dozen monarchies at 
last; a king of New York, a Leopold installed in 


Kentucky, an Otho in Michigan, a liberal despotism 
under a prince of the noble house of Brunswick or 
Brandenburg. But you forget that these people 
are Saxons: democrats by their nature. Look at 
the Dutch Saxon at the Cape, a handful of Boors — 
yes, a mere handful of Boors — bearding your best 
cavalry officer at the head of six regiments. You 
have yet to discover the true nature of the Saxon ; 
you will not yet understand it, and yet you received 
a sharp lesson at Boston, and at New Orleans, losing 
the mightiest colony ever founded by any race or 
nation. Australia comes next; then South Africa; 
your Norman government cannot profit by expe- 
rience. But to return. 

" As the Southern States of America become de- 
populated by the operation of the physiological laws 
laid down, that vast land will fall an easy prey to 
the Saxon and Celtic races now occupying the 
northern States. That they will ultimately seize 
on them there cannot be a doubt, driving" before 
them the expiring remains of native and Lusitanian, 
Celt-Iberian and Mulatto — a worthless race — effete, 
exhausted, before even Hannibal and a handful of 
Carthagenians held the country from which they 
sprung as a mere appendage of Carthage. A single 
Roman legion was enough for Old Spain ; it could 
hold it yet. The United States men, the descend- 
ants of Anglo-Saxon, the Fleming and Celt, with a 
sprinkling of South and Middle German, are now 
in possession of North America — it seems to be ab- 
solutely theirs : they form a union — they begin to 

talk of natives and foreigners — they have forgotten 



who they are, and fancy themselves Americans, be- 
cause they choose to call themselves so ; just as our 
West India planters might have assumed the name 
and title of native true-born Caribs. The " United 
States man " believes himself to be independent of 
Europe, by which, if he means anything, he must 
mean independent of the race or races from which 
he sprung. 79 — 81. 

" 13. In remote times the Scandinavian or Saxon 
attempted Gaul, Sarmatia, and Slavonia. They 
have been constantly defeated. The Austrian em- 
pire is not Saxon — it is not even German. They 
next attempted Italy and Greece, with no better 
success. Malta is not English, any more than 
Cephalonia. In western tropical Africa, the " sea- 
son'' generally reduces England's efforts at coloni- 
zation to a dozen or two white men, the result of a 
century's exertions on the part of England. 
Mighty England, with her fast growing race, cannot 
colonize a single acre of a tropical African country ; 
her flag, however, still waves over it, no African 
seemingly thinking it worth while to pull it down. 
The experiments on this head are not altogether 
before the public ; the springs and causes of action 
seldom reach the surface so as to be visible. Two 
bold attempts at least were made in my own time 
to convert Central Africa into another India ; to dis- 
cover in Central Africa a "mine of patronage;" 
but it would not do. The first attempt, in my own 
recollection, was to fill the country with troops ; 
commerce would have answered better, but our 
Norman government always prefers the bayonet to 


any other form of progress. They first tried the 
bayonet ; troops were sent in large numbers, com- 
posed of men who, having deserted, had commuted 
their sentence of punishment into enlisting into 
what was called a condemned regiment — that is, a 
regiment serving on the west coast of Africa. Con- 
demned they were, no doubt, for few escaped the 
effects of the deadly climate. Nearly all perished, 
and the experiment was a failure. 

" The second attempt was made by that profound 
statesman, Lord Russell. The open bayonet having 
failed, it was covered with bales of goods, and sent 
up the Niger; the bayonet was still there, but con- 
cealed. A central fort, high up the Niger or Quorra, 
was wanted in the centre of tropical Africa — a Fort 
Vittoria — to enslave countless nations, hitherto free. 
But the second experiment failed, like the first, to 
be repeated again, no doubt, at some future period. 
This is not the first time the Saxon has attempted 
to extend his race to Africa ; he tried it during the 
dark ages, but the natives beat him. With gun- 
powder and wealth, the sinews of war, he made his 
last attempt : climate defeated it. So at least it 
seemed ; but I partly doubt this. The affair might 
have gone off better under able leaders. 

" Let us next examine the question from a point 
of view, new, I believe, and it may be startling, to 
most of my readers Taught to believe that man, 
and especially Saxon man, may live anywhere, he 
has been taught that vast regions of the earth have 
been depeopled by " the mysterious arrangements 
of Providence, to facilitate the extension of the 

236 NEGR0MAN1A. 

Saxon race ; " that the coloured races die out before 
him for the same reason — wither at his mere ap- 
proach, and perish ; that, peculiarly favoured by Pro- 
vidence and its divine dispensations, aided by gun- 
powder and the art of printing, the globe itself must 
ultimately be his. He cannot imagine the bare possi- 
bility of the race being found unequal to the colo- 
nizing a country enjoying a temperate climate. He 
is the man of to-day ; yesterday is nothing to him ; 
he forgets, he despises, he denies its existence. He 
is the man of this day. Onward ! is the cry. The 
adage of Horace was written for him. Here is a 
picture of the man. 

" Requested by a friend to revisit Paris, on mat- 
ters important to him, I proceeded to Folkestone, 
an ancient seaside, fishing, and smuggling town on 
the southern coast of England, the nearest point, I 
believe, to Boulogne-sur-Mer. We were to embark 
for ' beautiful France ' next morning. A night 
perfectly calm, mild, clear, a moonlight . night, 
though cold, tempted me from the great hotel com- 
plete with English comforts, to the closely-adjoin- 
ing beach, where wandering alone, by the margin 
of the rippling tide, listening to its hollow murmur, 
and gazing on the placid waters trembling under 
the ineffectual beams of the silvery orb, my mind 
reverted to times and events long past. At no great 
distance from the shore where I stood, I had myself 
embarked for France, when hopes and years were 
fresh and young : along the shores had I brought to 
England the first of the wounded of Mont St. Jean. 
But the scene shifted to the past. Memory, ever 


active, ever restless, unfolded visions of historic 
recollections. At a short distance, nay, perhaps on 
this very spot, Harold surveyed his troops; at no 
great distance, I knew, lay Hastings ; that bloody 
field, surpassing far in its terrible results the un- 
happy day of Waterloo. From this the Celt has 
recovered, but not so the Saxon. To this day he 
feels, and feels deeply, the most disastrous day that 
ever befel his race ; here he was trodden down by 
the Norman — whose iron-heel is on him yet. Here 
William found a congenial race, driving with them 
into Northern England the Saxon race ; and here 
was all but annihilated the liberties of mankind : 
the questions which transcends all others — whether 
man is to be a free man or a slave — was nearly 
settled at Hastings. To this day the Saxon race in 
England have never recovered a tithe of their 
rights : and, probably, never will. 

" As I thought over these great events (great, not 
from the handful of men, who boldly cut each 
other's throats at Hastings, like stout yoemen and 
good Christians ; but great, beyond all expression, 
when viewed as a contest of principle, of race; 
freedom against slavery ; the reign of the law 
against the reign of the sword ; whose most terrible 
evils still subsists in England, untouched and un- 
assailed), I bethought me of visiting the bee-hive 
looking village, not altered, I believe, since Harold's 
time, clustered on the slope of those white cliffs so 
celebrated in English song. A vulgar, filthy 
mechanical wall and rail crossed the village, but 
clearing its low, ill-shaped arch, the sea-beach was 


once more before me, with ships high and dry on 
the strand in no ways larger than what accompanied 
William on that grand voyage when, true to his 
race, he singled out England as his antagonist — 
Saxon England, freed at the time from continental 
despotism ; continental slavery ; continental dynas- 
ties. Here, on this strand, I heard the sound of 
revelry proceeding from a small inn or ale-house, 
frequented, no doubt, by tradesmen and fishermen. 
Music it was not : it would be a profanation of the 
term to call it so : a body of jolly companions were 
roaring the ditty called f Rule Britannia ; ' and how 
Britons would never be slaves — on that very spot 
where these Britons were beaten to a stand-still 
by the single force of an adventurer, and their 
country subjected to the most abject slavery : an 
enduring slavery, never to be overcome. 

" Now we revert to the primitive colony of the 
Anglo-Saxon; the Jutlander, the Dane, the Hol- 
steiner, the Swede, the Norwegian, the Saxon in 
fact, who founded an Anglo-Saxon colony in Britain, 
and tell me, have you yet succeeded in substituting 
yourselves for another race? In south England 
you overthrew the Fleming and the Norman at 
first; but William drove you back again into 
Northern and central England : your government is 
strictly Norman; your dynasty continental; your 
peasantry slaves. Had a bridge connected Nor- 
mandy with south England, your race would then 
have been driven still further to the north by an 
antagonistic race, numerically as strong as you are. 
In Wales you have made no progress ; your very 


language being rejected by the Cymri; in Ireland 
your existence seems to me to depend on the Orange 
lodges, composed, no doubt, mostly of Saxon men. 
Eastern and Southern Scotland is no doubt yours, 
but the Caledonian Celt still holds his country. 

" Thus it would appear that, after all, Britain is 
not so thoroughly a Saxon colony as was thought ; 
a repetition of Hastings under Napoleon would have 
closed its career as a Saxon country, and free men 
of true Saxon blood must have sped their way in 
ships and boats across the Atlantic, there to make 
their last stand for civil and religious liberty. These 
you have not in Britain nor in Ireland, but in their 
stead, a mighty sham which suits the age and 

" Let us follow the Saxon across the Atlantic ; 
trace him to northern America, to the Cape, to 
Australia; first to northern America, where Celt and 
Saxon, for both assisted, have no doubt, founded 
a colony to which the annals of mankind afford no 

" A mighty forest, extending from sea to sea, to 
man seemingly boundless ; a new vegetable and 
animal world; another climate, another continent; 
another soil. These suffice for the existence of the 
native red Indian, the man of the woods ; the Ameri- 
can, in fact ; he perishes from famine and wars, but 
seemingly not from disease ; yet, when the Saxon 
and Celt first located themselves there, even then 
this race seemed to be on the wane, following in the 
sad round of fate others who had preceded them. 
Beyond them all is mystery, yet they seem to have 


succeeded others, now mouldering into dust or long 
since become a portion of that soil from which they 
drew their support — to which they have returned 
— perishing and for ever extinct, without a name, 
without a history. In this land, the Celt and Sax- 
on, with different fortunes and different views, lo- 
cated themselves ; the Celtic colony (Canada) re- 
mained as it was ; the Saxon-Celtic, impelled by 
Saxon energy, rapidly progressed to an astounding 
magnitude, threatening to overtop the world. Al- 
ready the Saxon democrat raises the cry — America 
is ours, from the land of fire to the icy shores, where 
Englishmen have sought a western passage ; from 
the Arctic to the Antarctic Gircle. We are the 
natives, shout the Saxon ! Such was the language, 
no doubt, of the Roman, when, calmly reposing on 
the banks of the gently flowing Ouse, he transmit- 
ted, by post, letters to his friends at Rome or An- 
tioch, Rhodes or Carthage, Syracuse or Byzantium, 
surer to reach him then than now ; and such, no 
doubt, was the language of Cortez when he unfurled 
the Spanish flag in Mexico : so thought Attila, 
when, penetrating into Europe, he scarcely saw an 
enemy worthy his arms. Sesostris (if there was 
ever such a person) had dreams like these : and Ta- 
merlane, Zengis Khan, and Napoleon at Moscow. 
But all these reckoned without their host; that is, 
Nature ! whose laws are not human laws, who con- 
sults no man : who bids you look on and chronicle 
events, but predict not. The scheme of nature was 
never revealed to them nor to you. 

" It was Barton Smith, I think, who foretold that 


in time the European races located in Northern 
America would gradually degenerate (?) into the 
red Indian ! This incredible nonsense passed in my 
younger days for sound physiology— sound ortho- 
dox philosophy. In defiance of all history, this non- 
sense was listened to. But why did Barton Smith 
stop there? Why not extend it to all animals and 
plants? Why should man alone be the subject of 
such a metamorphosis? But we have already dis- 
cussed this point ; let us keep to man himself. 

"The Saxon and Celt migrate to America; they 
multiply, or seem to multiply, exceedingly, in many 
parts of the territory; they are equal to labor in the 
field — that field has, in consequence, become theirs. 
In the Southern States, the laborer is the Negro — 
that field therefore is not theirs, and that they must 
lose in time. Hindoos and Chinese will work as 
slaves for ten centuries or more, but not Negroes. 
In the Northern States, the Saxon is a laborer ; his 
health and strength seem unimpaired; the statistics 
of population seem to be in his favor as to the ex- 
tension of his race; but this is still doubtful: no 
sweeping epidemic, such as formerly destroyed his 
settlements, seem now to affect him — at least not 
seriously ; to avoid them, he migrates or oscillates 
northward and southward, as the case may be; 
finally, and that to any race is the most important 
of all, he confronts no other energetic or numerically 
stronger race in which his race might and would 
merge, becoming annihilated and lost even to the 
recollections of men. And yet, with all this, I 
doubt the fact of his ultimately making good his 



"boast, of his ultimately becoming a race of native 
true born Americans. For, 1st, Spain thought so, 
and where is she now? Where is the boasted Em- 
pire of the Indies ? 2d. The native races are not 
yet extinct ; in the Southern States there is a Negro 
population, who may one day be masters ; remem- 
ber St. Domingo. 3d. Year after year, day almost 
by day, the best blood of England and Ireland is 
poured into the great American colony, from Nou- 
velle Orleans to Montreal ; infused into the mass to 
leaven and uphold it, not in a niggard stream, as 
from Spain and Portugal, but in a vast tide, equal 
annually to the founding a mighty empire. Whilst 
this goes on, no statistics of population in America 
are worthy a moment's consideration. But when 
this stream shall stop, as stop it must, when the 
colony comes to be thrown on its own resources, 
when fresh blood is no longer infused into it, and 
that, too, from the very sources whence they origi- 
nally sprung ; when the separation of Celt, Saxon, 
and South German shall have taken place in Ameri- 
ca itself — an event sure to happen — then will come 
the time to calculate the probable result of this great 
experiment on man. All previous ones of this na- 
ture have failed ; why should this succeed ? Already 
I imagine I can perceive in the early loss of the 
subcutaneous adipose cushion which marks the 
Saxon and Celtic-American — proofs of a climate 
telling against the very principle of life — against 
the very emblem of youth, and marking with a 
premature appearance of age the race whose sojourn 
in any land can never be eternal under circumstan- 


ces striking at the essence of life itself. Symptoms 
of a premature decay, as the early loss of teeth, have 
a similar signification; the notion that the races be- 
come taller in America I have shown to be false; 
statistics, sound statistics, have yet to be found ; we 
want the history of a thousand families, and of their 
descendants, who have been located in America two 
hundred years ago, and who have not intermingled 
with blood fresh from Europe. The population 
returns offered us now are worthless, on a question 
of this kind. The colonization, then, of Northern 
America by Celt and Saxon, and south or middle 
German, is a problem, whose success cannot be 
foretold, cannot reasonably be believed. All such 
experiments have hitherto failed. 

" The physiological laws just laid down, apply, 
mutatis mutandis, to the Saxon colony of southern 
Africa. The Dutch boor never labored there. He 
lived a wandering nomad life, the cruel oppressor 
of the native dark races, whom he nearly extin- 
guished. The Anglo-Saxon assisted him bravely 
in the extermination of the CafFree : when the Dutch, 
boor could no longer lord it over the dark races, he 
quitted the colony. Of all countries known, the 
Cape of Good Hope and Australia, that is, extra- 
tropical Africa and Australia, are esteemed the 
healthiest, and if anywhere, it is here that an Eu- 
ropean race might hope to live and thrive; let us 
hope for the best. Tn Australia it can scarcely be 
said that an antagonistic race faces them, so miser- 
ably sunk is the native population. A ready way 
too of extinguishing them has been discovered ; the 


Anglo-Saxon has already cleared out Tasmania. 
It was a cruel, cold blooded, heartless deed. Aus- 
tralia is too large to attempt the same plan there ; 
but by shooting the natives as freely as we do crows 
in other countries-, the population must become thin 
and scarce in time. But I touch the history of the 
dark races of men, which must not be entered on 
here. The so-called ancient races first merit our 
attention ; some of these called white or fair, Cau- 
casian by courtesy, the Jew, the Gipsey, the Copt, 
the Hindoo. These first require our attention : in 
briefly describing these races we shall touch on the 
physiological laws embraced in this question: Have 
any races of men become extinct? Or any races 01 
animals? Have the doctrines ascribed to Cltvier 
any foundation in truth? 'The elucidation of the 
direct and indirect antagonism of man to nature's 
works ' belongs to the chapter on the Dark Races. 


" 14. On the southern border of Scotland, not far 
from the sources of the Beaumont Water, and in a 
secluded valley communicating with that vast 
range of mountain country, of which the Great 
Cheviot may be considered the centre, there stands 
a village inhabited by at least two distinct races of 
men : — 1. The common Saxon race of the south of 
Scotland ; 2. The race of gipsies. These, the gipsy 
people, reside during the winter months in this 
village, decamping, like the Arabs, I presume, as 
the summer advances, late in April, or early in May, 
like migratory birds or quadrupeds seeking other 


lands, to return again with the first snows to their 
winter dormitory. They neither toil nor think; 
theirs is the life of the wild animal, unaltered and 
unalterable; confine them, limit their range, and 
they perish. Their ancient history is utterly un- 
known: in the meantime, the climate of Britain 
has had much less effect on them than on surround- 
ing Cheviot; swarthy in complexion, with dark 
long eyes, black hair, a somewhat oval face, an 
Eastern physiognomy, neither Jewish, nor Coptic, 
nor Arab; mouth larger than in the European; 
nostrils somewhat expanded ; stature moderate. 
Their history is unknown; they prefer the tent to 
the hut, and, but for our climate, would probably 
never settle down anywhere; in England, I under- 
stand, they never do so, even during winter. Their 
modern position in Spain has been sketched by a 
vigorous but somewhat romantic pen. Let me 
state to you calmly the facts I have myself witnessed, 
the few observations I have made on this race, 
which we in ignorance call singular, merely be- 
cause their animal nature, their instincts, their 
whole views of life and its objects, differ essentially 
and eternally from ours. That they remain as they 
are in physical form, is simply because climate and 
the other external agencies to which Hippocrates 
assigned such importance really have no permanent 
effects on man nor on any other animal, so long as 
the existing media and order of things prevail. 
They do not intermarry with other races; this is the 
grand secret. To Saxon and white races they have 

the same horror that the Saxon has for the Negro ; 

21 * 


the singularity, then, applies as well to one as the 
other; in fact, there is nothing singular in it, seeing 
that it merely amounts to the dislike which one race 
bears to another. 103 — 104. 


" 15. Section I. — Of a race I have not seen— of a 
people scarcely noticed by modern travellers ; of a 
handful of men forming, so far as I can understand, 
the residue, the vestiges of a nation at once a race 
and a nation, — I naturally speak with great doubt 
— with hesitation — and the utmost readiness to be 
put right on any point whatever ; for of the Copt, 
whether ancient or modern, I can find only conflict- 
ing statements. What race constitutes the present 
laborers of Egypt ? No one that I know of has 
condescended to clear up this question. They are 
not Arabs, nor Negroes, nor Jews, nor Phoenicians ; 
the Copt forms but a handful of the population. 
Like the Mongol, they are becoming extinct; they 
slowly and gradually perish ; they seem to know 
nothing even of their own monuments ; the Copts 
certainly are not precisely Jews, nevertheless they 
resemble them strongly. In their palmy days of 
power they caricatured the Jew, representing him 
with ears displaced backwards, eyes and mouth of 
great length, and an indescribable mixture of hircine 
and human aspect. 

" The modern Copt, in so far as I can learn, re- 
sembles the ancient Egyptian, judging of these last 
by the busts still preserved ; but even this fact I 
cannot fully make out. English travellers are so 


occupied with their personal adventures, and 
French with political intrigue, that there is no get- 
ting a single new or valuable fact from their silly 
books of travels. The modern Coptic language 
corresponds, I think, with the ancient Demotic. 
No one now thoroughly understands the hierogly- 
phics, and I doubt the accuracy of all the interpre- 
tations. The profane history of Egypt by the 
Egyptians cannot, so far as I can discover, be 
identified with the Jewish record ; the name and 
times of Shisak alone having been discovered in an 
oval of an Egyptian temple. Even the presence of 
the Jews in Egypt cannot be made out by Egyptian 
monumental history ; and the physiognomy of the 
laborers of ancient Egypt, as represented on the 
tombs and temples, is not of foreigners, but evidently 
Coptic. Different races of men are sketched on the 
walls of the tomb opened by Belzoni, showing that 
the characteristic distinctions of races were as well 
marked three thousand years ago as now ; the Negro 
and other races existed then precisely as they are 
at present. . . 

" What has become of the grand Coptic race — 
those builders unequalled in ancient or modern 
times? We are told that foreigners and slaves 
built these wonderful monuments which yet astonish 
the world ; I, for one, do not believe it. The work- 
men employed were Egyptians. Their disposition 
was to build ; their innate instincts were architec- 
tural, in this coinciding with the Jew, the Greek, 
the Phoenician. Their past history is a perfect 
enigma to this day, nor do I believe that a single 


leading fact has been well made out. Who were 
the Hikshohs, the Shepherd Kings, &c. ? Did 
civilization travel up or down the banks of the 
Nile ? Did the Nile irrigate in former times the 
Lybian Desert, and are the oases proofs of such 
being its course ? The sources of the true Nile are 
unknown to this day. All is mystery — problems 
unsolved. Herodotus says he visited Egypt, but he 
could not have penetrated far into the country ; and 
he asserts, moreover, that the people were black, 
which is refuted by every other observation, ancient 
and modern. 

" It was whilst examining the tomb, exhibited by 
Belzoniin London, 1822 or 1823, in so far as I can 
recollect, that I pointed out to my most esteemed 
friends, Messrs. Hodgkin and Edwards, the unalter- 
able characters of races. Neither time nor climate 
seems to have any effect on a race. 

" Herodotus says that the priests showed him the 
mode of formation of the Delta by the slow deposit 
of mud brought by the river from the interior of 
Africa. This most plausible and probable theory is, 
after all, but a theory. Three thousand years ago 
the waters of the Nile seem to have been just where 
they are now, and the black stone of Rosetta was 
found, as its name implies, at Rosetta, on the very 
borders of the Mediterranean, If this be its real locale 
it bestows an inconceivable antiquity on Rosetta. 
But Homer describes Egypt as being in the times 
of the Trojan war a highly civilized country ; what 
an antiquity must we then assign to it! The 
Homeric poem itself was suspected to be Egyptian, 


and Cadmus brought letters into Greece from Egypt, 
happily leaving the hieroglyphics where he found 

"But, in whatever way the chronological difficul- 
ties may be got over, there is a fact of curious im- 
port connected with this pyramid-building, mummy- 
making people or race. If we travel westwards 
along the shores of the Mediterranean, we discover 
that an offset of the race seems to have existed in 
the Canary Isles, or Cape de Verds ; and the ex- 
tinct Guanches closely resembled Egyptians in 
certain particulars. Now, cross the Atlantic, and 
in a nearly parallel zone of the earth, or at least in 
one not far removed, we stumble all at once upon 
the ruined cities of Copan and Central America. 
To our astonishment, notwithstanding the breadth 
of the Atlantic, vestiges of a nature not to be 
doubted, of a thoroughly Egyptian character, re- 
appear ; — hieroglyphics, monolithic temples, pyra- 
mids. I confess myself wholly unequal to the ex- 
plaining any of these difficulties satisfactorily. 
Who erected these monuments on the American 
continent ? It could scarcely be the native 
American Indians, as we call them; and yet the 
carvings on the remains seem to portray an Ameri- 
can physiognomy. Still I have my doubts, and 
would gladly take a view of these figures and busts. 
Perhaps at some remote period the continents were 
not so far apart ; they might have even been united, 
thus forming a zone or circle of the earth occupied 
by a pyramid-building people. All the literary 
world must no doubt remember the dispute of Byrne 


respecting the comparative antiquity of the round 
towers and the pyramids ; his mystifications, and 
the novelty and ingenuity of his views, No doubt 
he was partly in the right. The Phoenician phy- 
siognomy can easily be made out in South Ireland 
and in Cornwall, but these races were not Egyptians. 
Thus of all races of men w T e, perhaps, know least 
about that race whose records, could we read them, 
would solve many of the most dificult problems of 
ancient history. Their relationship to the Jews 
cannot be questioned, but they were not precisely 
Jews. The uses of the Pyramids, if they had any 
use, have never been discovered, and the date of 
their erection was unknow r n even in the days of 
Herodotus. It makes one smile when they hear 
of Egyptian monuments being carved and set up 
in Egypt in the time of Hadrian; so early as the 
days of Augustus the Romans had commenced 
plundering Egypt of her antiquities; and so it has 
continued to the present day ; from Augustus to 
Louis Philippe, monuments have been brought from 
Egypt, not erected there. I cannot even find that 
much was done during the occupation of Egypt by 
the Greek dynasty. Egypt had passed its grandeur, 
and had sunk into insignificance, when Alexander, 
with a handful of troops, could seize and hold it, 
and transmit its throne to a foreign family. The 
condition of Syria, of the Phoenicians, and of that 
section of Chaldeans called the Jews, may be 
judged of by this, that the historians of Alexander 
do not think it worth while noticing their existence. 
Alexander, five hundred years before our Saviour, 


marched through Syria and Palestine, taking pos- 
session of the country, taking possession of Judea, 
as if no such people existed as the Israelites. 

I look on the history of Josephus as perhaps the 
most monstrous historic exaggeration ever penned, 
and I consider him as a person devoid of all truth. 


" 16. It was during that summer when the Dutch 
and Belgians were carrying on a war after their owm 
fashion — marching and counter-marching, advanc- 
ing and retreating, but never fighting — that, having 
a few weeks leisure from the routine of a most labo- 
rious life, I resolved to visit personally two countries 
where I hoped to see two distinct races of men, as 
distinct from each other as possible, or, at least, as 
modern amalgamations admit of; these countries 
were Holland and Wales. I determined to witness 
for myself what changes had been effected on the 
population of these two countries by time and civi- 
lization ; the results, in as far as regards these races, 
shall be submitted to you when describing the 
dominant races of men ; but first let me speak to you 
of another race I found in Holland, favorably placed 
for observation — the Jew. I had reached London, 
that compound of all the earth, and I had looked 
attentively at the Jewish physiognomy on the 
streets, as he perambulates our pavements, and with 
a hoarse, unmusical voice, proclaims to you his 
willingness to purchase the cast-off clothes of others; 
or, assuming the air of a person of a different stamp, 


he saunters about Cornhill in quest of business; or, 
losing sight of his origin for a moment, he dresses 
himself up as the flash man about town; but never 
to be mistaken for a moment — never to be confound- 
ed with any other race. The women, too, were 
not forgotten; the beauties of Holywell street, there 
they are ; the lineal descendants of those who fled 
from Egypt — spoiling the Egyptians — -forgetting to 
replace what they had borrowed — but never return- 
ing to that land to which one might suppose them 
attached, though it does not really seem so — the 
land of promise. 

" But where are the Jewish farmers, Jewish me- 
chanics, laborers? Can he not till the earth, or 
settle anywhere? Why does he dislike handicraft 
labor ? Has he no ingenuity, no inventive power, 
no mechanical or scientific turn of mind ? no love 
for war, nor for the arts of peace? And then I 
began to inquire into this, and I saw, or thought I 
saw, that the Jews who followed any calling were 
not really Hebrews, but sprung of a Jewish father 
and a Saxon or Celtic mother ; that the real Jewess 
admits generally of no intermarriage; that the real 
Jew had never altered since the earliest recorded 
period ; that two hundred years at least before 
Christ they were perambulating Italy and Europe 
precisely as they do now, following the same occu- 
pations — that is, no occupation at all ; that the real 
Jew has no ear for music as a race, no love of science 
or literature ; that he invents nothing, pursues no 
inquiry ; that the theory of ' Coningsby ' is not 
merely a fable as applied to the real and undoubted 


Jew, but is absolutely refuted by all history. 

" 17. As I attentively surveyed the Jewish popu- 
lation on the streets of London, I fancied I could 
perceive three different casts of features : the first 
Jewish, par excellence, and never to be mistaken ; a 
second, such as Rembrandt drew ; and a third, pos- 
sibly darker, of other races intermingled. It seems 
to me, indeed, that almost every race shows, as it 
were, three forms of race which run into each other, 
connecting them possibly with others, so that this 
is not peculiar to the Jewish race. Of the first form 
I need say little to you, begging you merely to re- 
collect that the contour is convex ; the eyes long and 
line, the outer angles running towards the temples ; 
the brow and nose apt to form a single convex line ; 
the nose comparatively narrow at the base, the eyes 
consequently approaching each other ; lips very full, 
mouth projecting, chin small, and the whole physi- 
ognomy, when swarthy, as it often is, has an Afri- 
can look. When fine, that is in the young person, 
with no exaggeration of any of the features ; when 
the complexion is delicate, and neither passion nor 
age has stamped their traits on the face ; before the 
energies of the chest and the abdomen, the stomach 
and the reproductive systems, have told on the fea- 
tures ; before the over-development of the nose and 
mouth has indicated their sympathies with other 
organs than the brain, and dislocated by their larger 
development that admirable balancement of head 
and face, of brow and nose, eyes and mouth, cheeks 

and chin — constituting beauty in any face wherein 



it exists ; before the eye of the observer is enabled 
to say at once, these features want proportion ; that 
is, in a word, when youth prevails, then will you 
occasionally find in the Jewish face, male and fe- 
male, transcendant beauty, provided your view be 
not prolonged. But why is it that you must not 
prolong your view? Why is it that the female 
Jewish face will not stand a long and searching 
glance? The simple answer is, that then the want 
of proportion becomes more apparent, and this is 
enough ; but there is more than this ; and I shall 
endeavor to explain it to you. 

" The living face cannot remain long unmoved; 
the play of the mind is at work on every feature ; a 
passing thought kindles up the features, expands the 
nostrils, widens or contracts the mouth, dimples or 
furrows the cheeks, enlarges or diminishes the aper- 
tures of those glorious orbs through which the soul 
looks beamingly. Now to stand those changes, and 
remain beautiful, the proportion must be perfect so 
as to permit of change ; but the Jewish woman's 
features do not admit of this ; the smile enlarges the 
mouth too much, and brings the angles towards the 
ears ; these are, perhaps, already somewhat too far 
back ; the external angles of the eyes extend in the 
same direction, and the whole features assume a 
hircine character, which the ancient Copt, as I shall 
show afterwards, knew well how to caricature. If 
to these be added, as happens in the male face, that 
certain features display the internal structure, the 
skeleton of the face, then all beauty flies. A brow 
marked with furrows or prominent points of bone, 


or with both ; high cheek bones ; a sloping and dis- 
proportioned chin ; an elongated, projecting mouth, 
which at the angles threatens every moment to 
reach the temples; a large, massive, club-shaped, 
hooked nose, three or four times larger than suits 
the face — these are features which stamp the Afri- 
can character of the Jew, his muzzle-shaped mouth 
and face removing him from certain other races, and 
bringing out strongly w T ith age the two grand defor- 
mative qualities — disproportion, and a display of the 
anatomy. Thus it is that the Jewish face never 
can, and never is, perfectly beautiful. I of course 
include not those rare exceptions which at times 
appear, nor those faces composed of two races which 
at times approach perfection. But, before I speak 
of this further, let me pursue my history of inquiry. 
" I had looked attentively at the Jews of London, 
but felt insecure as to my conclusions ; in London 
we constantly meet w r ith persons having Jewish 
features and Christian names ; believed to be born 
of a Jewish father and Saxon mother, or of a Saxon 
father and half-Jewess, for no real Jew r ess will inter- 
marry with a Saxon, or accept him as a lover, at 
least, so I have been told ; and, therefore, the Jew- 
ish blood can never alter so long as the real Jewish 
women, or a majority of them, are of this mind. 
This fact I believe to be certain ; it is the same with 
the true gipsy, and, perhaps, with the Copt, ancient 
and modern ; the mingling of races, however, ap- 
peared to me considerable in London. On my way 
to Chatham there sat opposite to me a middle-aged 
man, whose features reminded me strongly of a 


drawing by Rembrandt. His face, though swarthy, 
had not that characteristic look which marks the 
Jew of Coptic descent; but I could not ask him if 
he was of Jewish origin; so when the carriage drew 
up in Chatham, and the landlord informed us of 
that on which we were to dine, I objected that some 
of us might be Jews. Upon this the stranger in- 
formed me that he was a Jew, and yet had no ob- 
jection to the use of pork. 

" Having heard that I should find, in the Jew 
quarter of Amsterdam, such an assemblage of Jews 
as would give me an opportunity of perfectly appre- 
ciating the Jewish face, I was about to embark for 
Holland, when, willing to embrace every opportu- 
nity of looking at those glorious specimens of art in 
the British Museum, and especially desirous of 
knowing the precise form of the ancient Coptic 
head, and its distinctions from the Grecian of ancient 
and modern times, I repaired to the Museum, where, 
again contemplating the bust of the young Mem- 
non, new light broke at once on my view. It 
seemed to me that I had, at one time or other, and 
that even lately, seen persons who might have sat 
to a sculptor for a likeness of the head of the Coptic 
prince ; that the precise features and form, even to 
the most perfect resemblance of look, were to be 
found to this day unaltered in Britain ; that the 
Coptic blood, or at least a race analogous, remained 
unaltered and strongly affiliated even to this day 
here in Britain ; this fact, for such I felt convinced 
it was, excited in my mind the deepest reflections. 
An examination of the works of Rosselini, and also 


of ihe"gra?id ouvrage sur TEgypte ,"ledme almost to 
believe in the theory that the Egyptian priests and 
aristocracy had succeeded in crushing the national 
progress in art by compelling the artist to repeat 
only certain forms, unalterably and for ever — an 
attempt which has been repeated in modern times, 
as far as could be ventured on in a first attempt, 
lately here in Britain, in the decorations of the 
House of Lords; but still I could not believe that 
the Coptic artist would give to the reigning prince 
an ideal form ; he might nationalize it, but still it 
would be a portrait or resemblance. So soon as I 
began to suspect that I had seen persons in the 
streets of London from whose face the sculptor 
mi^ht have modelled the bust of the Memnon ; so 
soon as, on re-looking and re-examining I felt sure 
of the fact, I became more anxious to visit the Jew 
quarter of Amsterdam, where I was told I should 
meet with ten thousand Israelites, male and female, 
walking about, or in collected groups, apart, to a 
certain extent, from the other race ; that other race, 
the Saxon, strongly contrasted with the Jew : in 
groups assembled, kindling up deep associations 
with Eastern regions, with Egypt, and Jerusalem. 
To the result of this short visit I now earnestly beg 
your attention. 

" What I saw on landing at Rotterdam appertain- 
ing to the Saxon race I shall afterwards explain to 
you ; it is to the Jew I wish to direct your attention. 
Having repaired to the quarter of the city occupied 
by this race in Amsterdam, I found the s} r nagogue 
open and crowded ; divine worship was going on, 



the people standing in crowds around the high 
altar; it was not proper to take off the hat. Near 
me, almost within reach, stood a youth about sixteen, 
and not far from him others, the perfect likeness of 
the young Memnon. I borrowed from him a He- 
brew book he held in his hand, that I might the 
better observe his face. The whole congregation 
were singing, but exceedingly noisy and unmusi- 
cal, for the Jews seem naturally to be without a 
musical ear ; and they have no national airs that I 
can discover. The book was a Hebrew work, be- 
ginning at the end, or what we call the end. The 
women, seated in the gallery, were not visible ; but 
in the streets they could not be mistaken ; unveiled 
and upright, a forward look, and eyes fixed on you 
as you passed : nor did the eyes quit their glance 
until you had fairly passed, them. No one turned 
the head, but gazed at you until you and they 
passed each other. In that fixed look nothing could 
be seen more than in the statue. 

" Thus I learned that originally the ancient Copt 
and a large section of the Jewish people were one 
and the same race, with slight differences, however, 
which the Egyptian sculptor knew how to carica- 
ture. Of the modern Copt I can learn but little ; 
our British and American travellers are so intensely 
occupied in describing their culinary arrangements 
for crossing the Desert of Suez, that they want time 
or capability to say a word about the descendants 
of those who built the Pyramids, and the temple of 
Karnac; these are trifles compared to the culinary 
matters; the individual, the personnel. Thus what 


I have to say of the Coptic and Jewish as affiliated 
races must be brief. With their history I must not 
touch — I mean, of course, their historic records ; but 
one thing, at least, -is certain, that, according to their 
own showing, they left Chaldea a small family, and 
quitted Egypt a considerable people. With the 
Egyptian, then, they had the closest relations by 
intermarriage and otherwise ; we cannot say how — 
for all is mystery here, and a mystery which must 
not be touched. They then mingled with the 
Phoenicians extensively; for the Jebusites (who 
were the Jebusites ?) remained quietly in possession 
of their city and property, undisturbed apparently. 
Now, the city of Jebus was simply Jerusalem; and, 
therefore, the very capital of the kingdom was in- 
habited by and occupied by strangers to the latest 
period of the Jewish kingdom. 

" From the earliest recorded times the Jews had 
commenced wandering over the earth, and seem to 
have been trafficking in cast-off garments in Italy 
before Rome itself was founded. Wanderers, then, 
by nature — unwarlike — they never could acquire a 
fixed home or abode. Literature, science, and art 
they possess not. It is against their nature — they 
never seem to have had a country, nor have they 
any yet. Like the Copt, they built temples, but not 
houses ; they were like the Copt and the Phoenician^ 
a building race. The usual struggle exists amongst 
them as among Christians regarding the value of 
tradition; but as regards belief they present the 
most extraordinary spectacle the earth ever pre- 


" Now, nothing like so vast a difference in the 
matter of belief exists anywhere else, and it con- 
vinces me, with other facts, that the present Jewish 
race is composed of more than one : the Coptic, the 
Chaldee, and the Phoenician — allied races, no doubt, 
but still distinct. With them originated monkeries. 
They never will, of course, think with any other 
people. The greater number, I presume, do not 
believe in the existence of a soul, of a future life, or 
after punishments. Nothing of the sort is men- 
tioned in the law books of Moses — these are all 
seemingly Egyptian ideas, derived no doubt from 
the East. But it is not to be forgotten that, when 
they resisted the power of Rome, our Saxon and 
Celtic forefathers were mere barbarians. "When 
they penetrated into Britain it were impossible to 
say ; if they came with the Phoenicians it must have 
been some four thousand years ago. But here they 
are now unaltered and unalterable. Shakspeare 
drew the character of the race, but he added a fea- 
ture, which I believe to be impossible, namely, the 
elopement of a Jewish lady with a Christain — such 
an event I do not believe ever happened. The 
Christian divines translate and comment on their 
sacred books. Gesenius denied some important 
prophecies : Voltaire launched on them the whole 
force of his terrible satire ; Buckland offers you 
half a dozen versions of the sacred volumes in as 
many weeks. Meantime the Hebrews themselves 
pass over all these with silent contempt — they give 
them not even a passing notice. Societies are got up 
for their conversion ! Be it so. Nothing can be said 


against them; but in one hundred years they will 
not convert one hundred Jews — not even one real 
Jew. This is my opinion and solemn conviction. 
Nature alters not; remember I speak of the true, 
unquestioned Jew — not of the spurious half breed, 
whom I notice here only for the sake of a passing 
remark. 133—139. 

" 18. Section I. — From the earliest recorded 
times might has always constituted right, or been 
held to do so. By this right the Slavonic race 
crushes down Italy, withering and blasting the 
grandest section of mankind. By this kind of right, 
that is power or might, we seized on North Ameri- 
ca, dispossessing the native races, to whom America 
naturally belonged ; we drove them back into their 
primitive forests, slaughtering them piteously ; our 
descendants, the United States men, drove us out 
by the same right, that is, might. The same tra- 
gedy was repeated in South America; the mingled 
host of Celt-Iberian adventurers brought against the 
feeble Mexican, Peruvian, and Brazilian, the 
strength and knowledge and arms of European 
men; the strength of a fair, or, at least, of a fairer 
race. The Popes of Rome sanctified the atrocities ; 
it was the old tragedy again, the fair races of men 
against the dark races ; the strong against the feeble : 
the united against those who knew not how to place 
even a sentinel ; the progressists against those who 
stood still — who could not or would not progress. 
Look all over the globe, it is always the same ; the 
dark races stand still, the fair progress. See how 
a company of London merchants lord it over a hun- 


dred millions of colored men in Hindostan — I doubt 
the story of the hundred millions, however ; the hot 
suns of India exalt, I have remarked, the brains of 
Europeans who sojourn long there; but, be it as 
they say, the fact is astounding. Whilst I now 
write, the Celtic race is preparing to seize Northern 
Africa by the same right as we seized Hindostan — 
that is, might, physical force — the only real right is 
physical force ; whilst we, not to be behind in the 
grasp for more acres, annex New Zealand and all 
its dependencies to the British dominions, to be 
wrested from us by-and-by by our sons and descen- 
dants, as the United States were, and Canada w T ill 
be, for no Saxon race can ever hold a colony long. 
The coolness with which this act of appropriation 
has been done is, I think, quite unparalleled in the 
history of aggressions. A slip of parchment signed 
officially is issued from that den of all abuses, the 
office of the Colonial Secretary, declaring New 
Zealand to be a colony of Britain, with all its depen- 
dencies, lands, fisheries, mines, inhabitants. The 
aboriginies are to be protected ! Now t , if the crown 
will let them alone, they can protect themselves : 
but this would not suit the wolf who took care of 
the sheep. Still, mark the organized hypocrisy of 
the official opener of the letters of others : the abori- 
gines are not declared Britons ; they are merely to 
be protected ! 

"The Indian empire, as we call it, having turned 
out so profitable an investment for British capital, 
although for obvious reasons it never can become a 
permanent colony of England, suggested to "the 


Office " the idea of founding a similar empire in the 
heart of Africa. Everything seemed favorable for 
the enterprise ; Southern Africa had long been ours ; 
the southern extra-tropical part, partly held nomi- 
nally by the Portuguese — that is, as good as not 
held at all — a wide desert separating Central Africa 
from the Morocen, from the Celt, (in Alger,) and 
from the present Egyptian ruler; Central Africa, 
full of wealth, a productive soil, and a feeble black 
population ! Nothing could be more favorable, and 
I have not the smallest doubt that the officials at 
the Colonial office already contemplated another 
India in Central Africa; the wealth, the product of 
the labor of many millions of Africans, in reality 
slaves, as the natives of Hindostan, but held to be 
free by a legal fiction, might be poured into the 
coffers of the office ! But, alas for land-seeking 
colonial secretaries ! climate interfered ; exterminated 
the crews of their ships, and scattered the hopes of 
the patriot lord at the head of the office. 

" Since the earliest times, then, the dark races 
have been the slaves of their fairer brethren. Now, 
how is this ? Mr. Gibbon solves the question, in his 
usual dogmatic way ; he speaks of the obvious 
physical inferiority of the Negro ; he means, no 
doubt, the dark races generally, for the remark ap- 
plies to all. But, notwithstanding the contrary 
opinion professed by Dr. Tiedemann respecting the 
great size of some African skulls, which he found in 
my own museum, sent to me from the western 
coast of Africa, I feel disposed to think that there 
must be a physical, and, consequently, a psycho- 


logical inferiority in the dark races generally. This 
may not depend altogether on deficiency in the size 
of the brain en masse, nor on any partial defects ; to 
which, however, I shall advert presently ; but rather, 
perhaps, to specific characters in the quality of the 
brain itself. It may, perhaps, be right to consider 
first the different obvious physical qualities of the 
dark races, before we enter on the history of their 
position as regards the mass of mankind, and espe- 
cially as regards those races which seem destined, 
if not to destroy them altogether, at least to limit 
their position to those regions of the earth where the 
fair races can neither labor nor live — the equatorial 
regions and the regions adjoining the tropics, usually 
termed by romancists and travellers, and not un- 
fairly, the grave of Europeans. 

li First as regards mere physical strength, the dark 
races are generally much inferior to the Saxon and 
Celt : the bracelets worn by the Kaffirs, when 
placed on our own arms, prove this. Secondly, in 
size of brain they seem also considerably inferior to 
the above races, and no doubt also to the Sarmatian 
and the Slavonic. Thirdly, the form of the skull 
differs from ours, and is placed differently on the 
neck ; the texture of the brain is I think generally 
darker, and the white part more strongly fibrous ; 
but I speak from extremely limited experience. 
Mr, Tiedemann, I think it is, who says that the 
convolutions of the upper surface of the two hemi- 
spheres of the brain are nearly symmetrical ; in our 
brain the reverse always happens. Lastly, the 
whole shape of the skeleton differs from ours, and 


so also I find do the forms of almost every muscle 
of the body. The upper jaw is uniformly of ex- 
traordinary size, and this, together with a peculiarity 
in the setting on of the face, I find to constitute the 
most striking 1 differences. I at one time thought 
that the bones of the nose were peculiar in some 
races, as in the Bosjeman and Hottentot. In these 
races, or race, for perhaps they are but one, I fan- 
cied that, more frequently at least than in others, 
the bones of the nose are remarkably narrow, run 
together to form but one bone, and show even an 
additional thin germ mesially ; perhaps merely the 
anterior margin of another bone, or an extension of 
the spine of the frontal. Still the specimens are so 
few in Europe, that I feel disinclined to attach 
much importance to this sufficiently singular fact. 
I think I have seen one of the nasal bones so short 
and thin as not to reach the frontal. 

" In the Peruvian skull, at twelve years of age, 
Von Tchudi thinks he has detected a new germ of 
bone, an interparietal bone, in fact, peculiar to the 
native American race ; the physical differences in 
the structure of the Boschjiee women and Hotten- 
tots are unmistakeable. Still be it remembered that 
we have no accurate account of the structural differ- 
ences of the races of men on which we can depend 
— mere scraps of observations scarcely worthy of 
notice. The Negro muscles are differently shaped 
from ours ; the curly, corkscrew locks of the Hot- 
tentot bear no resemblance to the lank, black hair 
of the Esquimaux. The Tasmanian and Australian 



races are said to show many peculiarities in struc- 

" Let it be remembered, however, that, after all, 
it is to the exterior we must look for the more re- 
markable characteristics of animals ; it is it alone 
which nature loves to decorate and to vary : the in- 
terior organs of animals, not far removed from each 
other, vary but little. To this fact I shall advert 
more particularly in the lecture on transcendental 
anatomy ; the internal structures of animals present 
details which we read imperfectly, connected as 
they are, on the one hand, with mechanical arrange- 
ments, and on the other with the primitive laws of 

" There is one thing obvious in the history of the 
dark races, that they all, more or less, exhibit the 
outline of the interior more strongly marked than 
in the fair races generally. Thus the face of the 
adult Negro or Hottentot resembles, from the want 
of flesh, a skeleton, over which has been drawn a 
blackened skin. 

" But who are the dark races of ancient and mo- 
dern times ? It would not be easy to answer this 
question. Were the Copts a dark race ? Are the 
Jews a dark race ? The Gipsies ? The Chinese, 
&c. ? Dark they are to a certain extent; so are all 
the Mongol tribes — the American Indian and Es- 
quimaux — the inhabitaats of nearly all Africa — of 
the East — of Australia. "What a field of extermi- 
nation lies before the Saxon Celtic and Sarmatian 
races ! The Saxon will not mingle with any dark 
race, nor will he allow him to hold an acre of land 


in the country occupied by him ; this, at least, 
is the law of Anglo-Saxon America. The fate, 
then, of the Mexicans, Peruvians, and Chilians, is 
in no shape doubtful. Extinction of the race — sure 
extinction — it is not even denied. 

" Already, in a few years, we have cleared Van 
Diemen's Land of every human aboriginal; Aus- 
tralia, of course, follows, and New Zealand next; 
there is no denying the fact, that the Saxon, call 
him by what name you will, has a perfect horror 
for his darker brethren. Hence the folly of the war 
carried on by the philanthropists of Britain against 
nature : of these persons some are honest, some not. 
I venture to recommend the honest ones — to try 
their strength in a practical measure. Let them 
demand for the natives of Hindostan, of Ceylon > or 
even of the Cape or New Zealand, the privileges 
and rights wholly and fairly of Britons ; I predict 
a refusal on the part of the Colonial-office. The 
office will appoint you as many aborigines pro- 
tectors as you like — that is, spies ; but the exten- 
sion of equal rights and privileges to all colours is 
quite another question. 

" But now, having considered the physical consti- 
tution thus briefly of some of these dark races, and 
shown you that we really know but little of them ; 
that we have not data whereon to base a physical 
history of mankind ; let me now consider the his- 
tory of a few of them — of those, at least, best known 
to me. 


" Section II. — On the Dark Races of Africa. 

" What the Portuguese thought and did when 
they first landed at the Cape of Storms has not been 
recorded, in so far as I know. Records, no doubt, 
exist somewhere, buried in the archives of Lisbon 
or Coimbra. Camoens was a Lusitanian, and there 
may have been other minds in the Peninsula, cal- 
culated by their labors, scientific or literary, to 
prove the race to be somewhat above the beasts of 
the field in their objects and pursuits. But the 
Portuguese who first doubled Cape l'Agulhas were 
in search of gold and of the Indies. Southern 
Africa, with its parched soil, strange-looking beasts, 
and still stranger men, did not suit them ; they 
landed, but soon abandoned it, leaving the races it 
contained to the tender mercies of the most selfish, 
commercial, trading, narrow-minded, unim proving 
of all the Saxon race, the skippers of Rotterdam, of 
Amsterdam, and their descendants. These men, 
of whom I have spoken in my lecture on the Saxon, 
followed in the wake of the Portuguese; they 
landed at the Cape, probably in Table Bay, by the 
base of that romantic TafTel Berg, and though they 
found the country poor, and generally " sonder 
vater," they did not altogether despise it. The 
Cape was on the highway to India; they found 
there some long-legged, ill-shaped cattle, which the 
Dutch boors maintain to this day, and sheep with 
wool of a miserably poor quality ; and so the Dutch- 
man, who could neither invent nor improve, adopted 
the sheep and the cattle of the Hottentot as his own. 

"But what were the race or races of men and of 


animals he found there? were they the same, or did 
they resemble in any way, the men and animals 
they had left in faderland — in beloved Holland? 
Not in the least; neither men nor animals bore any 
resemblance to those of Europe : the races of men 
they first encountered were the Hottentots and Bos- 
jemen, the yellow race or races of Africa; the for- 
mer word, of doubtful origin, expresses the taller 
and stronger tribes — tribes which were armed with 
the assagai, held flocks of sheep and cattle, but no 
horses ; the term Bosjeman simply means the man 
of the bush ; by Bosjeman, then, we further under- 
stand that section of the yellow race, smaller in 
stature than those called Hottentots, less civilized, 
if such a term could possibly be so used or misap- 
plied ; living without flocks or herds, huts or tents ; 
employing the bow and poisoned arrow ; children 
of the desert. Our present business is with the 
primitive race, the aborigines, as they are called, 
of Southern Africa, called by the Dutch some three 
hundred years ago Hottentots and Bosjemen, — 
names unknown in the language of the race, for 
they call themselves Autniquas, Quoiquces, &c. 
Did the Dutch, the Christian Dutch consider these 
races to be men and women ? I scarcely think so. 
True, they held as a theory that all men and 
women came from one pair, like all cows, and pigs, 
and sheep; but this was a mere theory ; in practice 
they held them to be a something different. The 
colored men the Dutch called boys, and the colored 
women they called maids ; in speaking of the per- 
sons composing a Commando, for example, they 



would say that there were on it thirty men, meaning 
Dutchmen, and fifty boys, meaning black men. 
De facto, then, the Dutch did not hold these races 
to be the same as their own ; the fact is undeniable 
and incontestable. I care not for theories ; the 
Dutch practically denied the first canon of Scripture 
in a body, as the United States men do now ; there 
is no denying it. To the strange, perfectly strange, 
animals around them, every one differing gen erieally 
and specifically from those of Europe, they gave 
European names: the beautiful antelope frequenting 
the bushy ravines of the present colony they called 
the bosje-bok, or bush-goat, although it be not a 
goat; they found also the elk or eland, although 
there are no elks in Africa; the very oxen and mis- 
erable sheep of the wretched Hottentot, the Saxon 
Dutchman adopted, cherished and maintained unal- 
tered, until an irruption from Europe, of English- 
men upset them and their soul-destroying self-opin- 
iativeness. But we must not advert at present to 
these drawbacks on the Saxon character; his on- 
ward principle diffused and spread him over the 
colony ; the go-ahead principle was at work ; this, of 
course, led to the seizure of land, the plunder and 
massacre, wholesale sometimes, of the simple abo- 
rigines. Wild principles were let loose on both 
sides; the gun and bayonet became the law; and 
whilst I now write, the struggle is recommencing 
with a dark race, (the Caffre,) to terminate, of course, 
in their extinction. 

" I have said that when the Dutch first landed at 
the Cape of Good Hope they met with the race 


called Hottentots — a simple, feeble race of men, 
living in little groups, almost, indeed, in families, 
tending their fat-tailed sheep, and dreaming away 
their lives. Of a dirty yellow color, they slightly 
resemble the Chinese, but are clearly of a different 
blood. The face is set on like a baboon's; cranium 
small but good ; jaws very large ; feet and hands 
small ; eyes linear in form and of great power ; forms 
generally handsome ; hideous when old, and never 
pretty ; lazier than an Irishwoman, which is saying 
much ; and of a blood different and totally distinct 
from all the rest of the world. The women are not 
made like other women. Tiedemann says that the 
two hemispheres of the brain are nearly symmetri- 
cal. Though small in stature, they are taller than 
their cognate race, the Bosjeman ; these I take to be 
nearly allied to the Hottentot, though different in a 
good many respects. They have the physical 
qualities of the Hottentot, but exaggerated ; they are 
still shorter in stature. Having no measurements 
on which I can depend, I offer merely as a conjec- 
ture the average height of the male and female 
Bosjeman, — say four feet six inches for the male, 
and four feet for the female. Their power of sight 
is incredible, and this, with all other peculiarities, 
disappears with a single crossing of the breed. 

" The extent to which these singular races, if 
they really be distinct, extend northwards through 
Central Africa is altogether unknown. Dr. Andrew 
Smith, so well known for his travels in Southern 
Africa, informs me, that he saw them within the 
tropics, and he thinks they extend much higher, 


moreover, he is of opinion that they form but one 
race ; in Harris's " Ethiopia/ ' mention is made of a 
race, somewhat resembling the Bosjeman, inhabit- 
ing a wild district in Southern Abyssinia, on the 
equator, deeply hidden amongst woods and moun- 
tains. He did not see them, and nothing positive 
can be gathered from his description. 

" Diodorus Siculus speaks of the Troglodytes of 
Northern Africa, who inhabited caves and moun- 
tains, a pigmy race, and of no courage ; whilst the 
divine Homer places, I think, in Africa, his pigmy 
men, against whom the cranes waged constant war. 

"What interesting questions, geographical or 
ethnological, are here to solve ! What a field does 
Africa still present ? Whence came these Bosjemen 
and Hottentots ? They differ as much from their 
fellow-men as the animals of Southern Africa do 
from those of South America. They are a dark 
race ; but the sun has not darkened them. With- 
out arts, without religion, and without civilization of 
any kind, for how many centuries had they occu- 
pied their kraals, content to live, and to perish like 
the beasts of the field, leaving no name behind them 
that such things were ? 

" Before the go-ahead Dutchmen it was easy to 
see that this puny, pigmy, miserable race must 
retire ; they did so chiefly, as it seems, towards the 
northward, towards the Gariepine streams and the 
Calihari Desert. They could not retire eastward, 
for this reason, that they there met the Amakosos 
(whom we call Caffres) — a race I was the first to 
describe to the scientific world of Europe. 


11 Have we done with the Hottentots and Bosje- 
man race? I suppose so: they will soon form 
merely natural curiosities ; already there is the skin 
of one stuffed in England ; another in Paris if I 
mistake not. Their skeleton presents, of course, 
peculiarities, such as the extreme narrowness of the 
nasal bones, which run into one in early age not 
unfrequently, as we find in apes. But it is the ex- 
terior which is the most striking; and this, no 
doubt, is wonderful. No one can believe them to 
be of the same race with ourselves; yet unquestion- 
ably, they belong to the genus man. They are 
shrewd, and show powers of mimicry — acquire lan- 
guage readily, but never can be civilized. That I 
think quite hopeless. The Dutch endeavored to 
make soldiers of them ; and it is recorded that they 
alone showed fight at the battle of Blueberg, when 
all the white men ran away — I state the story as I 
heard it. We followed and imitated the Dutch in 
this, as in most things, and got up a Hottentot 
corps, or rather, perhaps, I ought to say a Cape 
corps — for John Bull does not like anything he 
finds useful called by an offensive name. Well, 
call it Cape corps, or what you will, it is a miser- 
able policy, unworthy the sanction of any statesman. 

"Ina word, they are fast disappearing from the 
face of the earth ; meeting that fate a little earlier 
from the Dutch which was surely awaiting them on 
the part of the Caffres. Let us now speak of the 
Caffre." 148—159. 

" 19. Whilst I write this, the Saxon race is at 
work in America, clutching at empires. The go- 


ahead principle (meaning want of all principle) is 
at work ; the Floridas, Texas, Oregon, California, 
Mexico, all must reciprocate ; the hypocrisy called 
organized, but which means organic, no doubt is at 
work. I blame them not; I pretend not even to 
censure : man acts from his impulses, his animal 
impulses, and he occasionally employs his pure 
reason to mystify and conceal his motives from 
others But I have already explained all this; let 
me, therefore, speak to you of the original American 
races — the races found on the American continent 
and its Islands by Columbus, Vespuccio, Pizarro, 
Cortez, and others ; not forgetting our countryman, 
Penn, and his troop of saints. These races still 
exist ; in a century or two they may have ceased to 
be ; the American human animal is one which seem- 
ingly cannot be domesticated — cannot be civilized. 
"When brought within the Saxon house and pale, he 
becomes consumptive, and perishes ; he is the man 
of the woods, differing from all other men, as the 
apes of his continent differ essentially from those of 
the old world, as we term the European, African, 
and Asiatic continents. But not to the same extent, 
for there exists, in so far as I know, no remarkable 
or specific differences between them and us ; for the 
apes of the new continent have an additional tooth, 
distinguishing them from the old world, and the 
structure of the eye is essentially different. I allude 
more especially to the race known by the name of 
red or copper-colored Indians, extending, as it would 
seem, from Nootka Sound and the borders of the 
Arctic Circle to the rock-bound shores of the Land 


of Fire, including, probably, all the West India 
islands, the tribes of Brazil, and the Caribs. At the 
extremities of this long and singularly shaped con- 
tinent, it seems to me that two other races, which 
may be termed polar or arctic, exist : to the north, 
we are certain that the Esquimaux differ essentially 
from the red Indian ; and in the south, it is probable 
that the miserable dark-colored population wander- 
ing on the outskirts of the Land of Fire are not red 
Indians, but a race analagous to the Australian, and 
to the former inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land; 
polar or arctic races of men, dark in color, swarthy, 
peculiar ; I speak particularly of the Esquimaux : 
thus, in America, the races darken as we approach 
the poles ; the eternal snows which ought to have 
whitened them, according to the theorists, from 
Hippocrates to Barton Smith, have failed to bleach 
them. Let me speak first of the red Indian, and 
next of the two other races, that is, if the southern 
one be a distinct race, which has not yet been 

" When the European races, within the well-au- 
thenticated historic period, discovered America, 
they found, in its tropical portions, organized king- 
doms or empires, arts tolerably advanced, and an 
appearance of domesticity. In the dense woods of 
South America the Indian still roamed about, a 
naked savage ; and in the woods of Northern Ameri- 
ca they still found the red man a savage, though 
with somewhat peculiar institutions. They were, 
probably, all of one race — the Botocudo and Pata- 
gonian; the Mexican, Peruvian, and red Indian; 


the Carib and the flat-headed Indian of the Oregon. 
I say this, however, with hesitation, ready to be put 
right on a point respecting which I have had so 
few opportunities for observation. But, be it as it 
may, I must decline entering into any controversy 
with those who derive them from the Welsh, or 
Danes, or Mongols, or Asiatics, or Malays ; or even 
from the ten tribes headed by Prester John. These 
are old women's fables, not worth a moment's con- 
sideration. For after Dr. Laing has brought his 
men from the Malayan peninsula to people all 
America, he must also bring over in the same boats, 
camels, goats, and sheep, to be converted into llamas, 
alpacas, &c. And then the peculiar apes, and the 
two-toed sloth, and ten thousand other American 
forms of life which Dr. Laing has forgotten to 
allude to; and the buffalo, which is peculiar to 
America. And then he must explain to us how it 
was that, if the Malays and Mongols came there, 
they did not bring with them their sheep and oxen, 
and horses and pigs ; for nothing of the kind was 
found there by Columbus, nor by any body else : in 
short, the hypothesis is a miserable one, and merits 
no attention from any body. The Jewish Scrip- 
tures have only suffered by such attempts at recon- 
ciliation. 168—170. 

" 20. Cast your eyes on this small spot, and see 
what it portends; it is the Falkland Isles. There a 
small group of Saxons have located themselves. 
They could not exactly land at once on the main- 
land of Patagonia, and settle there ; this does not 
suit the organized hypocrisy which regulates the 


Saxon; he settles on some out-of-the-way spot — 
Aden, the Falkland Isles, Calcutta, Hong-Kong, 
Borneo ; something unobtrusive. The French, a 
Celtic race, try to imitate us, but they do it clum- 
sily; their hypocrisy is not so perfectly organized. 
The group on the Falklands are looking towards 
the mainland as a counterbalance to the loss of the 
United States first, and of Canada, which is sure to 
follow. But direct your attention northwards, and 
see the islands we hold ; precariously, however, as 
being within the tropics, and therefore wholly in- 
imical to the Saxon constitution. An attempt was 
made on Buenos Ayres ; we were beaten shamefully 
— nothing scarcely equals it in the history of de- 
feats : the commander of that expedition should 
have been hanged, and another and another sent 
until we drove a plough over the city, and blotted 
it from the maps. But not so ; still the fight goes 
on, and we are endeavoring to seize on these fertile 
plains where the European can live. Across is 
Chili; northwards Peru, and then Mexico. Now, 
the fate of all these nations must be the same ; it 
results from the nature of their populations, and 
nothing can arrest it. I select Mexico for the de- 
scription, but most of my remarks will apply with 
equal truth, I believe, to the others, and especially 
to Peru. The original population of Mexico was 
Indian — the red Indian — a half-civilized barbarian. 
On this was engrafted the Spanish stock, itself not 
pure, being composed of several races, but still 
energetic, though likewise on the wane. The pro- 
duct was a mulatto, or half-breed, whom nature 



never intended should exist as a race; therefore, 
having ceased receiving supplies from Old Spain, 
mulattoes could no longer be generated from that 
stock; they themselves, the mulattoes, die out and 
out, I think, in three or four generations, unless 
crossed and recrossed with some pure blood, white 
or black; they, therefore, would have ceased to 
exist; the Indian blood, predominating from the 
first, would naturally gain the ascendant; but, as 
that race was seemingly dying out when Cortez 
seized the kingdom there existed no elements in 
Mexico to perpetuate the race beyond a few centu- 
ries. Now, this is precisely what has happened : 
all but English statisticans and statesmen knew that 
the Mexican population materially decreased ; and 
so it will be with Peru and Chili : physiological 
causes are at work which would have settled the 
rank these nations were to hold in the world, inde- 
pendent altogether of the Saxon sword ; this being 
now thrown into the balance, of course decides the 
matter against the Indian. Had they held by Old 
Spain, the Mexican Indian might have continued to 
receive supplies of fresh energy from Europe : not 
good, I admit, but still superior to their own; as it 
is, their fall is certain, for the Saxon will not mingle 
with them ; the Spaniard, the Celt-Iberian, would, 
but not the Saxon; thus they would have surely 
perished, even independent of Saxon interference. 
The physiological laws of reproduction were against 
them. What are their numbers ? — say five, or six, 
or seven millions : why, they have received more 
than that from Europe ! — seven millions in three 


hundred years. But neither nations nor individuals 
stand still: onward they must go, or retrograde: 
there is no middle course; no fixity, no finality, in 
that sense. I have often read, years ago, in those 
popular things got up to amuse the people, of the 
thriving state of the population of these countries ; a 
pretty tale dressed up for the three-halfpenny litera- 
ture ; a smoothly written phrenological thing about 
the American republics, and the noble Mexicans, 
Peruvians, Chilians, &c. ; white lies, dressed up 
with false statistics, to give them an air of truth ; in 
the meantime no attempt at analysis — no desire to 
look into principles — a fine generalizing tone, 
smoothing over enormous errors. 

" Mr. Canning boasted of having created the 
American republics ; but how are they to come off? 
He thought, no doubt, that, being men, some few 
amongst them might have some common sense ; but 
he forgot, or did not know, that he had withdrawn 
from them, first, fresh supplies of European blood ; 
second, that by this he annihilated the so-called 
half breed, who always die out ; third, that the In- 
dian blood would finally predominate, which Indian 
race would never civilize, but retrograde towards 
that point where Cortes found them, and would also 
die out. These elements were not understood by 
Mr. Canning; if known to him, despised. In man 
the statesman sees a machine bound to obey the 
existing laws ; the only power they understand to 
enforce the law is the bayonet. Why Mexicans or 
Indians (for that is really their true name) cannot 
unite with Saxons to form one nation, they either 


cannot or will not understand. But Nature's laws 
are stronger than bayonets — she made the Saxon 
and she made the Indian ; but no mixed race called 
Mexican will she support. Already we are told that 
the Indian blood predominates: of course it will ; 
but give the so-called nation another century, and 
then let us consider what must happen. The Cas- 
tilian blood will then be all but extinct, the Indian 
predominating ; by that time the Anglo-Saxon, true 
to his go-ahead principles, seizes Mexico ; but no 
Saxon will mingle with dark blood ; with him the 
dark races must be slaves, or cease to exist. This 
principle, so small in semblance, so unimportant, 
and so unconsequential in appearance, will yet be 
found equal to the extinction of all Indian blood in 
Mexico ; the new canton or federated state, forming 
part of the union will then be colonized by Anglo- 
Saxons. They will forget New York and Florida, 
whence they came ; and become native true-born 
Mexicans; thus the phrase bandied about fixes at 
last on a race originally from Scandinavia, and still 
quite unaltered. But here a difficulty awaits them : 
the Saxon race cannot labor in a tropical country ; 
they must have slaves, or leave it ; this seems the 
great law of nature for the protection of the tropical 
races of men ; neither Celt nor Saxon can labor in 
a tropical country ; they may seize a country, as 
we have done India, and hold it by the bayonet, as 
we do that vast territory ; but he cannot colonize 
it ; it is no part of Britain in any sense, and nevex 
will be ; the white race can never till the fields of 
Hindostan. 172—176. 


" 21. And now of the insular partof the new world. 
One great section, Hayti, has shown the white man 
that he cannot colonize a tropical country ; it must 
revert to those races on whom nature has bestowed 
a constitution adapted to labor under a tropical 
sun. Cuba and Jamaica will follow; they will be- 
come black spots in the history of civilization, for 
nothing in the history of mankind permits us to be- 
lieve in the perfect civilization of the Negro race. 
The policy of European races would be to expel 
the Negro and transplant the Coolies, Hindoos, 
Chinese, or other feeble races, as laborers and 
workmen, — bondmen, in fact. Why not call every- 
thing by its right name? Over these the Saxon 
and Celt might lord it, as we do in India, with a 
few European bayonets, levying taxes and land- 
rent ; holding a monopoly of trade; furnishing 
them with salt at fifty times its value ; but we can- 
not do this with the true Negro. 

" I am disposed to ascribe to the element of race 
a circumstance which has occurred oftener than 
once in the delivery of these lectures in various in- 
stitutions — literary, scientific, and popular. The 
attention of the audience could not be so completely 
secured as when I spoke to them of the fair races. 
It seemed to me again a question of race. What 
signify these dark races to us? Who cares particu- 
larly for the Negro, or the Hottentot, or the Kaffir ? 
These latter have proved a very troublesome race, 
and the sooner they are put out of the way the better. 
I will not say that this was expressed, but I think 

it was understood ; it seemed to be felt that black 




and colored men differ very much from fair men, 
like ourselves. This is the world's sympathy : they 
are good enough people, but not of our kind. Prac- 
tically, all men believe in the element of race ; it is 
denied only theoretically; thus theory and prac- 
tice seldom coincide : profession is not conduct ; 
fair words do not always imply straightforward 
actions. Even the daily press, so powerful an 
agent for the exposure of such hypocrisy, must look 
to those who support it ; Negroes and Red Indians, 
Hottentots and Kaffirs, neither read nor pay for 
daily journals. 178 — 179. 

"22. But the European has, in my opinion, erred in 
despising the Negro, who seems to me of a race" of 
occasionally great energy. Amongst them we find 
the athlete as finely marked to the waist as the 
Farnese Hercules. Such was the head and bust 
of the prize-fighter Molineux, of matchless strength, 
could he have properly trained himself for the fight. 
Below the waist the limbs fell off, as they do in 
most Negroes. He was reported to be a Congo 
black. Other races on that coast show much intel- 
ligence and energy in commercial transactions. 
Most dark races are without any ear for music, yet 
the Negro seems to have some sensibilities on this 
point. He is certainly at least equal to the Dutch- 
man, and perhaps to the very best of the Saxon race. 
But the grand qualities which distinguish man from 
the animal — the generalizing powers of pure reason 
— the love of perfectibility — the desire to know the 
unknown — and, last and greatest, the ability to ob- 
serve new phenomena and new relations; these 


mental faculties are deficient, or seem to be so, in 
all dark races. But, if it be so, how can they be- 
come civilized ? What hopes for their progress ? 
Like all other races, they have a religion of their 
own : it is Fetichism. 

" Were they, the dark races of men, the original 
inhabitants of the globe? Were they the races 
which preceded ours, filling up the link in that vast 
chain of life extending from the period when first 
the materials of the globe were called into form to 
the present day ? And have these races seen their 
day — passed through their determined course and 
period, hastening on towards that final exit when 
their remains must rank only as the remains of 
beings that were, like the mammals and birds of the 
past world, which now are no longer to be found ? 
Or will their stock be replenished by the fair races, 
as Barton Smith and others supposed — the Saxon 
being in process of time converted into the Red 
Indian ; the Anglo-Saxon into the Hindoo ? the last 
descendants of the European, now flocking to Aus- 
tralia, into the wretched, jet-black Tasmanian and 
Australian ? These theories we may discuss here- 
after ; in the meantime, let us briefly consider an 
important question— Can the fair races of man be- 
come so acclimatized in tropical countries as to 
resist the pestilential climate of such regions ? Can 
they become equal to labor; to till the earth; to 
act as soldiers ; as aborigines, in fact ? This im- 
portant question will form the subject of our next 
section. 190—191. 

" 23. In viewing France as a nation, it was forgotten 


that she was peopled by a race of men, which, if not 
identical throughout, was more nearly so than, per- 
haps, any other on the globe. To the principle of 
nationality, that is, of political independence, she 
added the most glorious recollections of all times ; 
from Brennus to Charles Martel, from Martel to 
Napoleon, she had never been beaten but by a world 
in arms. As a nation, then, though a nation be a 
mere accidental political assemblage of people — a 
human contrivance based on no assurance of perse- 
verance, on no bond of nature, but on protocols and 
treaties, on the mockery of words called constitu- 
tions and laws of nations, made to bind the weak, to 
be broken by the strong — was it to be expected that 
France, all powerful, was to remain M cribbed up, 
cabined, and confined" within that territory which 
chance and the fate of war had assigned to her ? 
Even as a nation ! But when we take a higher 
view, when we remember that she represents a race 
the most warlike on the globe ; that this race is not 
confined to France, but includes a portion of Spain, 
of the Sardinian states, and Northern Italy, of 
three-fourths of Ireland, of all Wales, and a large 
portion of Scotland, of Lower Canada, and even of 
a portion, perhaps, of Southern Germany, then the 
nationality sinks into insignificance ; the element 
of race becomes paramount ; Nature takes the place 
of parchment; and the Celtic race of men demand 
for their inheritance a portion of the globe equal to 
their energies, their numbers, their civilization, and 
their courage. 198. 


"24. Marshal Bugeaud, whose views respecting the 
military colonization of Algeria formed the subject 
of much discussion in France, and even in England, 
when called on to defend the measures adopted by 
him, easily did so, by merely describing the de- 
plorable condition of the civil population of the ter- 
ritory. Families were continually being reduced 
to hopeless destitution by the death of the father 
and of the sons equal to labor ; women became 
prematurely old; orphans abounded everywhere, 
demanding the immediate interference of a Chris- 
tian government ! Such is M. Bugeaud's official 
statements, which none have ventured to gainsay. 
On these grounds he recommends the establishment, 
rather, of military colonies; and herein, no doubt, 
he was right. But a man of his energy and origi- 
nality became, of course, troublesome to the rotten 
dynasty of Orleans, and he, I think, resigned, or 
was recalled from the government of Algeria; a 
prince of the dynasty, with a host of courtiers, was 
thought a safer government for the colony. Let us 
hope that we have seen the end, at least, of this 
enormity, as regards Algiers. But France has much 
to do before Algeria can become a portion of the 
French empire, inhabited by able, healthy French- 
men : Will this ever happen ? Would it not have 
been better to have imported a Negro population as 
laborers? In India we have the Coolies and the 
laboring servile population of Hindostan. In 
Jamaica the Negroes. In the southern states of 
America our Saxon descendants employ the Negro ; 
it is the same in Brazil, Cuba, and all tropical 


countries. In Morocco and Peru it was precisely 
the same : the colored population alone could 
labor; the European was unequal to it." 202 — 203. 

" 25. It may here be worth while considering for 
an instant if Algeria ever really was cultivated by 
European hands, — by the white races of men now 
or formerly existing in Europe. M. Boudin be- 
lieves that it never in this sense was a colony of 
any European race. The Carthaginians may be 
said to have been in possession of Algeria as colo- 
nists and agriculturists, but still this is doubtful ; 
not that they did not hold possession of the country, 
but that they were the bona fide cultivators of its 
soil. Even as soldiers they never seemed to me to 
have been numerous. The Carthaginian armies 
were recruited in Gaul, that is, in France. The 
victories of the Thrasmene Lake, of Cannse, and a 
hundred others over the Romans were decided 
chiefly by the Celtic men of ancient France. When 
driven back to Carthage, Hannibal could not induce 
the warlike French to follow him into Africa ; and 
then the Carthaginians were easily defeated at 
Zama, on their own territory, when left to their own 

"But admitting that the Carthaginians did exist 
in Africa as cultivators of the soil, which is ex- 
tremely doubtful, we must not forget the difference 
of race. -The ancient Carthaginians, of whom we 
know so little positively, were an Asiatic people — 
Phoenician, no doubt — allied to the Jews. Now 
the Jews stand their ground very well in Algeria; 


in their race the births exceed the deaths. But 
they do not labor. 

" General Cavaignac, whose name stands so pro- 
minently before the world at the present moment, 
brought this question some years ago before his 
Government : — 

" ' Avant tout, il faudroit savoir jusqu'a quel point 
l'European pent se naturalizer en Algerie. Jusque 
ici l'experience est douteuse.' — (General Cavaig- 
nac, " De la Regence d' Alger,' p, 152.) ' Above 
all, it is essential to know to what extent the Euro- 
pean can become naturalized in Algeria. Hitherto 
experience is doubtful.' 204 — 205. 

" 26. I here conclude this brief and hasty and im- 
perfect sketch of the dark races. No one seems 
much to care for them. Their ultimate expulsion 
from all lands which the fair races can colonize 
seems almost certain. Within the tropics, climate 
comes to the rescue of those whom Nature made, 
and whom the white man strives to destroy ; each 
race of white men after their own fashion : the 
Celt, by the sword ; the Saxon, by conventions, 
treaties, parchment, law. The result is ever the 
same — the robbing the colored races of their lands 
and liberty. Thirty years ago a military rhazia, 
composed of English soldiers, Dutch boors, and 
native Hottentots, devastated the beautiful territory 
of the Amakoso Kaffirs. We reached the banks of 
the Kei, and the country of the noble Hinsa, where 
wandered the " wilde " of Nature's creation. All 
must disappear shortly before the rude civilization 


of the Saxon boor — antelope and hippopotamus, 
giraffe and Kaffir." 210. 


" 27. The Lowlands of Scotland not offering me 
the opportunity of observing the Caledonian Celt on 
his native soil, I visited, in 1814, the mountainous 
tract of Caledonia proper, the Grampians and their 
valleys. It was here I first saw the true Celt : time 
nor circumstances have not altered him from the 
remotest period. Here I first studied that character 
which I now know to be common to all the Celtic 
race, wherever found, give him what name you 
will — Frenchman, Irishman, Scottish Highlander, 
Welshman; under every circumstance he is pre- 
cisely the same, unaltered and unalterable. Civi- 
lization but modifies, education effects little ; his 
religious formula is the result of his race ; his morals, 
actions, feelings, greatnesses, and littlenesses, flow 
distinctly and surely from his physical structure ; 
that structure which seems not to have altered 
since the commencement of recorded time. Why 
should it alter? But this great and oft-debated 
question I have discussed when considering the his- 
tory of the Coptic, Jewish, and Gipsy races. The 
fact is sufficient for us here, that climate, nor time 
affect man, physically — morally. Let the history 
of the Gauls speak for itself. 

" From the remotest period of historical narrative 
— usually called history — the abode of the Celtic 
race was Gaul on this side the Alps — the present 
country called France. This was the country 


which Caesar subdued and formed into a Roman 
province. But long prior to his time, the Celtic 
race had overflowed its barriers, crossing the Alps, 
peopling the north of Italy, and making permanent 
settlements there — the Gallia Cisalpina of Roman 
writers. They had sacked Rome ; they had burst 
into Greece, and plundered the temple of Delphi. 
War and plunder, bloodshed and violence, in which 
the race delights, was their object. From Brennus 
to Napoleon, the war-cry of the Celtic race was, 
"To the Alps — to the Rhine !" This game, which 
still engages their whole attention, has now been 
played for nearly four thousand years. I do not 
blame them : I pretend not to censure any race : I 
merely state facts, either quite obvious, or borne out 
by history. War is the game for which the Celt is 
made. Herein is the forte of his physical and 
moral character ; in stature and weight, as a race, 
inferior to the Saxon ; limbs muscular and vigorous ; 
torso and arms seldom attaining any very large de- 
velopment — hence the extreme rarity of athletae 
amongst the race ; hands, broad ; fingers, squared at 
the points ; step, elastic and springy ; in muscular 
energy and rapidity of action, surpassing all other 
European races. Cceteris paribus — that is, weight 
for weight, age for age, stature for stature — the 
strongest of men. His natural weapon is the sword, 
which he ought never to have abandoned for any 
other. Jealous on the point of honor, his self-re- 
spect is extreme; admitting of no practical jokes ; 
an admirer of beauty of color, and beauty of form, 

and therefore a liberal patron of the line arts. In- 



ventive, imaginative, he leads the fashions all over 
the civilized world. Most new inventions and dis- 
coveries in the arts may be traced to him; they are 
then appropriated by the Saxon race, who apply 
them to useful purposes. His taste is excellent, 
though in no way equal to the Italian, and inferior, 
in some respects, to the Slavonian and peninsular 
races. The musical ear of the race is tolerably 
good ; in literature and science, they follow method 
and order, and go up uniformly to a principle ; in 
the ordinary affairs of life, they despise order, econo- 
my, cleanliness ; of to-morrow they take no thought ; 
regular labor — unremitting, steady, uniform, pro- 
ductive labor — they hold in absolute horror and 
contempt. Irascible, warm-hearted, full of deep 
sympathies, dreamers on the past, uncertain, treach- 
erous, gallant and brave. They are not more 
courageous than other races, but they are more 
warlike. Notwithstanding their grievous defeat at 
Mont St. Jean, they are still the dominant race of 
the earth. On two great occasions they have saved 
Europe and the Saxon race from overwhelming 
destruction and worse than Negro slavery; twice 
have they stemmed the tide of savage Asiatic des- 
potism as it pressed on Europe, threatening the final 
destruction of freedom : Attila they defeated ; Charles 
Martel forced the Crescent to retire for ever from 
the West; the time seems approaching when the 
Celtic race may once more be called on to bring to 
the decision of the sword the oft-renewed contest, 
the oft-debated question — shall brute force, repre- 
sented by the East, by Moscow, succeed in extin- 


guishing in Europe the political influence of the 
Celtic and Saxon races? and will that influence 
blot out from the map of the world all. hopes of the 
future civilization of mankind ? A leading journal, 
whose object seems of late to be the misrepresenting 
all that is good in human motives and actions, 
speaks of "the combination of Eastern against 
Western Europe." Why mystify the question? 
By the selfish conduct of the German population, 
the apathy and timidity of the original Scandinavian 
nations, the brutal, treacherous, and cowardly 
Houses of Brandenburgh and Hapsburgh have been 
allowed to butcher the noblest blood of ancient Ger- 
many ; the Slavonian race has been outraged and 
insulted in Posen, Poland, and Bohemia, by the 
selfish, commercial, grasping Saxon ; and, as a con- 
sequence, the entire race has been thrown into the 
hands of the Sarmatian or Muscovite. Why mys- 
tify questions so plain as these, foreseen and fore- 
told years ago? But to return to the Celtic race. 

" A despiser of the peaceful arts, of labor, of order, 
and of the law, it is fortunate for mankind that the 
Celtic race is, like the Saxon, broken up into frag- 
ments. The great and leading family of the race is 
in consolidated, united, all-powerful France. The 
Gallic Celt, is, if we may so say, the leading clan. 
Next, in point of numbers, is the Hibernian Celt; 
then the Cymbric, or Welsh ; and lastly, the Cale- 
donian. In the New World there are the Cana- 
dians, the Habitans, Celtic to the core, as when they 
first left France. In the free states of Northern 
America the Hibernian and Scoto-Celt abound. 


Their numbers I do not know, but their increase 
for a time is certain. Change of government, 
change of climate, has not altered them. Children 
of the mist, even in the clear and broad sunshine of 
day, they dream of the past: nature's antiquaries. 
As looking on the darkening future, which they 
cannot, try not, to scan, by the banks of the noble 
Shannon, or listening to the wild roar of the ocean 
surf as it breaks on the Gizna Briggs, washing the 
Morochmore ; or listlessly wandering by the dark 
and stormy coast of Dornoch, gaunt famine behind 
them, no hopes of to-morrow, cast loose from the 
miserable patch he held from his ancestry, the 
dreamy Celt, the seer of second sight, still clinging 
to the past, exclaims, at his parting moment from 
the horrid land of his birth, 'We'll maybe return to 
Lochaber no more.' 

"And why should you return, miserable and 
wretched man, to the dark and filthy hovel you 
never sought to purify ? to the scanty patch of 
ground on which you vegetated? Is this civiliza- 
tion? Was it for this that man was created? 
Chroniclers of events blame your religion; it is 
your race. Why cling to the patch of ground with 
such pertinacity ? I will tell you : you have no 
self-confidence, no innate courage, to meet the for- 
est or the desert ; without a leader, you feel that 
you are lost. It is not the land you value as land, 
for you are the worst of agriculturists ; but on this 
spot you think you may rest and have refuge. 
Now look at the self-confident Saxon ; the man of 
unbounded self-esteem ; an enormous boaster, but in 


a way different from your race. Does he fear to 
quit the land of his birth? Not in the least; he 
cares for it not one straw. Landing in America, he 
becomes a real American — a Kentuckian, a Virgin- 
ian, a furious democrat. In Oceanica he becomes a 
native Tasmanian, Australian; in Southern Africa 
he calls himself an Africaner. Holland and Eng- 
land are nothing to him ; he has forgot for ever the 
land of his forefathers, and, for a consideration, w T ill 
fight to the death with his own brethren. He has 
shaken off the pressure of the Three Estates, the 
Church and State incubus, and feels himself a free 
man. Then comes out his real nature — his go- 
ahead principles. See how he plunges into the 
forest ; boldly ventures on the prairie ; fears no labor 
— that is the point ; loves that which you most abhor 
— profitable labor. What is to him a patch of 
ground ? All the earth he is prepared to cultivate, 
and to sell to the highest bidder, so that it suits his 
purpose. You cling together in towns and hamlets ; 
he, on the contrary, will not build a house within 
sight of his neighbor's if he can avoid doing so. 
With him all is order, wealth, comfort; with you 
reign disorder, riot, destruction, waste. How ten- 
der are the feelings of the Celtic woman — how soft 
and gentle is her nature ! Her tears flow at every 
tale of distress : her children are in rags. 

" On a subject so vast I must be extremely brief. 
The Celtic race presents the two extremes of .what 
is called civilized man ; in Paris we find the one ; 
in Ireland, at Skibbereen, and Derrynane the other. 
Civilized man cannot sink lower than at Derrynane, 



but civilized man may, perhaps, proceed higher even 
than in Paris. But of this I am not quite sure. 
Beer-drinking, smoky London, with its vaults and 
gin shops, its Vauxhalls and Cremornes, its single 
gay street, and splash of a short season, cannot be 
compared with Paris. As a race, the Celt has no 
literature, nor any printed books in his original lan- 
guage. Celtic Wales, Ireland, and Scotland are 
profoundly ignorant. There never was any Celtic 
literature, nor science, nor arts : these the modern 
French Celt has borrowed from the Roman and 

•' Of French literature I need say little; it is of 
the highest order, and, to a certain extent, peculiar 
to, or rather deeply influenced by, the race. Of 
their literature I may mention especially the epopee, 
which, though not peculiar to them, characterizes 
the race. The " Maid of Orleans," by Voltaire, 
"Hudibras," by Butler, " Don Quixote," by Cer- 
vantes, describes the characters of their respective 
races. The first, refined, witty, alarmingly sacri- 
legious and licentious, is a type of the mind of the 
race, when set free from the trammels and usages 
of common life. The second, by Butler, no less 
depicts the Saxon. Coarse, brutal, filthy, but 
pithy; practical, utilitarian, abounding with com- 
mon sense, and with that pleasant and comfortable 
feeling which measures the worth of all things, 
from a bishop's office to a bale of cotton, by its value 
in money : 

''For what's the worth of anything, 
But as much money as 'twill bring." 


" Paris is the centre of the fashionable, the civi- 
lized world ; always in advance, in literature, 
science, and the fine arts. Their Academy has no 
equal anywhere, and never had. Even in ship 
building they transcend all other races; but they 
cannot man them ; they are no sailors. In taste 
they can never sink to the low level of the Saxon 
race, whom it is almost impossible to maintain at 
even a respectable standard. Hence the efforts in 
Britain and elsewhere to educate, to found literary 
and philosophic societies, Mechanics' Institutes, 
Athenaeums, Polytechnic Institutions. All these 
will gradually sink and disappear, to be replaced 
by others, in their time again to give place to 
others ; for in their very constitution such institu- 
tions display in its highest perfection the besetting 
evil tendency of the Saxon mind : division, dis- 
union, jobs. No dozen men can agree to form a 
liberal institution. In London, forty distinct so- 
cieties do not supply the place of one Academy. 
There is no Polytechnic School in any Saxon king- 
dom ; in Britain it would not be tolerated for a day. 
Court, gentry, clergy of all denominations, would 
combine to suppress it. It is otherwise in Celtic 
countries, where centralization and high education 
are not so much dreaded ; yet even there the Poly- 
technic School has frequently proved a source of 
great anxiety to the government 

" All over the world the Celtic race is, properly 
speaking, Catholic, even when not Roman ; for 
France is thoroughly Roman Catholic ; so is Ire- 
land and Canada; in Wales and in Caledonia they 


still hold their ground. The reformed Celts have 
never joined the churches " as by law established." 
It is the Saxon who accepts of his religion from the 
lawyers ; the Celt will not. Accordingly, the Welsh 
and Caledonian Celt are strictly evangelical. All 
this display of true faith seems not to be inconsist- 
ent, or at least is not incompatible, with a laxity of 
morals which would astonish the world, if fairly 

" The Celtic race has had in its hands more than 
any other its own destinies. Chance placed at their 
head the greatest of men that ever appeared on 
earth. Him they sold and betrayed. Still their 
power is terrible, and quite an overmatch for any 
other single race. Nothing could prevent them 
again marching to Moscow and Petersburgh, were 
the contest to be merely between the two races. By 
such a contest mankind would be greatly benefited. 
Even as it is, France can no longer be assailed by 
any foreign force. Paris is fortified, and were the 
territory again polluted by a foreign foe, the true 
republican flag would be once more hoisted, sure 
to be pushed forward to Berlin and Vienna, Mos- 
cow and Petersburgh. The horrible degradation 
of the Celtic population of Ireland may perhaps be 
best judged of by this one fact ; that they are not 
aware of the existence of forty millions of the same 
race within two days' sail of their shores ! Igno- 
rance is a dreadful thing. 

"It is amongst Celtic nations that terrible con- 
vulsions of necessity arise in respect of the property 
in land, arising from the erroneous nature of the 


Celtic mind in respect of true liberty, freedom, 
equality ; on all these points their ideas are in- 
nately and inherently vicious. 

" No Saxon man admits, in his own mind, the 
right of any individual on earth, be he who he may, 
to appropriate to himself and to his family, whether 
to the eldest or any other son, any portion of the 
earth's surface to the exclusion in perpetuo of the 
rest of mankind ; but, sensible that the earth must 
be cultivated by some one, which cultivation never 
can give any further right in the soil than the value 
imparted to it by the labor of the ad vitam occu- 
pant; treating it, in fact, as any other goods or chat- 
tels, he makes it liable for the debts of the occupant, 
and further ordains that at his death it shall be sold 
to the highest bidder, for the behoof of widow, chil- 
dren, and creditors, if any ; the ultimate object being 
to restore the land to the community at large. If it 
be otherwise in many parts of England, it is be- 
cause the government is not Saxon but Norman ; 
that is, the government of a dynasty and aristocracy 
antagonistic of the race. Were the evil attaining 
any great magnitude, it would revolutionize Eng- 
land. But to revolutionize is Celtic; to reform, 
Saxon ; and so, probably, with time, feudality and 
primogeniture, the two greatest curses that ever fell 
on man, may, at last, peaceably be driven from this 
semi-Saxon country. Still, I have some doubts of 
this. It is the last stronghold of the Norman dyn- 
asty and their defenders ; and the question may yet, 
even in England, be decided by the sword. It was 
introduced, no doubt, into England chiefly by the 


Norman conquest, the greatest calamity that ever 
befel England — perhaps, the human race. 

" Now, contrast these Saxon ideas with the Celtic. 
From time immemorial the land belonged to the 
chief; the clan was entitled to live on it, it is true, 
but it did not in any shape belong to them. By 
degrees, nearly all the soil of France came into the 
possession of the crown and court, the clergy, the 
high aristocracy. A nation without land, became, 
of course, a nation of slaves. Then burst forth that 
mighty revolution which shook the world, whose 
effects must endure forever. Court, clergy, and 
gentry, were swept into the ocean. But did the 
Celt thereby put the land question on a right 
footing? Not in the least. He created merely 
another class of landed proprietors; an immense 
body of men of matchless ignorance and indolence, 
mostly sunk in hopeless poverty. He abolished the 
law of primogeniture, it is true, but he had not the 
soul to rise up to the principle of abstract justice. 
Tlestore the land to the community ! Put it up for 
sale to the highest bidder! Divide the amount 
raised amongst your heirs! You have no more 
right to appropriate this piece of land to your family, 
to the exclusion of the rest of the nation, than had 
the ancient noblesse of France ! But you have no 
individual self-reliance, and so you divide and sub- 
divide, in the Irish cotter style, the bit patch of 
land left you by your forefathers, until your condi- 
tion be scarcely superior to the hog who shares it 
with you : to sell the land; to divide the proceeds 
amongst the family; to accept of your share and 


plunge boldly into the great game of life, is a step 
you dare not take. It is not that they are deficient 
in courage; no braver race exists on the globe; but 
you have no industry, no self-esteem, no confidence 
in your individual exertions." 212 — 222. 

11 23. In a work lately published, abounding with 
details, there is a full account of these races or re- 
mains of races, for they are now but vestiges : yet 
despite the centralizing power of Louis XIV., the 
irresistible edicts of Napoleon in their favor, and the 
spread, to a certain extent, of liberal notions, lurk- 
ing prejudices still exist against even these vestiges, 
which time itself may fail to efface.* 

" Physiologists and historians, statesmen and phi- 
lanthropists, ecclesiastics of all denominations, gen- 
eralizes of every shade, delight in speaking of the 
various European races of men as forming one 
great family. Like other great families, these races 
cannot be made to agree with each other. The 
closer, in fact, the pretended relationship may be, 
all the more are they disposed to quarrel and fight ; 
to add to the confusion in this happy family, they 
speak totally different languages, which never ap- 
proximate, but rather diverge , they happen also to 
differ in religion, customs, laws, manners, literature, 
art, science. Nor is this difference confined to the 
moral — it extends also to their physical structure; 
for countless centuries has the bold, erect, bulky, 
fair-haired, blue-eyed Scandinavian occupied the 
identical regions giving shelter and place to the 
dark, black-haired diminutive Finn, the Lapp — the 

* " Histoire des Races Maudites de la France et de l'Espagne. Par Fran, 
risque Michel. Paris : 1847." 


smallest of men — the Esthonian, the Livonian, the 
Slavonian, the yellow-bearded Muscovite ; yet all 
these races remain to the full as distinct as they 
were long prior to the appearance of Csesar on the 
Rhine. To these self-obvious, but not the less 
curious facts, the author, the title of whose work we 
have quoted above, adds others no less singular, no 
less worthy of inquiry. He shows that nationality, 
a thing conventional no doubt in itself, but of great 
importance in human affairs — nationality, so doated 
on by most men, so easily understood, the war-cry 
of crafty politicians, dynasties, and serfs — Michel 
shows that even nationality, though wielded by the 
most gigantic grasp the w T orld ever witnessed, failed 
to extinguish in compact, national France, the 
hatred, the antipathies, the dislike of race to race. 
There is, there can be, nothing more wonderful in 
human history than this dislike of race to race : 
always known and admitted to exist, it has only of 
late assumed a threatening shape. Analyze the late 
revolutions of Europe, and you will find that in the 
first of the great struggles which must successively 
arise before the final emancipation of Europe from 
the tyrannic dynasties which now oppress, crush, 
and destroy the fairest portion of mankind, the 
question of race saved the dynasties for a time ; the 
old war-cry of nationality was raised by the two 
contending powers, sure to terminate in favor of the 

"In this war of race against race, France stands 
pre-eminent; whilst shouting ' Egalite, Fraternite !' 
he violently extruded from his land a few hard- 
working English laborers : this was his first act, his 


first practical demonstration of his notions of egalite 
and fraternity : his common sense, his sense of com- 
mon justice to men, his education, his religion, all, 
all are arrayed in vain against the innate dislike of 
race to race." 222—224. 

" 29. Over Italy the leaden sceptre of Hapsburgh, 
the lineal and literal descendant of the Danubian 
Goth, waved ominously for man. Thus were 
crushed for centuries the most gifted of mankind. 
Then came the career of the mighty Napoleon, who 
first struck down these abhorred dynasties, showing 
their intrinsic weakness and rottenness. That they 
ever recovered was simply due to England. Next 
came the war of race, which must continue whilst 
race exists^ and war confined to no particular re- 
gion, but extended over the earth. It has been 
sometimes called a war for conscience' sake — a re- 
ligious war; at other times it blushes not to own its 
commercial character and origin ; and at times the 
cross has been raised, and the extermination of the 
heathen loudly demanded. But after all, the basis 
is difference in race, that key-stone to all human 
actions and human destinies." 234. 


" 30. Section I. — In drawing up this brief sketch 

of the history of these three remarkable races of 

men, the Copt, Jew, and Gipsies, my attention has 

been forcibly attracted to two points; first, to the 

absence of sound historical data in respect of all 

three ; secondly, to the extraordinary proofs they 

offer of the incorrectness of that view which would 



assign to an ideal family of men, called Caucasian, 
not merely those elements of mind which belong to 
other races, and which no one of these three seem 
ever to have possessed, but by a still grosser error, 
would ascribe to this ideal Caucasian race mental 
qualifications and physical structure excelling all 
others; superior to all; not to be surpassed. From 
these abstractions of Blumenbach, Prichard, and 
the English school, although they scarcely merit 
the name, have flowed other serious mistakes and 
incongruities, depriving the view of all title to the 
term philosophic ; the singular spectacle of a wand- 
ering race living in the midst of civilization, of con- 
ventionalism, of restraint, yet refusing for centuries 
to recognize these adjuncts to humanity, preferring 
the life of the beasts of the field, has never been 
fairly met. Yet this, the Gipsey, is called a Cau- 
casian race, and by some thought to be beautiful and 
of the highest order. Another dispersed race, for 
it would seem I must not call them wanderers, re- 
main dispersed for some thousand years : till not, 
fabricate nothing, create nothing, live in a seeming 
vision of the past, a host without a leader. Adopt- 
ing in part the civilization of the surrounding races, 
they yet themselves have neither literature, science, 
nor art ; nor wish to create them, nor power to in- 
vent them, nor ability to perform. Yet here is 
another of the said Caucasian family of Prichard ; 
the oldest, as is said — the best — beaten by the rough 
energy of the rude Scandinavian. Loftiest of the 
Caucasian family ! show me your doings, your 
labors. In energy and industry you are inferior to 


the Negro; in muscular frame, mechanical skill, 
and accumulative power, overmatched by the Sax- 
on ; in taste and elegance, in war and peace, the 
Celt leaves you immeasurably behind ; last and 
greatest, the Slavonian and South German, or Goth, 
transcend you in that very philosophy called tran- 
scendental, considered by many as the great pecu- 
liarity of your race. Yet Blumenbach, Prichard, 
and their followers, call you Caucasian ! 

" A third race, also called Caucasian, erect monu- 
ments of surpassing grandeur; attain seemingly the 
highest civilization at a period when the Scandina- 
vian, Celtic, and Slavonian lay grovelling, and but 
little raised above the beasts of the field. Yet 
where are they now, these companions of Sesostris? 
Your Coptic civilization has passed away seemingly 
with the race ; and so has the Arabic or Saracenic 
also with the races. A ruffianly mixed population 
of blacks and browns occupy your fields, to become 
extinct in time, as all mixed races must. But are 
your Copts of antiquity extinct ? Here is a ques- 
tion for the physiologist ; and if so, how came it to 
pass? Do races of men become extinct, like the 
beasts of the field ? 

" To this question I shall soon turn; but before 
discussing it, let me direct your attention to the 
present position and past history of the Jew. 

" Section I. The Jewish and Coptic Chronology. 

" The chronicle of the events which have hap- 
pened to races, nations, and remarkable individuals, 
has been, with few exceptions, so imperfectly written 


as to render human chronology nearly worthless. 
It solves no great questions in a complete manner. 
The monumental records themselves of Egypt, the 
most valuable and probably the most ancient, ex- 
plain but little ; each successive discovery adding 
aenigma to senigma, doubt to doubt, merely. I have 
always, therefore, avoided, without, however, over- 
looking or despising, discussions on chronological 
questions, generally speaking, and excepting in a 
very few instances, I attach no importance to them ; 
human history, whether recorded or monumental, I 
esteem but a drop in the ocean of time and of events. 
The greatest of all questions, in one sense, is no 
doubt a chronological one. Its adjustment would 
form a new sera in human history. Give us the 
precise date of the building of the Great Pyramid— 
the name of the dynasty of the period — the relation 
of the Egyptians of that period to the surrounding 
nations. Show us the exact condition of the Esqui- 
maux, or yellow races of Africa, three thousand 
years ago. Nay, inform us rigorously of the nature 
of the race inhabiting South Britain when Caesar 
landed. Give us any fixed starting point in history. 
But there is no such point; all is surmise and con- 
jecture, contradiction and senigma. No one could 
have felt this more than the celebrated historian 
Niebuhr, It was incomprehensible to him how 
'the Germans,' as he called the middle and south 
Germans of his day, were dark-complexioned men, 
with dark hair and eyes: whilst in the time of 
Marius, of Livy, and of Tacitus, the Germans were 
a fair-haired, blue-eyed race. Niebuhr neglected 


the element of race, and hence his difficulty. The 
present or modern south German does not belong to 
the race described in classic Roman history ; they 
are not Scandinavians or true Germans, and never 
were a fair race. 

"Long prior to the appearance in an English 
dress of the immortal historian's works, I had arrived, 
after much anxious thought, at the conclusion that 
Jewish chronology was worthless ; that Coptic writ- 
ten history could not be trusted ; and that Coptic 
monumental history — the most valuable, I admit, 
existing — with its inexhaustible but mysterious 
hieroglyphics, had added hitherto no substantial, no 
decisive fact to human history, saving one, that civi- 
lization, and arts, and mankind generally, were of a 
much more ancient date than was generally sup- 

" These opinions I have always expressed cau- 
tiously before public audiences, knowing the deep 
prejudices existing throughout Europe generally on 
all these questions, and the determination of the 
mass, not merely of theologians, but of the world 
generally, to assign a historic character to the 
Mosaic record, and to take for a chronological his- 

7 o 

tory of mankind that history, which if complete and 
understood, would no doubt have explained all 
things, but which, as it now stands, is no more a 
history than it is a work of science. 

" My present remarks will be very brief. Liter- 
ary men and theologians dispute for victory : I aim 
merely at truth. To me it is a matter of the most 

perfect indifference whether the Jews ever were in 



the land we call Egypt, or not. The Rev. Mr. 
Beke, who, I believe, is an orthodox divine, says 
that they never lived in the land we call Egypt, but 
in the now wild and desolate region between the 
River of Egypt (which I need not say is not the 
Nile) and Syria. Be it so ; I leave this matter en- 
tirely to theologians. Let me return to the history 
of the Jew and the Copt, adhering strictly to what 
has a reference to the element of race. 

" Niebuhr observes, in a note to the first edition 
of his great work, that the chronology of the Jews 
of the Mosaic record is beneath all notice, and 
merits merely contempt. These too strong expres- 
sions theologians have generally and prudently 
overlooked, contenting themselves, I think, with 
expunging the exceptionable passages from subse- 
quent editions. Dr. Arnold, whose works are a 
mere copy of Niebuhr's takes no notice, I think, of 
these and similar passages. Bishop Usher's views 
on chronology have been stereotyped in England by 
clergy and laity. In Catholic countries there is no 
occasion to reconcile any contradictions, however 
monstrous : the church is infallible. To minds so 
constituted, a difference amounting to a trifling six- 
teen hundred years or so is nothing. To such 
minds, truth in history is of no value; science they 
detest ; all scientific men they place in one category. 

" I may hereafter discuss the influence which dis- 
coveries in physical science have exercised over 
chronology. My present object is with the versifi- 
cation of certain events connected with Jewish and 


Coptic history, keeping ever in view the question 
of race. 

" It is and always has been the practice of every 
race and nation, whose intellectual faculties were 
sufficiently elevated, to connect their history with 
the origin of all time, and, under one denomination 
or another, to identify themselves with the great 
creative Power. This practice seems not to have 
been confined to the fair races exclusively ; for the 
Chinese, Mongolians by race, Japanese, Hindoo, 
Copt, are all more or less dark-colored races, have, 
notwithstanding this, traced their origin to the gods, 
and their priests made ' common cause ' with the 
Creator of all things. This practice prevailed to 
such an extent, becoming so deep-rooted in human 
minds, that to this day stealing from a building 
called a church is termed sacrilege, as if any one 
building made by human hands could be more 
sacred than any other ; and millions of educated and 
superior men still think it necessary that some 
mummery be repeated over a portion of the earth's 
surface before that earth can be fit to receive those 
frail and rotten remains, which mythology and phi- 
losophy alike inform us, sprung originally from it. 

" Whilst the human mind remains in this degra- 
ded condition, truth is not wanted. Millions and 
millions of brave men, Romans^ believed that a priest 
did divide a whetstone with a razor. The same 
race (Italian) have superstitions still more numer- 
ous, offensive, and degrading to humanity. They 
believe in the liquefaction of the blood of St. Janu- 
arius, and in the efficacy of ' the red tunic.' We 


hear kind-hearted men speak of the progress of 
mankind ! What progress do they mean ? 

" The Jews are said to be descended from one 
family, one man : I speak of the so-called historic 
period. This expression is really devoid of any 
meaning ; for his descendants returned on all and 
every occasion to Chaldea, if he was really a Chal- 
dean, for wives from other families of the race. Lot, 
not a remarkably over-scrupulous or tight-laced 
man, was his kinsman — I think his brother. His 
heir-male of entail lived in Damascus. Nineteen 
hundred years, then, before our sera, there was a 
town, a city at Damascus ; the Syrian plains were 
fully occupied — so also, no doubt, was Lebanon. 
Thus mingling with a section of the Chaldean or 
Babylonish race, the Jews progressed in numbers 
and wealth: the Abrahamidse were a section of a 
wandering race who had already wandered into 
Syria before the appearance of Abraham in that 
country — wanderers over the earth from the earliest 
records to the present day ; a scattered race by the 
nature of their instincts. 

" The race whence the Abrahamidse sprung was 
left somewhere in Chaldea : travellers ought to find 
them there to this day. They are the origin of the 
race of Israel — the original stock ; the purest blood 
must be there, and also the most numerous tribe ; 
for the offset which wandered into Egypt was a 
branch, sure to perish but for fusion with other 
races. This accordingly happened; and in Egypt 
the race assumed that Coptic physiognomy and 
form, unalterably stamped on the family, now visi- 


ble everywhere, under all climates, under all cir- 
cumstances. As the modern Jew, then, is chiefly 
Egyptian, a question arises as to the real character 
of the primitive race, their physiognomy, and form, 
and mental disposition. This, I think, must be 
sought for in Chaldea, from whence we are told 
they came. It is a subject worthy the inquiry of a 
Lepsius or a Humboldt. . 

"The race, now remodelled, leave Egypt with a 
view to the extermination of the Syrian inhabitants 
of the country, the utter extermination of the race 
or races of Palestine, and the substitution of them- 
selves for all others. Their utter failure was com- 
plete ; but still not more so than that of all other 
races under similar circumstances. That they 
should fail in the extermination of another race; 
that, after the lapse of many centuries, they should 
find themselves in their first position, scattered over 
the earth, few in number, without a rallying point, 
has nothing in it wonderful. Equally so is their 
distinctness from all other races : I have shown the 
fusion of race, or amalgamation of races, to be a 
theory refuted by all history. 

" In briefly reviewing these two great facts, let me 
supply the physical evidence deduced from the 
theory of race to which I venture to lay claim. 1st., 
By his nature, the Jew, or Chaldee is a wanderer 
over the earth ; like the Gipsey, whom he greatly 
resembles, he has no settled home ; the restoration 
of Palestine to the Jew would not in the least degree 
render the Jew less a wanderer. From Chaldea he 
wandered into Egypt ; from Egypt again to Pales- 


tine. Famine could not have been the sole cause 
of this ; a pastoral people, as they are stated to have 
been at the time, could suffer nothing by a scarcity 
of grain. If all the wheat in South Africa were 
destroyed for seven years, the people would not 
suffer in the least, so long as pasture remained suffi- 
cient for their flocks and herds. The inhabitants 
of South America live on animal food, carina 
nothing for grain. 2d., Originally Chaldee, they 
acquired the Coptic cast of features in Egypt : this 
was quite natural. In Persia they got Persian 
blood; in other countries they received from time 
to time accessions of foreign blood ; hence their num- 
bers, which would otherwise dwindle away to a 
mere handful, are partly maintained. But the 
leading part of the Jewish physiognomy naturally 
remains. That physiognomy was probably Chal- 
dee; it differed somewhat from the Copt, who cari- 
catured it on his monuments. 3d., Phoenician or 
Syrian blood mingled largely with the original 
race ; even their capital, Jerusalem remained in the 
hands of the Jebusites. David's conquest was 
merely nominal, or at least a compromise with the 
original inhabitants of the city of Jebus. 

" That they should have failed in exterminating 
the Syrian race or races, and taking their place, is 
simply what has happened to all other races. The 
Turkish empire withers and declines, as I have 
shown elsewhere, from the same causes : its popula- 
tion is becoming extinct; the country will return 
into the possession of its original inhabitants, who- 
ever they were. Ireland, Caledonia, are even yet in 


the hands of the Celtic race — hence their terrible 
condition. Charlemagne and his bold Franks have 
ceased to live — France is Celtic to the core. It is 
the same all over the world. Why should the 
Jews form an exception to nature's great law? 
South England is far from being Saxon; neither 
Holland nor Flanders show much Spanish blood; 
the South German has made little or no progress 
against the Slavonian and Hunnish races ; and a 
mere accident prevented these two races from again 
crushing the German as they had done before. 
Their want of union saved the dynasty of Hapsburgh. 

" I find it difficult to obtain from the literary man, 
theological or otherwise, a clear statement as to his 
views on another point of Jewish history ; some 
maintaining the doctrine, 1st., That, under all cli- 
mates the Jew continues the same; or, 2dly., That 
he differs under every climate, but remains steady 
to his race. Both opinions cannot be true ; never- 
theless they are alternately maintained by the same 
class of writers. The relation of the Arab to the 
Jew is not merely doubtful, but it does not exist : I 
speak of them as races. 

" In the successive devastations of Syria by va- 
rious conquering people, from the Persian to the 
Turk, the Jews were not the only race who suffered ; 
all must have suffered equally. But these races, 
being aboriginal, recovered their population : the 
Jew, a foreigner, did not 

" The story of the Jew, as told by himself, is a 
plain and simple story enough : in the hands of the 
writers of other races it becomes a rhapsody. That 


of the Copt is really wonderful; their monumental 
history surpasses all on earth besides. The Jew 
has no monumental history. He never had any 
literature, science, or art : he has none yet. ' Their 
completeness and wonderfully preserved individu- 
ality' has nothing in it in the slightest degree 
curious. All other races are in precisely the same 
position; and, in this respect, also, the Gipsey is 
superior to them. 

" It is admitted that the Jews have no rural popu- 
lation at present in Judea : it seems to me that they 
never had a rural population anywhere. In all 
Syria they are supposed to amount to thirty 

" But I admit it to be singular enough that they 
should still maintain their handful of a population 
on the earth ; explicable only on the ground of the 
race receiving occasionally supplies of fresh blood 
from other sources. A recent traveller informs us 
that the Jews do not multiply 'in the capital of their 
race;' the writer should have said, 'in the city of 
Jehus,' which was not their native city, but one 
which they had long occupied in common with the 
aboriginal inhabitants. This correction of an other- 
wise important passage is essential to truth and 
science. ' Jew children,' it is added, ' seldom attain 
to puberty ; and the mortality is altogether so great 
that the constant reinforcements from Europe 
scarcely maintain the average population.' I sub- 
mit these curious facts without comment to the 
scientific reader. 

" When I first delivered these lectures, orally, to 


the public, the investigations of Bunsen and Lep- 
sius had not appeared. Nor yet have I had an 
opportunity of perusing their works. But, from 
various scattered notices, I believe that nothing- has 
been made out to invalidate my first impressions in. 
regard to Coptic history. The opinion I had formed 
was unfavorable to the accuracy of Herodotus; and 
this view is now, I believe, admitted to be the cor- 
rect one. It was from the Coptic monumental his- 
tory that Cuvierdrew the result, that no animal had 
sensibly altered its character; that no ancient spe- 
cies had been metamorphosed ; no new species had 
arisen since the historic period — that period being 
as yet undetermined, but marked by records respect- 
ing which there could be no mistake. The illus- 
trious anatomist forgot to mention man — forgot to 
include him in the list of unchanged and seemingly 
unchangeable species of animals : I add him now; 
requesting my reader to remember that the term 
' historic period ' denotes a mere speck in the ocean 
of time. The persistence of species can be admitted 
now as extending merely through limited periods 
of time ; the discoveries of De Blainville seem likely 
to settle this great question. There has been, there 
can only be ' one creation ;' all successive forms must, 
proceed from others preceding them. Life on the 
globe is but one, not many. Forms vary agreeably 
to the eternal laws of development regulating these 
forms. They appear in succession, but they are 
still one. To living forms there can be no limit, 
savincr ' the essential conditions of their existence/ 

"Coptic chronology is still to write; the hiero- 



glyphics have taught little or nothing — the expla- 
nations hitherto offered are extremely doubtful." 

" Section I. — Origin, Civilization, Extinction of 
the Dark Races of Men. 

"31. In the history of the Jewish, Coptic, and 
Gipsey races, the great question of the extinction of 
race has been considered. These races, placed by 
theorists with the so-called Caucasian race, and at 
the head of the Caucasian family, I consider as be- 
longing to the dark races of men. They are African 
and Asiatic, not European. The purest of the 
Jewish race is a dark, tawny, yellow colored person, 
with jet black hair, and eyes seemingly colored : 
there is no mistaking the race when pure : it is 
Egyptian — that is, African. The same remarks 
apply to the gipsey, who is of Asiatic origin. A 
series of incorrect observations, commencing with 
Blumenbach, but not terminating with Prichard, 
led to errors which no doubt will hold their ground 
for centuries. For this reason I have, in a preced- 
ing lecture, reviewed the history of these three 
races, the Copt, the Gipsey, and the Jew, and in so 
doing, briefly examined the question of the extinc- 
tion of race, as applicable to all. Of the destiny of 
the dark races it is not my intention to say much. 
Originating from the same stock with their fellow 
men of all colors ; formed into distinct groups by the 
laws of development, obeying geological aeras ; these 
groups or natural families preserve, as in the case 
of all other animals, their specific forms and mental 


qualities, for at least a term of years which history 
does not yet enable us to determine, but of sufficient 
duration to convey to the limited mind of man the 
idea of eternal. Thus it was that Cuvier, assuming 
the brief span of man's written history, and of man's 
pictorial history, as shown on the monuments of 
Egypt, to be the beginning and end of man's his- 
tory, leaped to the conclusion that animals (he 
avoided speaking of man on this point,) had not 
altered their forms in the slightest degree since the 
historic period commenced ; as if that historic period 
were anything but a day in the history of the globe, 
and of life. Thus it was that his followers, denying 
the slightest change to any other animal for thou- 
sands of years, though exposed in every possible 
way to climatic influences, claimed for man the 
privilege of everlasting change, though protected 
from these influences by his inventive genius, men- 
tal faculties, and powers of combination ; of changes 
in form and exterior, so great that in any other 
animal they would of necessity form groups which 
science could not permit to be confounded with each 

" And now, inquiry shows us, that these groups 
of the darker races of men I have just spoken of, 
touch, by diverging rings, all other races ; showing 
the deep affiliations depending on the unity of 
human life — of all life : of the great laws of unity of 
organization, suspended merely for a time by those 
specific laws which give to life its forms and order 
in space and time. By the Central American they 
seemed to have touched the ancient Euxine race 


described by Hippocrates; by the Hottentot and 
Bosjeman they touch the Mongol and Tartar; by 
the Nubian and Abyssinian they approached the 
Copt and Jew; and through them, Asiatic, Greek, 
Syrians, Armenians. Furthest removed by nature 
from the Saxon race, the antipathy between these 
races is greater than between any other : in each 
other they perceive their direct antagonists. The 
wild and savage South African ; the Tasmanian, 
the uncultivated Negro, merely feel the instinct; 
the semi-civilized Chinaman, Malay, Negro, AfF- 
ghan, both feel and understand the results. The 
mandarin sees, in a contest with a Saxon race, the 
extinction of his own; he acts accordingly. Could 
he be taught; could he read and understand the rise 
and progress of the Anglo-Saxon in America, then 
war to the knife would be the first and last words 
of a Chinaman, a KafFre, a Red Indian, a New 
Zealander. But they cannot be taught : history has 
no examples for them. Animals of to-day, they 
look not for a to-morrow; the present is theirs. 
Destined by the nature of their race to run, like all 
other animals, a certain limited course of existence, 
it matters little how their extinction is brought 
about. Starting from a stronger stock at first ; fresh 
and energetic, like the young oak, their forms of 
civilization, peculiar, of course, to themselves, pre- 
ceded that of their fairer brethren. This is at least 
my present opinion, from historic data, I admit, of 
doubtful authority. In their progress, each group 
showed its own tendencies towards the civilized, or 
rather towards the human condition; towards a 


show, at least, of humanity, and the decencies and 
order of human existence. The Central Asiatic 
race, the Mongol, the Tartar, when pure, revelled in 
tents and arms; plunder and the pomp of war was 
their whole aim. The other group, the Chinaman, 
proceeded somewhat further, his tendencies were 
domestic and trading : his taste for pagodas and 
lanterns is characteristic ; his notions of beauty of 
form peculiar; in all things peculiar ; in architec- 
ture, literature, fine (?) arts, peculiar; and having 
carried out his destiny, attained the maximum of 
his civilization, and being unequal to the full adop- 
tion of any other, he progresses not, standing on the 
verge of that destruction awaiting him, when Saxon 
and Sarmatian will contend with each other for the 
plunder of Nangasaki and Pekin, with high hopes, 
no doubt, of supplanting the Asiatic race, or at the 
least, of converting China and Japan into another 
Hindostan. This I doubt; not the attempt, but the 
result. But to this, also, I have already devoted a 
few remarks. 

" On the American continent, the central group 
of the aboriginal colored races was running their 
narrow course when the Celt-Iberian and Lusita- 
nian races burst in upon them ; upsetting their idols 
and temples ; their pyramids and obelisks ; as the 
semi-barbarous Saxon, and Celt, and Goth burst on 
Rome; with the same results; the substitution of 
one form of civilization for another ; of one race for 
another ; none to hold their ground, but all to dwin- 
dle into a mere shadow. Look at modern Rome 

and modern Mexico ; Jerusalem as it is, and as it 



was ; Babylon as it is, and as it was ; Karnac ; 
Egyptian Thebes with its hundred gates ; immortal. 
" The Southern Asiatic also had his day ; his rise 
and fall. In ancient times he built structures in 
Hindostan, which his pitiful descendants look at 
with awe and wonder, but attempt neither to repair 
nor renew. In Central Africa the true black or 
Negro race seems to have attained his ultimatum 
centuries ago. He has his own form of civilization, 
but, unfortunately, it includes neither literature, art, 
nor science. Yet he is industrious, good tempered, 
energetic, accumulative, a lover of order and of 
finery ; a fatalist, and a worshipper of Fetisches. 
The stronger headed men of his race dispense with 
their respect for the Fetisch, as Aristides and Caesar 
did with the heathen gods of Rome, leaving all such 
frivolities to the ' rascal multitude/ Yet from that 
mass they spring, and to it they return. When the 
race attempts the civilization of another, Celtic or 
Saxon, for example, the whole affair becomes a lu- 
dicrous farce, and even grave men laugh at it. The 
after-piece is being played in St. Domingo, where 
they have elected a black emperor! In Liberia 
they will elect a sham president. It can come to 
nothing in either case. Each race must act for 
itself, and work out its own destiny ; display its own 
tendencies; be the maker of its own fortunes, be 
they good or evil. A foreign civilization they can- 
not adopt, calling it national, native ; but the impos- 
ture, like all impostures, becomes manifest in time, 
whether practised by the Negro or the Saxon. 
They elect a president in Hay ti ; in recollection of 


Napoleon; he declares himself emperor ; standing in 
the same relation to that name which the oran-outan 
does to the Apollo. He even sets an example to the 
President of the backward republic of Celtic-Gaul ; 
See, he says, how forward we are. He founds a 
dynasty ; black Thiers and swarthy Guizots cluster 
around to establish the dynasty and maintain the 
'juste milieu;' they spout philosophy, and praise 
the virtues of the reigning dynasty ; the majesty of 
the law ; the divine rights of kings and emperors ; 
the sacred rights of property and privilege, however 
acquired. The whole is a farce when acted in 
Hayti ; a melo-drame with tragic episodes when 
Gaul is the stage ; and so it is ever with the most 
skilful and able of impostors, that is, imitators; 
sooner or later the trick comes out. A noble mind 
builds St. Paul's ! a copy, it is true ; and an imita- 
tion of a greater ; but a noble imitation, satisfying 
all minds. The thing is vaunted as national ! na- 
tive ! straightway, as if to unmask the imposture, a 
certain building appears in Trafalgar square ; a 
hideous bronze or two show themselves about Hyde- 
park; natives, no doubt; quite original. But I for- 
get that my present chapter is on the dark races, or 
rather the darker groups of the dark or colored 
races. I have already spoken of their affiliated 
races, the Gipsey, Copt, and Jew ; and of that race 
which far excelled all others, — the ancient Greek. 

" I have sometimes thought, that even the yellow 
race of Africa, the degraded Hottentot and Bosje- 
man, the Quaquoes and the Antinquas, must have 
had their sera ; their attempt at civilization and its 


failure ; instead of being a recent oppressed race, 
they are perhaps a most ancient and fallen race ; 
fallen, never to rise again, not merely by having 
come into contact with more powerful races, but 
simply as a result of the history of development and 
progress. In ancient times the race seems to have 
extended throughout all Africa; I have alluded to 
this in my history of the Troglodytes of Homer : the 
desert or dry places of the earth seem always to have 
been their dwelling place. Where placed near 
stronger races, they would imitate their civilization 
in as far as their physical organization admitted ; 
just as the Hottentot of the Cape does, or would do 
if left to himself. The towns he would build would 
not be strictly European towns, but clusters of mud 
closets, raised on each other, should necessity, that 
is, a want of room, or a common danger, compel 
them to live huddled together in groups. They 
would occupy, in a half-civilized condition, some 
insulated hill or rock, driving their flocks and herds 
to the plains during the day time, and retiring to 
their fastnesses on the approach of night, or of an 
enemy, thus leading a dreamy, dreary, life, ' flat, 
stale, and unprofitable.' The history of a day is the 
history of their lives. Such were the Namaquas 
when first visited and described by Kolben and Le 
Vaillant, bating the fastnesses and densely popu- 
lated hill town, to which no necessity had ever 
given rise. Gradually diminishing and fading 
away, prior even to the advent of the Saxon Boor 
in Southern Africa, they seem to have never attained 
any higher condition of civilization there : but could 


we suppose for an instant, that the peculiar and 
almost indescribable race of men whom Mr. St. 
John found in the Oases of Northern Africa, and 
especially in that of Jupiter Amnion, are the de- 
scendants of the Troglodytes of Homer, then we 
have a solution of the question as regards the yel- 
low race or races of Africa. In Northern Africa 
they had attained their highest element of civiliza- 
tion possibly even before Egyptian Thebes was 
built; or wandering over the deserts, they imitated, 
in their own fashion, the doings of stronger races; 
built their hovels on a hill, and for self-defence 
lived together. But they had run their course be- 
fore Carthage appeared ; then came the Roman, 
disposessing, as to power, Juba and Masanissa ; then 
the Saracen and the Moor; they too, sink before the 
climate and the returning dark races; returning to 
the land from which they were often expelled; 
themselves gradually fading away, to be replaced by 
the wilde and the desert, perhaps the ocean. The 
Arab and the Turkoman supplanted the Copt in 
Egypt; but will they hold their ground? observing 
travellers seem to think that they cannot; the Cop- 
tic face is still to be seen on the banks of the Nile ; 
the Negro gives ground ; the desert also progresses ; 
and thus may the motley population of Egypt 
perish, failing to represent its ancient inhabitants. 

" If there be a dark race destined to contend with 
the fair races of men for a portion of the earth, given 
to man as an inheritance, it is the Negro. The tro- 
pical regions of the earth seem peculiarly to belong 
to him; his energy is considerable : aided by a tro- 


pical sun he repels the white invader. From St. 
Domingo he drove out the Celt; from Jamaica he 
will expel the Saxon ; and the expulsion of the 
Lusitanian from Brazil, by the Negro, is merely an 
affair of time. 

" Section II. — The Antagonism of Man to Nature's 


" The citizen — the man of to-day — the formulist 
—the being whose mind has been clept and fash- 
ioned from its earliest dawn, as his garments ; forced 
to adopt the ' spirit of his times,' taught to talk 
largely of the rapid progress of man — of his civili- 
zation, meaning the form which society has assumed 
in the warren-looking row of dwellings, in No. 4, or 
6, of which he is for a brief space located ; to this 
trammelled and harnessed animal, i the wilde ' is a 
mere plaything, an unintelligible freak of creation. 
Having no occasion for thought, it occupies no part 
of his attention ; and should so idle a question arise 
in his mind as ' the object of its creation/ his re- 
maining special and specific instincts which the 
artificial existence he chooses to call ' civilization ' 
has failed quite to extinguish, teach him that to it 
his nature is antagonistic. Thus be he savage or 
boor, citizen or man, colored or fair, war to the knife 
is the cry with Nature's Fauna and Nature's Flora; 
destroy and live, spare and perish, is the stern law 
of man's destiny. Whence this antagonism ? and 
why ? To the profound philosophers of the Bridge- 
water school, to the sturdy Utilitarian, the dogmatic 
Jew, to the man of happy self-conceit, who in all 


things sees two sides of a question, of which the one 
of his adoption must be the best, who thinks that 
two and two make four, or five, or one, according as 
the matter is viewed; who sees in the enormous de- 
struction and seeming waste of life — of early infant 
life — innocent, pale-faced, sweet, and beauteous 
youth, struck at by stern, remorseless, pitiless death, 
1 a wise dispensation of Providence for the multiply- 
ing of pleasure :' to him, or to them, for they are a 
school, I leave the Jesuitical task of discovering in 
physical and moral suffering a benefit and a plea- 
sure, and proceed, disclaiming all knowledge of ' the 
why ' and ' the wherefore,' pretending not to an ini- 
tiation into the mysterious ways of the Creative 
Power — its intentions; its plans, its views, its theory 
— but merely to inquire into the reality of the fact 
and its consequences. 

" That animal and vegetable life is produced in 
an abundance exceeding all belief; that a half, at 
least, of everything born, perishes from unknown 
causes when young ; that another section or division 
afterwards perish, being destined as food for others; 
that man himself, an animal mortal and frail like 
others, is included to the full in this stern category ; 
that there would even seem for him a worse fate 
than for the others, is simply a fact undeniable, ex- 
plain it, as you may. Mental and bodily diseases 
of all hues, harassing pestilence and famine ; wars 
of opinion ! war to the knife ! promising utter de- 
struction and final extermination to those who prefer 
the evidence of sense to the erring reason of man, 
stupidly maintaining that bread is not flesh, and 


that wine cannot be turned into blood until digested 
and assimilated. Man's fate, then, is severer than 
that of the lower animals; they have no aristocracy, 
no priests, no kings; they are spared this triple 
curse ; nor can a dark and fearful future be depicted 
on their brains, in terms so strong as to make them 
believe that millions of invisible beings walk the 
lower regions of the atmosphere, wholly occupied in 
leading him to destruction. 

" Whatever, then, be the cause, life is produced 
on the globe in extravagant and unintelligible abun- 
dance — life clothed in forms, some simple, others 
more complex. To this life, as produced by nature, 
clothed with the forms necessitated by develop- 
ment in time, or by time (for this has not yet been 
fully resolved) man, also a part of Nature's plan, 
else he could not be present, is the perpetual antago- 
nist. Against the floral and faunal wilde he carries 
on perpetual w T ar; if civilized, even the natural her- 
bage does not escape him ; for it he substitutes an 
artificial crop. His domestic animals, as he calls 
them, seem never to have been really wild. They 
are not, nor ever were found in a natural state ; it is 
the same with vegetable productions ; his destiny 
is, multiply sheep and oxen, and wheat, and cabba- 
ges, until the earth be filled therewith ; to extrude 
and destroy, if he can, all that is wonderful and 
beautiful on the globe as it carne from Nature's 
hands. In dealing with this astounding, yet certain 
truth, let us be cautious how w T e apply the word 
man. Are all the races of men antagonistic of Na- 
ture's work? Probably they are, but differ in this 


antagonistic power immeasurably from each other ; 
nor is it improbable that, with certain races, the 
amount of antagonism would in no conceivable pe- 
riod of time have reached the point of extermination. 
But for the rifle, the American bison might for thou- 
sands of years have maintained his ground against 
the feebly armed Indian; the grizzly bear might 
have become in time the assailant; the wolf have 
forced the copper-colored Indian to fortify his camp 
against a midnight attack ; and the jaguar and alli- 
gator and boa reigned masters of the wooded banks 
of the Maranon and Oronoco. I know not of any 
means possessed by the Circumpolar races for the 
extermination of the seal and walrus, the polar bear, 
the whale ; no powers of combination, no powers of 
invention equal to the task. For how many ages to 
come might not the ponderous elephant and un- 
wieldy hippopotamus have grazed by the banks of 
the remote Kei, or harmlessly gambolled in the 
Keis Kamma or Gariepine streams ? For how many 
centuries yet to come, but for the interposition of 
the Saxon and the rifle, might not the stately giraffe, 
with the gazelle eye, have adorned the southern 
edge of the Calihari, by your beauteous reaches, 
clear and crystal Gariep ? Who shall say ? The 
wild man was obviously unequal to their destruc- 
tion ; even the baboon he dared not attack in troops ; 
the buffalo and the rhinoceros he could scarcely en- 
counter under any circumstances ; and, in despite of 
Bosjeman and Hottentot, and Kaffir, the lion stalked 
at mid-day on the open plains. This have I seen 
whilst wandering in South Africa, traversing slowly 



the Bosjeman land, or wistfully gazing over that 
beauteous field, looking from the Koonap eastward, 
then calm and peaceful, now marked by scenes of 
pillage, plunder, and relentless massacre. On this 
field the naked savage met the disciplined savage, 
the semi-barbarian met nature's man. 

"In my early days, and whilst still a youth, a 
friend placed in my hands five enchanting volumes, 
full of nature, and of truth, ' The Adventures of Le 
Vaillani' Ten years afterwards I stood on the spot 
where, crossing the Groote Visch Riviere, he ascen- 
ded the slope leading to the undulating Table-land, 
through which the Koonap and Chumie, the Keis- 
Kamma, and many other streams make their way, 
directly, or indirectly, to join the Indian Ocean. 
Wandering alone on the afternoon of a bright sun- 
shiny day, such a day as can be seen only in South- 
ern Africa, and ascending the long and gentle slope, 
thus reaching the level of the grassy plains stretch- 
ing eastward towards the Koonap, the neutral 
ground lay before me. To the north and east might 
be traced the wooded range of the Kaha and Anat- 
tola mountain range, part and parcel of the lofty 
Winterbergen ; and as I stood musing on the scene 
before me, the past and the future rose on my ima- 
gination like a dream. What was the living scene 
before me ? Nature in all her wondrous beauty and 
variety ; the dark-eyed antelope, of nearly all va- 
rieties, covered the plain ; in the distance, stalked 
slowly the majestic ostrich ; over head soared, silent 
and sad, the vulture; bustards of all sizes; harmless, 
peaceful, grain and insect-loving animals ; the zebra 


and the quagga ; the acacia, the strelitzia, the ever- 
greens, the pasture and the bush, planted by nature ; 
the field which plough or spade had never turned 
up, on which the cerealia had never been grown. 
And what is this scene to me, I said? Beautiful 
though it be, where is man? It seemed, in my 
sight, a vast stage, decorated, picturesque, lovely, 
but the actors were wanting; it was a panorama, a 
picture — a living picture, yet desert and without 
that life to which man ever looks. But now the 
glass discovers on the wooded slopes of the Chumie 
mountains the curling smoke, telling of the presence 
of man. Now who is the man who watches that 
fire? It is the savage Bosjeman, or still fiercer 
Kaffir; the race looked for by Le Vaillant many- 
years before, from the same spot on which I now 
stood. Nature, then, had stood its ground in that 
lapse of time; she had remained seemingly unal- 
tered for countless ages up to the moment I then 
noted her; Why should not this continue? I will 
tell you: a new element had appeared, the Dutch- 
Saxon and the Anglo-Saxon w r ere now hanging on 
the skirts of the old African world. A new element 
of mind had appeared, about to create a new South 
African asra : the Saxon or Celtic element, bringing 
with it the semi-civilized notions of Europe — the 
power of combinations, fire-arms, discipline, laws. 
Before this new element, antagonistic of nature, her 
works are doomed to destruction, in as far as man 
can destroy. The wild acacia he wastes as fire- 
wood ; the Chumie forests he utterly destroys, con- 
verting the timbers thereof into rafters for barracks 


and other hovels, for men to congregate in like pigs. 
Over nature's pastures, over the iris, bulbous plants 
of surpassing beauty, over the strelitzia, and a thou- 
sand other wild flowers, he passes the ruthless 
plough. The antelope is exterminated or disap- 
pears; the zebra, the gnoo, the ostrich, the bustard, 
escape from the land, or are shot down; the mighty 
onslaught of an antagonistic element, seemingly too 
strong for nature, defeats even the rhinoceros, the 
elephant, the lion, so that their skins are become 
rare, so rare as to be prized for European museums 
Last comes man himself — the colored man — the 
man placed there by nature ; he also must of neces- 
sity give way ; his destiny apparently is sealed, and 
extinction in presence of a stronger race seems in- 
evitable. The yellow race, the feebler, will natu- 
rally yield first; then the Kaffir — he also must yield 
to the Saxon Boor, on whose side is right, that is, 
might; for, humanly speaking, might is the sole 
right. Retiring northwards towards the Calihari, 
and perhaps crossing it, he and the wilde with him 
may gain Central Africa, and so escape for a time 
the destruction threatening them. But is this de- 
struction certain ? In front of the Saxon Boor 
stands the desert; that he cannot conquer. As he 
advances north ward and eastward, he encounters 
the tropical line, within which generally he cannot 
live. Thus, after all, his dominion may be limited 
to Southern extra-tropical Africa ; nor is it quite 
certain that he may always stand his ground in that 
healthiest of all countries. He has not yet labored 
there as a cultivator ; he has not yet been left to his 


own resources. But this question I have already 
discussed — I mean the destruction of one race by 
another, and the substitution of one race by another. 
Man's gift is to destroy, not to create ; he cannot 
even produce and maintain a new and permanent 
variety of a barn-door fowl, of a pheasant, of a sheep 
or horse. This, then, is the antagonism of man, of 
certain races of men, to nature's works — of those 
races, at least, in whose minds civilization forms a 
natural element — natural or acquired ; of men edu- 
cable and progressive, at least to a certain point. 
With other races it seems different. That the 
Saxon and Celtic races may maintain their ground 
in Southern Africa is possible, but not proved. The 
history of man, as I have already shown, is against 
the theory, w T hich indeed is mainly maintained by 
the arrogance and self-sufficiency of the race. But 
this great question I have already discussed : let me 
therefore conclude by rapidly surveying the oppos- 
ing obstacles to the identification of the Saxon and 
Celtic races with the soil of Southern Africa. 

" There is first the Kalihari or Southern Sahara; 
the Karoo, not yet cultivated; the labor question he 
has not yet met; to the northward, the tropic, he 
dare not enter as a cultivator; the dark and more 
numerous races he must there encounter. To these 
the Saxon bears an eternal, deep-rooted hatred; but 
not so other races — the Celt, for example, and the 
Celt-Iberian. As he proceeds towards Central and 
Eastern Africa, he will encounter the Arab and the 
Moor : by these he has hitherto been kept in check. 
But it is the tropic which must protect the dark 



races ultimately against the antagonism of the fair. 
With the wilde it is otherwise. There man may 
destroy — this is, indeed, his aim — progressing on- 
ward, as he thinks, when the earth shall support only 
oxen, and sheep, and cabbages, and man, and Saxons, 
of course; adopting the theory that the Saxon race 
is the highest development. Pleasant theory ! So 
would have reasoned the saurians, could they have 
reasoned — the sivatherium and the dinotherium ! 
Contemplating their gigantic, and, it may be, splen- 
did forms, with the great and sublime around him : 
tortoises that might sustain an elephant on their 
backs; bears the size of horses; tigers and oxen of 
gigantic stature, and robes at least as beautiful as 
those of the present day ; was it not natural for the 
man of that day, as no doubt there was such a man, 
to have said to himself, ' This is the last development, 
the highest effort of nature! She can produce 
nothing more sublime than the world now before 
me !' But now the aim of the Saxon man is the 
extermination of the dark races of men — the abori- 
gines — the men of the desert and of the forest. I 
have shown you the obstacles to his progress — the 
forest, the growing desert, the overwhelming sands 
of the sea-shore ; the terrible results of the earth- 
quakes and of volcanoes; the subsidence of land 
under the ocean ; the advance of the bog and the 
heath. These affect all races, more or less; so does 
climate — more powerful than all — the present cli- 
mate of the earth as it is known to us. Extend the 
phrase climate to times past, and to times to come ; 
ask yourselves what climatic changes destroyed the 


mammoth, the aneplotherium, the dinotherium, the 
sivatherium? the fishes of the ancient world? the 
saurians? Man destroyed them not; yet their race 
is run. Why dies out, almost before our eyes, the 
apteryx ? The Irish elk, the gigantic fossil ox, the 
dodo, have not long ceased to exist. The destroy- 
ing angel walks abroad unseen, striking even at the 
races of men. But nature dies not; ever young; 
ever returning; ever reviving; she is eternal. The 
form is immaterial; the essence is the same; first 
and last." 300—314. 



"1. In despite of the lesson taught the Saxon 
race by the United States of America, a lesson 
without a parallel in the world, the Norman gov- 
ernment of England persists in the same colonial 
policy which caused her the loss of America. 
Whilst I now write there is a scheme to found a 
British colony, with true British feelings, in New 
Zealand. It is to be called New Canterbury. 
Nothing can teach certain men. The promoters 
fancy that they can alter human nature ; the Saxon 
nature : that British feelings or nationality is to pre- 
vail over the eternal qualities of race. So little do 
they seem to know of human nature, that they 
fancy it possible to extend British nationality to the 
descendants of a race, coming from England, no 
doubt, but born and brought up in New Zealand. 
They actually deny to the Saxon his greatest quali- 
ty, self-esteem, self-dependence. Scarcely will these 


New Zealanders have seen the fourth or fifth gene- 
ration, before they will set Britain, with all its mock 
institutions, at defiance, They are Saxon men; 
that is, democrats, by their nature; and they will 
throw off the Norman rule the instant they can. 
They did this in the United States ; the Cape will 
follow next; then Australia. Looking at the pre- 
sent condition of Britain, it were grievous to think 

"2. About fifteen years ago, the Prussian system 
of education, as it was called, came into notice in 
England. Interested greatly in everything pertain- 
ing to the education of man, I carefully weighed its 
probable results on any people who unhappily might 
adopt it. The conclusions I then formed, and of 
which I made no secret, were, 1st, that the Prus- 
sian system was not intended to educate, but to de- 
stroy the human mind. 2d, that as nothing good 
could come from the House of Brandenburg and its 
drum-head government, it ought to be at once re- 
fused admittance into Britain. At that time I could 
get none to agree with me on these points : to-day, 
however, I find that even in the House of Commons, 
where truth penetrates latest, the execrable scheme 
has been exposed. This really infamous plan to 
destroy by misdirected State education the mind of 
the rising generation, was not confined to Prussia; 
it extended all over Austria." 315 — 316. 

" 4. No mixed race can stand their ground for 
any long period of years. The Danish (Scandina- 
vian or Saxon) blood, which must have existed in 
sufficient abundance in South England during and 


subsequent to Canute's time, has given way before 
the Flemish races, which preceded the Saxon, and 
now prevails everywhere. All traces of the Scan- 
dinavian and Celtic seem to have left Greece. The 
mingled Italian races, the product of so many others, 
seem fast reverting to a primitive race, which occu- 
pied Italy before Rome was founded. A mixed 
race may then be produced, but it cannot be sup- 
ported by its own resources, but by continual 
draughts from the two pure races which originally 
gave origin to it. 

" The character of such a race may be judged of 
by what ancient historians say of the Sybarites, 
even before the time of Pyrrhus, and by the accounts 
which some modern travellers give us of the present 
Neapolitans and South Italians, including the Sicil- 
ian. For the sake of humanity I should hope that 
these accounts are exaggerated; it has been said, 
that after thirty years of age all the characters of 
the vilest passions appear strongly on the South 
Italian countenance, in an unmistakeable way. 
There must still be a good deal of Pelasgic blood 
in Campania and Sicily." 316. 

" 5. No existing race is equal to the colonization 
of the whole earth. They cannot even extend 
themselves from one continent to another. Already 
the Anglo-Saxon rears with difficulty his offspring 
in Australia : it is the same in most parts of Ameri- 
ca. But for the supplies they receive from Europe 
the race would perish, even in these most healthy 
climates. We have the authority of Mr. Warbur- 
ton for a fact I long suspected, but could not fully 


ascertain. Jewish children cannot live in Jerusa- 
lem ; and the whole race would die out in a few 
years in the promised land, but for the influx of 
stranger Jews from other countries. A great sec- 
tion of the Jewish race was probably Chaldean ; for 
on the Nimrod monuments the Jewish cast of fea- 
tures is quite discernible. Another great section 
was Coptic. A Syrian section must have existed or 
grown up by intermarriage. No Jew lived in Je- 
rusalem until after David's time, and even then the 
original inhabitants, the Jebusites, (Syrians,) con- 
tinued peaceably to occupy the city. It is probable, 
then, that in time the race may return to the origi- 
nal Chaldean; but in England the Coptic features 
show remarkably in some families." 317. 

" 6. The Saxon race, as a race, is the tallest in 
the world, but easterns paribus, they are not the 
strongest. The Celt is stronger, and so, probably 
is the Arab : the Congo black, Molineux, was much 
stronger than any Englishman of his day. But in 
this climate, tall men frequently die early, of pul- 
monary consumption ; and hence the greater mor- 
tality of the Foot-guards, and the difficulty of main- 
taining the standard of recruitment. They enter 
the service, moreover, too young. When sent to 
fine climates, as the Cape, and Australia, such per- 
sons live readily ; they escape consumption. The 
descendants also of the Saxon race seem to become 
a taller race in these latter countries; but this 
arises merely from the circumstance that the tall 
children, who would die in Europe, survive at the 
Cape, and in Australia. 


" The Saxon despises soldiering, so that his 
armies generally are heavy, cumbrous, and expen- 
sive. He is trained or disciplined with great diffi- 
culty. The pure English peasantry make wretched 
soldiers : they have neither the shape nor the quali- 
ties fitting them for war. The proper field for action 
of the Saxon is the ocean. 

" The Saxon, then, is not warlike, and he hates 
unprofitable wars : but he is brave as any man, and 
his strength and obstinacy make him a formidable 
enemy. As the Saxon by becoming a soldier loses 
the esteem of his fellow Saxons, so the status of the 
English soldier in society can never be raised ; the 
meanest independent laborer despises him ; he has 
sold his independence, the natural birthright of the 
Saxon. The Celtic race, destitute of all self-esteem, 
does not understand this : the Celt makes the best 
of soldiers : at sea he is all but worthless." 317-318. 

"7. Homer must have seen a Scandinavian 
woman, else he could not so have described Penelo- 
pe. The complexion he assigns to her exists in no 
other race. 

" Climate alters not complexion permanently : in- 
dividual alterations never become hereditary. My 
esteemed friend, Dr. Andrew Smith, informs me, 
that, curious to know the truth on this point, he 
attentively looked at a family descended from fore- 
fathers who came to South Africa with the first 
settlers. Three hundred years, then, had elapsed 
since their first arrival. Their descendants at this 
moment are as fair as the fairest of Europeans. 

" The Dutch at the Cape (Saxons) have a perfect 


horror for the colored races; it extends to the Mu- 
latto, whom they absolutely despise. The placing 
a colored man in an important official situation in 
South Africa, has caused to Britain the loss of some 
millions, and laid the basis for the ultimate separa- 
tion of that colony from Britain." 318. 

" 10. Since this work has gone to the press, I 
have been informed by a military friend, an excel- 
lent observer, that the Saxon-Dutch at the Cape 
have seldom numerous families. I entertained my- 
self at one time the opposite opinion, but I feel now 
convinced of the correctness of my friend's remarks. 
This explains the slow increase of population in 
Southern Africa, and is another confirmation of the 
great physiological law I have been the first to pro- 
pose — namely, that no race, be they who they may, 
can appropriate to themselves any other continent 
than the one to which they are indigenous. The 
ultimate extension, then, of the Saxon, or of any 
other race, to other continents than their own, is a 
dream or vision, opposed to all previous history. 
"What Providence may do for that, or for any other 
race, I do not pretend to know. Under Providence 
we were driven shamefully out of Affghanistan ; 
and at Buenos Ayres, and at Rosetta ; dispossessed 
of the United States ; Walcheren tells a sad tale ; 
and always under Providence the amount of juvenile 
delinquency and crime exceeds in England proba- 
bly all that at present exists on the globe. I leave 
the matter in the hands of the theologian, who, 
whether he be Lutheran or Catholic, Greek or Ma- 


hometan, will, no doubt, reconcile all contradictions. 
I pretend to nothing, but simply inquire. 

" The Huns are interlopers from Asia ; their fate 
seems certain. It is the same with the Turcoman. 
The Jew never could make good his ground in 
Syria, nor the true Arab in Africa. The Celts of 
England, Ireland, and Scotland, are just where 
they were a thousand years before Caesar landed. 
So are the Normans or Flemings of South England 
before William landed : so are the Saxons of East- 
ern England and Scotland. Spain seems returning 
to a single primitive race, existing there long before 
the Phoenicians landed in the Peninsula. Italv 
seems to be undergoing the same process." 319-320. 

" 14. The origin of man is a myth, which each 
race interprets in its own way, formules after the 
fashion of its own intellectual bearing ; retouches as 
it makes progress in arts, literature, and science ; 
that is, in civilization. 

"I mean not here to discuss these myths. The 
Jewish myth seems to have been a purely material 
one; philosophic, and sublimely simple, it offers no 
details. The Coptic and Hindoo was spiritual and 
lofty, but debased by shocking obscenities; the 
minds of the races were not equal to the perception 
of the perfect and beautiful. The Scandinavian 
myth was coarse and brutal ; material in its essence : 
the hideous representations of the Deity in India, 
China, Mongolia, and Polynesia, indicate the sad 
character of the minds of these races. 

" The precise geological period when man ap- 
peared on the earth, has not been determined ; nor 



what race appeared first; nor under what form, 
But it is evident, that man has survived several 
geological seras On these points all is at present 
conjecture ; but as man merely forms a portion of 
the material world, he must of necessity be subject 
to all the physiological and physical laws affecting 
life on the globe. His pretensions to place himself 
above nature's laws, assume a variety of shapes : 
sometimes" he affects mystery ; at other times he is 
grandly mechanical. Now, all is to be done through 
the workshop, in a little while, the ultimatum 
(what is the ultimatum aimed at?) is to be gained 
through religion : and thus man frets his hour upon 
the stage of life, fancying himself something whilst 
he is absolutely nothing. For him worlds were 
made millions of years ago, and yet according to his 
own account he appeared, as it were, but yesterday. 
Let us leave human chronology to the chronicler 
of events ; it turned the brain of Newton. 




The Classification of Mankind, by the Hair and 
Wool of their Heads, with an Answer to Dr. 
P Richard's Assertion, that " The Covering of the 
Head of the Negro is Hair, properly so termed, and 
not Wool:" by Peter A. Browne, Esq. 

" In examining the natural covering of the head 
of man, the first circumstance worthy of note is the 
want of uniformity of form or shape of a filament. 
If a transverse section or disk of one of these is 
made sufficiently thin to lie upon the object holder 
of a microscope, and it is examined under that 
potent instrument, it will be found to be cylindrical 
— if the same is done with a second, it will be 
proved to be oval — while a third will be eccentrically 
elliptical. By extending these examinations, as we 
have done, to hundreds of these integuments, it be- 
comes manifest that these three are the prevailing 
forms or shapes. There are, it is true, some varia- 
tions from these three ; but they are not more nu- 
merous than the usual deviations from other gen- 
eral rules. Now we respectfully submit that, in 
making this individual variance in shape, but spe- 
cific adherence to three forms, the basis of a classifi- 
cation of pile, we have not deviated from the usual 
path pursued by our scientific predecessors. The 
botanist pays strict regard to the shape of the root, 
of the stalk, of the leaves, and even of the flowers of 


plants; the mineralogist not only describes the 
forms, but even measures the angles of crystals ; 
then why should the shape be disregarded in the 
grouping of hairs? In applying these rules, we 
soon found that the hair of the head of the Choctaw 
and some other nations of American Indians, is 
cylindrical — that the hair of the white man is oval 
— and that the wool of the Negro is eccentric alhj 
elliptical ox flat. These are the three species. * * * 
" A further examination of these tegumentary 
appendages, and of these three forms of pile, satisfies 
us that they are equally distinguishable by direc- 
tion ; by which we mean the course, or path, which 
a hair pursues from the point where it pierces the 
epidermis to its apex. These, also, are divided into 
three kinds, viz : 1st, The straight and lank. 2d, 
The flowing or curled. 3d, The crisped, or friz- 
zled, which is, also, sometimes spirally twisted. 
We crave patience, while we endeavor to show that 
each of these qualities of pile is dependent upon its 
particular form, in connection with its essential pro- 
perties, which are common to them all; and that, 
consequently, they must be found to prevail, re- 
spectively, in each of the above races. We propose 
to show that cylindrical hair must necessarily be 
straight and lank, and consequently, if the Ameri- 
can Indian has cylindrical hair, it must hang 
straightly and lankly from his head ; if the white 
man has oval hair, it must necessarily flow from, or 
curl upon his head, and if the Negro has wool, 
which is eccentrically elliptical, for that very reason 


it is crisped or frizzled, and sometimes curls spirally 
all over his head. 

" In order to make ourself understood upon these 
important points, it is necessary that we should pre- 
mise that, among the essential properties of all pile 
are ductility and elasticity ; these are so inseparably 
connected with this integument, as to become im- 
portant tests of identity ; enabling us, when we ex- 
amine a filament in which they are absent, to deter- 
mine that it is not pile. It soon became an object to 
us to ascertain in what part of a hair these proper- 
ties reside ; and by repeated experiments of the 
most rigid and satisfactory character we discovered 
that it is in the fibres. 

" In all pile constructed according to the plan re- 
vealed by modern examinations under the micro- 
scope, there are antagonizing forces, viz : that 
of these ductile and elastic fibres to stretch and 
shrink, as acted upon mechanically or chemically, 
and that of the non-ductile and inelastic squamose 
cortex, to resist these forces. Now, when a hair is 
cylindrical, the stretching and shrinking tendency 
of the fibres is, on all sides of the filaments, equal ; 
and this equality, aided by the restriction of the 
cortex, preserves the hair straight, and makes it 
lank. But when a hair departs from the cylindri- 
cal form, the stretching and shrinking powers of 
the filament become unequal in the same degree; 
for those of the fibres upon the two flattened sides, 
become more powerful than those of the fibres of 
the ellipsoids; there is, consequently, a tendency 

in this filament to curve in the direction of one of 

29 * 


the flattened sides; this tendency the cortex is una- 
ble to resist; whereupon the hair either flows, or 
curls, according to the degree of depression. Every 
one knows how easy it is to bend the blade of a sur- 
geon's spatula in the direction of either of its flat- 
tened surfaces, while his whole strength cannot 
make it bend in either of the contrary directions. 
Just so it is, except in an inferior degree, with a 
flattened hair; a small degree of elastic force will 
cause it to flow towards one of its flattened sides; 
and a little more will make it curl in the same direc- 
tion ; but no stretching or shrinking force ever 
makes it flow or curl edgeways, or in the direction 
of its ellipse. We have examined numerous hairs 
under the microscope, with the elucidation of these 
very points in view, and have never witnessed a 
single deviation from this law ; but, on the contrary, 
by attention to it, we have been able to trace the 
form and direction of hair from the cylindrical, 
(straight and lank) through the oval, (flowing or 
curling,) to the eccentrically elliptical or flat, (the 
crisped or frizzled, and which is sometimes spirally 
curled.) It is true, that occasionally the shrinking 
process of the two flattened sides of a filament alter- 
nates, when an exception, in the shape of an undu- 
lating hair, is the consequence; but generally, if the 
shrinking force of the fibres on one side gains the 
ascendancy over that of the other, a curl in that di- 
rection is permanent; for the more the former is 
curved, the more force will be required for its recur- 
sion, and the more the latter is stretched, the less 
will be its power to return to its original condition. 


" Now, if we were willing to admit that mere 
forms and shapes are sufficient ground whereon to 
build a classification of pile, by a much stronger 
reason may we be satisfied to do so when we find 
that, with these forms and shapes, are inseparably 
connected the directions of the integument. 

" We proceed, in the next place, to the inclination 
of pile, by which we mean the angle which the fila- 
ment forms with the tegument from which it pro- 
ceeds. This inclination does not depend upon the 
shape, nor upon the direction ; nor does the direction 
depend at all upon it; but the inclination is due, 
entirely, to the angle which the root of the hair 
bears to the skin of the animal in which it is im- 
bedded. The roots of cylindrical and oval pile 
have an oblique angle of inclination, for which rea- 
son those hairs do not grow out of the epidermis at 
a right angle thereto, but incline in a determinate 
manner; while the roots of wool, which is eccentri- 
cally elliptical, or flat, lie in the dermis perpendicu- 
lar!?/, and hence the filaments pierce the epidermis 
at right angles thereto. This is an exceedingly im- 
portant distinction, which explains some anomalies 
that have puzzled shrewd philosophers ; for instance, 
Dr. Prichard, in his Natural History of Man, p. 21, 
gives a drawing and description of the head of a 
Papua, inhabiting the northern coast of Guinea, who, 
he says, has a large bushy mass of half-woolly hair* 
standing out from his head, on account of which his 
breed has been called ' the mop-headed papuas.' 
The Doctor says that they are a mixture of Malay 

* " Quaere — What sort of hair is that which is ' half. woolly V " 


and Negro ; but he appears at a loss to explain the 
phenemenon. It is the hair of the Malay, with the 
inclination of the Negro's wool. 

" Here, again, let us pause for a moment, and re- 
flect upon our progress. We find the head of the 
white man covered with a pile which, in shape, is 
oval — in direction, flowing, or curled — and which 
pierces the epidermis at an acute angle; while the 
wool of the Negro is, in form, eccentrically elliptical, 
or flat — in direction, crisped, or frizzled, and some- 
times spirally twisted, and in inclination issues out 
of his epidermis at a right angle. We confidently 
appeal to naturalists, whether these are not promi- 
nent specific differences. But, to proceed. 

" Pile is furnished with a coloring matter, which 
is variously disposed. The hair of the head of the 
white man, besides its cortex and intermediate fibres, 
has a central canal, in which this coloring matter, 
when the hair has any, flows ; when this hair is col- 
orless, the central canal is still found, but it is then 
vacant. But the wool of the Negro has no central 
canal ; the coloring matter, when present, is dissemi- 
nated throughout the cortex, or is in the cortex and 
intermediate fibres. Is not this also a specific dis- 
tinction? But this variation in the disposition of 
the coloring matter is, as regards classification of 
pile, a more important feature than at first strikes 
the mind; for, according to the rules of science, one 
organ is considered more perfect than another, if it 
employs a greater variety of apparatus in the per- 
formance of its functions. Now, here we find the 
hair of the head of the white man possessing an 


apparatus, viz : a canal for the conveyance of its 
coloring matter, which, in the wool of the Negro is 
entirely wanting ; nature there making use of the 
cortex, or the cortex and fibres for this, in common 
with other purposes. The inference is irresistible. 
The hair of the white man is more perfect than that 
of the Negro; and, as we know by experience, that 
of all pile, that of the head of man is the most com- 
pletely organized, we will not, perhaps, be wander- 
ing astray, in ranking the hair of the head of the 
white man as a perfect hair. 

" Let us once more take a view of these distinc- 
tions as they have now been pointed out; only, this 
time, for the sake of greater perspicuity, confining 
ourselves to the integuments of the white man, and 
those of the Negro. The hair of the white man is 
perfect, having not only all the apparatus found in 
other pile, but one belonging exclusively to itself, 
viz : a central canal for the conveyance of the color- 
ing matter ; it is, in shape oval ; in direction flowing, 
or curling; in inclination, acute angled to the epi- 
dermis, out of which it issues. 

" The wool of the Negro, on the contrary, is an 
imperfect pile, having no central canal for the con- 
veyance of its coloring matter ; it is, in shape, eccen- 
trically elliptical, or flat, and issues out of the epi- 
dermis at a right angle thereto. 

" The next and last topic to which we mean at 
present to allude, for it is not our intention to ex- 
haust the subject, but rather to introduce it to 
notice, is the scales upon the cortex of the pile. 

" These scales, since they have been discovered 


to be the main cause of the felting and fulling of 
woolj have become objects of intense interest; but 
our observations in regard to them must be of a very 
limited character. We will, then, barely remark, 
that they are common to both hair and wool ; but 
that they differ so much upon these two kinds of 
pile, as almost, if not entirely, to justify the asser- 
tion that, in the Jirst, they are are in a rudimentary 
state only, in the second, in their perfect one. On 
hair they are few in number, comparatively ; they 
are smooth of surface, the points are rounded, and 
they closely embrace the shaft. On the Negro's 
wool they are numerous, rough, sharp pointed, and 
they project from the shaft. The hair of the white 
man will not felt, but the wool of the Negro will 
felt. On hair, the edges of these scales resemble 
mere transverse striae; on wool, they are prominent 
and apparent. 

1 But we are obliged to admit, that opposed to 
these opinions of ours, there are some high authori- 
ties, the principal one of which we will proceed to 

"Dr. Prichard, (in Nat. Hist, of Man, p. 16,) 
cites Wagner for the following laws, viz : 

" 1st. ' That hybrid plants, in a natural state, are 
very seldom produced, and that the greatest num- 
ber of the reputed instances rest on no sufficient 

" 2d. ' That hybrid plants are very seldom fruit- 
ful among themselves, but that such hybrids as the 
Verbascum hybridum and the Digitalis purpuras- 
cens, from the D. purpurea and the lutea, and all 


others which hold an exactly intermediate place 
between the parent plants, are absolutely barren; 
while those which (owing to the proportion of pol- 
len) partake more of either kind, and those which 
spring from the fertilization of such hybrids among 
themselves, are occasionally propagated. 

"3d. 'That plants produced from different va- 
rieties of the same species, are altogether fertile, and 
that no impediment exists to their propagation ; 
while hybrids either revert to the original character, 
(generally that of the maternal parent,) or become 
gradually less capable of reproduction ; and, within 
a few generations, become entirely extinct.' 

"Dr. Prichard then remarks, that 'A similar law 
prevails in the animal creation, and that its effects 
are, on a great scale, equally constant and uniform. 
Mules (he says) and other hybrid animals, are pro- 
duced among tribes in a state of domestication ; but 
that, except in some very rare instances, (occurring 
in particular tribes of birds,) they are unknown in 
the wild and natural state.' And he adds, 'that 
even when individual hybrids are produced, it is 
found impossible to perpetuate, from them, a new 
breed. That it is only by returning towards one of 
the parent tribes, that the offspring of these animals 
is capable of being continued in successive genera- 
tions,' i. e. of forming a permanent race. 

66 These laws of hybridism, so important in them- 
selves, in a scientific point of view, become doubly 
so, from the circumstance that they form the chief 
ground upon which the Dr. founds his proposition, 


that \ all the different races of men belong to but one 

" The Dr. admits (p. 18) that ' in order to support 
this proposition, he is bound to prove that mankind, 
of all races and varieties, are equally capable of pro- 
pagating their offspring by intermarriages, and that 
such connections are equally prolific, whether con- 
tracted between individuals of the same, or of the 
most dissimilar varieties.' 

" Having, very properly, taken upon himself the 
onus probandi, the Dr. commences his evidence with 
the table of M. Rugundus, (Voyage dans les Brazils 
en 1835,) which purports to give the relative num- 
ber of ' whites,' ' men of color,' ' negroes,' and ' In- 
dians,' in different parts of America, in different 
years, some as far back as 1778, and others as late 
1824. Upon this table, it is worthy of remark, that 
the most it can prove, if every word is taken for 
verity, is, that there exists, in the places therein 
named, a large number of mulattoes, and even to do 
this, it must be taken for granted that ' men of color,' 
means ' mulattoes,' and that the blacks are called 
'negroes.' We do not know how this is in Brazil, 
but in this vicinity, if any one were to call a black 
person a ' negro,' it is ten to one that he would be 
offended ; although black is said to be no color at 
all, the blackest person is here denominated ' a per- 
son of color.' 

" Morse, in speaking of Brazil, in 1821, estimates 
the population at two millions, which, he says, is 
composed of whites, negroes, Indians, mulattoes and 
mestizoes. He does not give us the particulars of 


this motley group; but Mitchell says that three- 
fifths of the population are Negro slaves. 

"2d. In regard to the West Indies, upon which, 
it will be seen in p. 18, that the Dr. implicitly re- 
lies upon this table, as showing a race of mulattoes, 
the number of men of color and Negroes are not 
put down by M. Rugundus separately ; but the 
whole, without date, are estimated at 1.600,000. 

"In Goodrich's Geography (1840) they are pro- 
portioned as follows : free blacks, 1,503,712 ; slaves, 
367,865; total, 1,811,577. The mulattoes not being 
considered of sufficient consequence to be separately 

" 3d. In the "United States of America, another 
stronghold of Dr. Prichard's, this table of M. Ru- 
gundus' computes that, in 1820, there were 7,793,- 
008 whites, 1769 men of color ! and no Negroes nor 
blacks ! unless they are included in the 1769 men of 
color ! 

" In Goodrich's Geography, the inhabitants of the 
United States for this same year, 1820, are thus es- 
timated : whites, 7,872,711; slaves, 1,543,688; free 
colored, 238,197; total, 9,654,596. No distinction 
being made between the blacks and mulattoes. 

" We therefore respectfully submit that this table, 
conceived in ignorance, and brought forth in error, 
is, for the purpose that it has been used by Dr. 
Prichard, viz : to prove that the mulatto is a self- 
perpetuating race, entirely useless. 

"The next item in Dr. Prichard's evidence, con- 
sists of certain examples of intermixed tribes of men, 



wherein, (as he says,) entirely new and interme- 
diate stocks have been produced and multiplied. 

" The first of these is the Griquas, or Grequa 
Hottentots, descended from the Dutch Colonists and 
the aboriginal Hottentots. The Hottentots are de- 
scribed, in Morse's Gazetteer, as consisting of three 
races, viz : the inhabitants of the Colony, the Bos- 
jesmans and the Namaquas. The first are described 
as a mild, quiet, and timid people, but naturally the 
most lazy on earth; their indolence, (says this 
author,) is a real disease, they will rather fast and 
sleep the whole day, than seek food by any exer- 
tion ! The Cape Colony was settled by the Dutch 
in 1650; the United Brethren established a mission 
among them in 1736, which was renewed in 1792, 
and in 1815 it was conquered by the British. Gri- 
qua town is a station of the London Missionaries, on 
the great Orange river, seven hundred miles north- 
east of Cape town. Mitchell describes the Griquas 
as quiet, inoffensive, and ignorant, but filthy in their 
habits, and ugly in their persons; and, he says, 
that their language is compared to the clucking of 
a turkey. 

"The reader cannot fail to admire the Doctor's 
selection of this example. One has only to look at 
the drawing, and read the description of Dr. Prich- 
ard of one of these clucking unplumed bipeds, to be 
convinced that they are hybrids of the intermediate 
class, noticed by Wagner ; the work of man's hands, 
not of those of the Almighty; a race which he 
allows to blot and blemish nature for a limited time 
only, and then extinguishes ; as if it were in vindi- 


cation of the beauty and order of his creation of 

" The second example given by Dr. Prichard of 
an entire new stock being produced and multiplied, 
is the Brazilian Cafusos. We have already spoken 
of the population of Brazil, in general terms, in our 
remarks upon the table of M. Rugundus, and it re- 
mains only to say, that these Mestizoes are, to all 
appearance, hybrids, crosses of the native Indians 
with Negroes brought from Africa. If they are not 
hybrids, but an entirely new stock, it was the busi- 
ness of Dr. Prichard to have shown that they are 
not continually produced by the same mixture of 
species to which they owe their origin, and that they 
neither return to the species of one of their parents, 
nor run out after a few generations, according to the 
law of hybridism, which he has quoted and admit- 
ted to be universal. This is the pivot of the case, 
and in this his evidence fails entirely. 

" The third and last example adduced by Dr. 
Prichard, is the Papuas of the northern coast of 
Guinea, and the adjacent islands. The knowledge 
of these people is traced to Dampier, Forrest, and M. 
M. Quoy, and Guimard, and M. Lesson, the latter 
of whom pronounces them to be hybrids. Speaking 
of those authors who preceded him, he says, that 
they are the first, ' qui ont demontre que les habi- 
tans du litteral constituoient une espece hybride,' 
&c. &c; and he adds, what confirms this opinion, 
viz : that ' the greater part de ces papeuas hybrides 
presente des hommes d'une constitution grele et 


peu vigoreuse, 7 which, we respectfully submit, ac- 
cords with the character and description of hybrids. 

" With the whole world before him, these are the 
only instances which this indefatigable author has 
been able to glean, and these are far from proving 
his position. Dr. Prichard, nevertheless, trium- 
phantly concludes, that ' it is unquestionable that 
intermediate races of men exist and are propagated, 
and that no impediment whatever exists as to the 
perpetuation of mankind when the most dissimilar 
variations are blended together.' But this conclu- 
sion is unwarrantable by the proofs he has adduced, 
even admitting that he has shown the existence of 
mongrel races; for, in two out of three cases, he has 
altogether neglected and failed to show that ' no 
impediment exists to their perpetuation/ and yet 
that was the part of the proposition upon which the 
question turns ; and in the third case he has, by 
proving that they are hybrids, shown that an im- 
pediment does exist to their perpetuation. It is a 
singular way to prove a matter in dispute to pro- 
duce two witnesses, who are entirely ignorant of it, 
and a third, who testifies the very reverse of the 
proposition ! 

11 Dr. Prichard next proceeds, with admirable in- 
dustry, to the collection of evidence to show that, 
with many of the lower animals, domestication and 
change of climate and habits have caused varieties 
and diversities ; from which he infers that all the 
differences apparent in the races of men may have 
been occasioned by the same influences. 

" Protesting that the inference he draws is a non 


sequitur from the premises, were they proved or ad- 
mitted, we will submit the following brief, but satis- 
factory answer to his proposition, viz : that it mat- 
ters not what may have been the cases with the lower 
animals, that in regard to man, such has not been 
the fact ; for, if history is at all to be depended 
upon, the Negro has been the same black-skinned, 
woolly-headed animal for the last two thousand 
years. Herodotus, in the year 413, B. C, describes 
his black complexion and woolly hair ; and we know 
from experience, that a white man may live in a 
tropical climate, and even turn savage, without af- 
fecting the color of his skin, or the shape, direction, 
or inclination of his hair, while pure Negroes may 
be propagated from generation to generation in tem- 
perate climates, but always with the same rete mu- 
cosum and flat frizzled wool issuing at right angles 
from the epidermis of his scalp. To these unyield- 
ing facts, all reasoning from analogy must succumb, 
and all biasses of religion and humanity must give 
way. In page 7, Dr. Prichard tells that ' he does 
not regard this question as one of which the decision 
is a matter of indifference, either in religion or hu- 
manity.' This is ad captandum vulgus, and not the 
language of a philosopher in search of truth. His 
mind should be unprejudiced, — he ought to have no 
hypothesis nor theory to support, no polar star but 
truth. We shall now proceed to the second branch 
of the inquiry. 

"Dr. Prichard has devoted the greater part of 
one section of his book, to what he appears to 
esteem full proof, that the tegumentary appendages 



of the Negro's scalp is not wool, but hair. He com- 
mences thus: ' It is commonly said, that the sub- 
stance which grows on the head of the African races, 
and some other dark colored tribes, chiefly inhabit- 
ing tropical climates, is wool, and not hair.' 

" And he concludes with these words : — 

" ' From these observations, I am convinced that 
the Negro has hair, properly so termed, and not 

" Now, as we agree with Dr. Prichard, that a 
prerequisite to the determination of this point is to 
form a clear idea of the difference between hair and 
wool, we will first, with him, turn our attention in 
that direction. 

" Here again the Dr. properly admits, that he is 
bound to wield the laboring oar, having undertaken 
to show what is in opposition to the common sense, 
and commonly expressed opinion of mankind. But 
to his proofs. He commences with citations from 
Dr. Eble. We have not this last named gentle- 
man's book before us ; but, according to Dr. Prich- 
ard's own showing, his principal labors were be- 
stowed upon a comparison of the merino wool, with 
the fleece of the Chinese sheep. Wool compared 
with wool, and not wool with hair ! He found a 
striking difference between these two wools; a cir- 
cumstance not at all surprising in a contrast of the 
fine Spanish wool with the coarse Chinese fleece. 

" Dr. Eble is represented as saying, that ' all wool 
displays filaments twisted and matted in all direc- 
tions.' This twisting and matting, (as he calls 
them,) which, when applied to the manufacture of 


hats, is called felting, and when to cloth, fulling, is 
caused bj the scales upon the filaments; and as we 
are here given to understand by Dr. Eble is a char- 
acteristic of that integument ; and therefore it was 
reasonably to be expected from Dr. Prichard, if he 
proffered to prove by Dr. Eble, that the covering of 
the Negro's head was not wool, to show that it was 
destitute of this characteristic. But, to our sur- 
prise, he does nothing of the kind. 

"Dr. Eble is further quoted as saying, that 'the 
shaft of the filament of the wool does not preserve 
an uniform calibre, but is thickened here and there, 
and often swelled with appearances of knots.' Here, 
again, we anticipated that Dr. Prichard would take 
upon himself to show that the covering of the Ne- 
gro's head differed from wool in these essential par- 
ticulars; but he has not even made the attempt. 

M Dr. Eble is still further represented by Dr. 
Prichard, as saying, that 'he could everywhere dis- 
tinguish the medula or pith, and could accurately 
discriminate between this and the cortical sub- 
stance.' In this assertion, Dr. Eble, (if he is cor- 
rectly quoted,) was in error, for wool has no central 
canal. But this error escaped entirely the notice of 
Dr. Prichard, which does not prove a deep know- 
ledge of the subject. 

" Hitherto, the observations of Dr. Eble, (so far as 
we have them at second hand,) are confined to wool, 
but he is, in the next place, represented as speaking 
of wool and hair. ' The hair of the Thibean goat, 
(he is made to say,) approaches, in its texture, very 
nearly to the Merino wool, only it is smaller in the 


diameter of its shaft, and the transverse laminae [the 
edges of the scales] are not so regularly placed. ' 
We have no specimens of the tegumentary appen- 
dage of the goat of Thibet, but notice that Milne 
Edwards calls it wool, (laine.) — See Elem de Zool., 
447. There is, therefore, no cause for surprise, that 
it should resemble Merino wool. But suppose, for 
the sake of the argument, we were to admit it to be 
hair, was it not the duty of Dr. Prichard to have 
compared this pile of the goat w T ith that of the Ne- 
gro, and to have informed us of the result ? 

" Agaiu, after having quoted all that he deemed 
necessary from this learned German, was it not the 
business of Dr Prichard to have shown, therefrom, 
what is hair, and what is wool, and to have pointed 
wherein the covering of the Negro's head is similar 
to the one and different from the other? And, since 
he has done neither the one nor the other of these, 
are we not compelled to admit, that his citations 
from Dr, Eble are of no avail ; leaving the question 
as uncertain as it was before they were made ? 

" Dr. Prichard next refers to the writings of M. 
Monge and Mr. Youatt. The former of these was 
the first person who suggested that the scales upon 
pile were subservient to the felting process, and the 
latter w T as the first who saw and described the scales. 

" But there is not one sentence in the essays of 
either of these gentlemen, which countenances the 
idea that ' the covering of the head of the Negro is 
hair, properly so termed, and not wool.' If there is, 
let it be produced. 

" But the Dr. like the farmer in the fable, having 


entirely failed in obtaining aid from others, falls 
back upon his own resources. In p. 105, he tells us 
that, ; with the aid of Mr. Estling, and a microscope 
of about 400, he examined the filaments of hair be- 
longing to the following different races of men, viz : 
Negro,* Mulatto, European and Abyssinian, and 
compared these with the filaments of wool of the 
Southdown sheep. That the filaments of the wool 
had a very rough and irregular surface, though no 
serrations, distinctly so termed, were perceptible. 
That the hair of the Negro, which was extremely 
unlike that of wool, and of all the other varieties 
mentioned, had the appearance of a cylinder, with 
a smooth surface. That they all appeared, more or 
less, filled with a dark coloring matter; which, how- 
ever, did not entirely destroy their transparency. 
That the coloring matter w T as apparently much 
more abundant in the hair of the Negro, than in the 
others. That the Abyssinian hair was also very 
dark, but so far diaphanous, that a ribbon-like band 
appeared running down through the middle of the 
cylindriform tube; and that the mulatto hair resem- 
bled the Abyssinian in this respect. That the fila- 
ment of European hair seemed almost entirely 
transparent; it had the appearance of an empty 
tube, coated internally with something of a dingy or 
dusky color; which only prevented it from being 
quite pellucid. That the European hair of a light 

« * Ought not the Dr. to have stated whether the specimen he examined 
was pure Negro, or at least, to have informed us where it was obtained ; for 
it is notorious, that there are mongrels of black and white crosses, whose po, 
sition cannot be determined by the color of the skin." 


color, had the same appearance, but was still less 
darkened. ' 

" Let us examine these descriptions and compari- 
sons in detail. The high character of the author, 
and the important conclusion to which he comes 
from them, will justify this proceeding. 

" He says, that ' the wool of the Southdown sheep 
had a very rough and irregular surface, though no 
serrations, distinctly so termed, were perceptible. ' 
Serrations is the name given by Mr. Youatt to the 
edges and points of the scales of pile, and they were 
not only seen by Mr. Youatt upon the wool of the 
Southdown sheep, but were counted, and in his 
Essay upon Sheep, which was published in 1835, 
they are depicted and described. We have in our 
collection of specimens of wool some of the pure 
Southdown, upon which these scales and their 
edges are as plainly to be seen under the micro- 
scope, as any other object of their minuteness. 

" ' The hair of the Negro, which was extremely 
unlike that of wool,' &c. 

" This is not the language of a naturalist, examin- 
ing an object with the microscope. He either ex- 
plains the particulars in which an ' extreme unlike- 
nes ' exists, or he furnishes drawings and descrip- 
tions of both objects, and leaves the reader to judge 
of the discrepancy for himself. 

" ' The hair of the Negro had the appearance of 
a cylinder. 1 

"If it is cylindrical, (which, by the way, is ex- 
ceedingly easy to determine under the microscope,) 
why not say so, and no more ? We have examined 


numerous specimens of the covering of the Negro's 
head, and have never^ found one that was cylindri- 
cal. Where the Negro blood is pure, they are 
always eccentrically elliptical or flat. 

"But the hair of the Negro was not only ex- 
tremely unlike that of wool, but was, also, extreme- 
ly unlike that of the other varieties of pile examined 
by Dr. Prichard, viz : those of the mulatto, the Eu- 
ropean and the Abyssinian. It is, then, a non de- 
scrip, and we are at a loss to conceive how this 
learned gentleman, who decides that it is not wool, 
because it is extremely unlike the wool of the 
Southdown sheep, can infer that it is hair, because 
it is extremely unlike all the hair with which it is 
compared ! 

" ' The surface was smooth.' 

" This is a most unfortunate discovery, for it 
proves that it is neither hair nor wool ; for both 
these integuments have a squamose cortex, which 
prevents the surface from being smooth ; the scales 
of wool, nevertheless, being more numerous, more 
pointed, and setting looser on the shaft than those 
of hair. If Dr. Prichard could not discover these 
scales upon the filament of a Southdown sheep, it 
must have been owing to some defect or want of 
power in the microscope he used, or to his own 
want of skill in its management; and in either of 
these cases it is not surprising that he imagined 
that his favorite pile was smooth. 

" ' The hairs all appeared to be more or less filled 
with a dark coloring matter ; but the coloring matter 


was apparently much more abundant in the hair of 
the Negro/ 

" If they were all filled, how could the Negro's 
be much more abundant? Was his more than 
filled ? 

" l The Abyssinian hair was also very dark, but 
so far diaphonous [transparent?] that what was in 
its centre could be perceived. ' 

" This is a very extraordinary kind of ' very dark 
transparency,' to say the least of it, and this part of 
the sentence might have been more happily expres- 
sed. But how was this darkness visible? l A rib- 
bon-like band in a cvlindriform tube.' Now, if Dr. 
Prichard, (even with the aid of Mr. Estlin,) could, 
with a microscope of 400, see the central tube of an 
Abyssinian hair so plainly as to determine that it 
was cylindriform, and yet could not see the scales 
of the cortex of a Southdown sheep, it deserves to 
be set down as one of the wonders of this miraculous 
age ! 

" Unfortunately, we have in our cabinet no speci- 
mens of Abyssinian hair ; but Dr. Prichard informs 
us that the mulatto's hair resembles that of the 
Abyssinian in this respect; and we have mulatto 
hair and mulatto wool in abundance ; for the tegu- 
mentary appendages of this hybrid resemble some- 
times the pile of one parent, and at other times that 
of the other, as laid down in the laws of hybridism, 
cited at the commencement of this review, and con- 
firmed by Dr. Prichard. 

" ' The European hair,' [of what nation?] * seemed ' 
[this word sometimes means to have the appearance 


without the reality !] ' almost entirely transparent.' 
We respectfully submit that these expressions are 
almost entirely too vague to be admitted into a phy- 
siological description; especially when the object 
of that description is to convince that wool is hair, 
because it grows on a Negro's head ! 

" ' It had the appearance of an empty tube.' Yet 
it was not empty, for he says that 'it had an internal 
coating of something.' [What that something is, 
we take for granted was indeterminate ; for the Dr. 
has left it undetermined.] But it was 'of a dingy 
dusky color,' [to which of the seven colors does this 
belong?] 'which only prevented it' [what would it 
do more than prevent it?] 'from being quite pellu- 
cid.' What an astonishing discovery, that a dark 
color should prevent an object from being pellucid ! 

" So much for Dr. Prichard's examination and 
description of the covering of the head of the Negro, 
from which he was convinced that it is 'hair, pro- 
perly so termed, and not wool.' 

' To do the Dr. justice, he does not appear to be 
entirely satisfied with his own conclusions upon this 
subject; for he winds up, by informing his readers 
that ' if the Negro's hair were wool, it would by no 
means prove the Negro to be a peculiar and sepa- 
rate stock; since we know that some tribes of ani- 
mals bear wool, while others of the same species are 
covered with hair.' 

" We would be much pleased to know the exact 
meaning here attached to the words 'stock ' ' tribes,' 
and ' species.' If they are used synonymously, and 
he means to say that the modification of being 



covered with hair, or covered with wool, when per- 
manently native in the race, is not a sufficient 
ground for a specific division of a genus, we respect- 
fully deny the assertion, and call upon this learned 
author to sustain himself by references to natural 
history. In page 249, Dr. Prichard gives a defini- 
tion of species, which is not unexceptionable, but 
by which we are willing, on this occasion, to abide. 
He says, ' Species are simply tribes of animals which 
are certainly known, or maybe inferred on satisfactory 
grounds, to have descended from the same stocks, or 
from parentages precisely similar, and in no way 
distinguished from each other.' But the parent- 
ages cannot be said to be precisely similar, and no 
w r ay distinguished, if those of one race have been 
certainly known always to have hair, and the other 
w r ool. 

" To conclude, we opine that hair and wool are 
not the same integument ; for, 

" 1st. Hair is, in shape, either cylindrical or 
oval ; but wool is eccentrically elliptical or flat ; and 
the covering of the Negro's head is eccentrically 
elliptical or flat. 

"2d. The direction of hair is either straight, 
flowing, or curled ; but wool is crisped or frizzled, 
and sometimes spirally twisted ; and the covering of 
the Negro's head is crisped or frizzled, and some- 
times spirally twisted. 

" 3d. Hair issues out of the epidermis at an acute 
angle, but wool emerges at a right angle ; and the 
covering of the Negro's head issues out of the epi- 
dermis at a right angle. 


" 4th. The coloring matter of a perfect hair, for 
example, that of the head of the white man, is con- 
tained in a central canal; but that of wool is dis- 
seminated in the cortex, or in the cortex and inter- 
mediate fibres; and the covering of the head of the 
Negro has no central canal. 

"5th. The scales of the cortex of hair are less 
numerous than those of wool, are smooth, and less 
pointed, and they embrace the shaft more inti- 
mately ; and the scales on the filaments of the cov- 
ering of the Negro's head are numerous, rough, 
pointed, and do not embrace the shaft intimately. 

" Corollory. — Hair will not felt, but wool will ; 
and the covering of the Negro's head will felt — has 
been felted. 

" For these and other reasons we are ' convinced ' 
that the Negro has on his head ' wool, properly so 
termed,' and not hair. And since the white man 
has hair upon his head, and the Negro has wool, we 
have no hesitancy in pronouncing that they belong 
to two distinct species. 

" M. Flourens, an eminent French physiologist, 
found four distinct layers between the cuticle and 
the cutis; the second of which, he says, is a mu- 
cuous membrane — a distinct organized body, under- 
laying the pigment, and existing in persons of dark 
color only. M. Flourens sought, in vain, for this 
membrane between the cutis and outer lamina of 
the epidermis of a white man; and yet this is the 
seat of the discoloration produced in his complexion 
by exposure to the sun. From these examinations, 
this distinguished naturalist and anatomist was able 


to pronounce, definitely, that trie discoloration in the 
skin of the white man is totally different in kind 
from the cause of blackness in the Negro, he there- 
fore justly concludes that the Negro and the Eu- 
ropean are separate species of beings. 

" We are prepared to show, by proofs incontesti- 
ble, that there are different species of sheep that are 
now amalgamated; but from which no permanent 
stock can ever be produced." 




"1. The extreme urgency of the doctrine that 
climate, modes of living, and habits of the people, 
cause the varieties of organization and color in man, 
has compelled its advocates, in some instances dis- 
ingenuously, to resort to examples which could only 
be available by a suppression of part of the facts. 
Of this kind is the example of the Portuguese colo- 
ny, which, upon the early discovery of the country, 
was established in Congo, and which is now lost by 
amalgamation with the Negro inhabitants. The 
story is told so as to leave the impression that they 
are lost by being turned to Negroes by the effects 
of the climate, &c, which, if true, would be a deci- 
ded case in point. It is true, that they are lost to 
the whites, though some slight traces of the Euro- 
pean countenance are yet preserved in their descen- 
dants; but climate, and manner of living had far 
less effect in making them Negroes, than their in- 
termarriage with the blacks, for about fifteen gene- 
rations ; — mixture enough, in all conscience, to lose 
a small colony of whites among a large body of 

" 2. If we survey the great family of mankind, 
what do we behold? Not only a most singular 
geographical separation of several great families 
into distinct habitants; not only permanent distinc- 
tions of color and organization ; not only aversions 
to intermarriages ; but different sexual relations, dif- 



ferent religions, different governments, different 
modes of life, manners, habits, and intellectual 
power. All of these differences have prevailed from 
their earliest histories, and continue without altera- 
tion. Compare, for instance, the people of Great 
Britain, with a population of twenty-two millions, 
with the most favorable examples of the dark races, 
the Chinese, with a population of three hundred 
millions. What has enabled these Islanders to dic- 
tate terms to a nation containing nearly one-third of 
mankind ? What enabled them to chastise them at 
their own doors, ten thousand miles from their own 
homes ? — Intellect ! To the Chinese this must have 
appeared astonishing; but to us, who know the 
secret of power ; who know that Great Britain, with 
her small population, by means of her giant intellect, 
actually performs the labor of a population equal to 
that of all the people of the world, if every man, 
woman, and child, were adult able-bodied laborers, 
so far from being a matter of surprise, the result 
was a matter of course. China, with three hundred 
millions of stereotyped Confucians, could not con- 
tend with Great Britain with her nine hundred 
millions of Bacons and Newtons. This immense 
disparity of intellect is not only displayed by Great 
Britain in comparison with China ; for, although in 
them we have contrasted the most favorable of the 
w T hite and dark races, the contrast will be equally 
strong, if we compare the whole Shemitic family, 
with any one or all of the dark races. Nor do the 
contrasts stop here. Compare the Ishmaelites with 
the Japhethites, or either of these with the Canaan- 


ites, and the difference of manners, habits, mode of 
living, and intellectual powers, are quite as strong, 
nay stronger than those which distinguish the spe- 
cies of most genera of animals." 

" 3. The physical condition of the Canaanites is 
so low that we scarcely know how to describe it. 
When we say that their women are in the most ab- 
ject condition, and that their governments, laws, 
religion, arts, sciences, agriculture, comforts, and 
conveniences of life, are fairly represented by them, 
it is sufficiently accurate to answer our object." 

"4. A remarkable difference in the anatomy of 
the skin of the different species of men, has been 
long known ; but has never, that we know of, been 
regarded by physiologists as having any influence 
upon sensibility. The skin of the white race con- 
sists of two parts only, viz : the scarf skin, and the 
true skin ; whereas the skin of the Negro consists of 
three parts, viz : the scarf skin, the rete mucosum, 
and the true skin. Notwithstanding the disputes 
among the learned, in regard to this intervening 
reticular substance, we regard the matter as settled, 
that there is no discoverable rete mucosum in the 
Shemitic species ; and that it exists in the Negro, 
and may be exhibited by dissection. l When a 
blister has been applied to the skin of a Negro,' 
says Cruikshank, ' if it has not been very stimulat- 
ing, in twelve hours after, a thin, greyish, transpa- 
rent membrane is raised, under which we find a 
fluid. This membrane is the cuticle, or scarf skin. 
When this, with the fluid, is removed, the surface 
under these appears black ; but if the blister had 


been very stimulating", another membrane in which 
this black color resides, would also have been raised 
with the cuticle. This is the rete mucosum, which 
is itself double, consisting of another transparent 
grey membrane, and of a black web, very much 
resembling the pigmentum nigrum of the eye. 
When this membrane is removed, the surface of the 
true skin, as has hitherto been believed, comes in 
view, and is white like that of a European. The 
rete mucosum gives the color to the skin." 

" 5. We have seen it stated in a recent highly 
respectable periodical, though we cannot now find 
it, and know not on what authority it rests, that the 
Negro actually expires less carbonic acid than the 
white man ; consequently, that more carbon is ab- 
sorbed in the system ; that, from this cause Africans 
seldom have fetid breath, but transpire the foetid 
matter, somewhat modified, chiefly by the skin. 
We say w r e know not on what authority this rests, 
though our impression is, it is reliable. Be this as 
it may, there are several facts to warrant the con- 
clusion that there must be a difference in the re- 
spective species, in the functions of the lungs, in 
regard to the oxydation of the blood, — small, it may 
be, in amount, but vastly important in its influence 
upon the animal economy, and vital energy. This 
is manifest, not only in the rete mucosum, and the 
secretory functions which give rise to it, but in the 
lubricity of the skin, and the peculiar odor it emits. 
It is well known that all the dark races have a more 
oily, velvety skin than the white race. Johnson, in 
his work on ' Tropical Climates ' mentions this oily 


secretion of the natives of India, as one of the pecu- 
liar characteristics which protects them from the 
effects of the climate, not enjoyed by Europeans. 
This constitutional tendency to appropriate to the 
use of the system a large portion of carbon, the 
chief element of the fixed oils, is, probably a chief 
cause of the comparative torpor and insensibility of 
all the dark races, and their consequent exemption 
from nervous diseases." 

"6. We have seen that the descent from the 
Shemites (whites) to the Ishmaelites, was by a wide 
step ; and that from these to the Japhethites, the 
distance is very trifling ; but from these to the Ca- 
naanites (Negroes) the step is again wide. There 
is not a single circumstance in the history of the 
whole of this race which indicates an intellectual 
appetite beyond an embryotic state. It is not 
enough to say that they are entirely destitute of the 
arts and sciences, strictly speaking; for they are 
destitute of all the means necessary for acquiring the 
most common rudiments of knowledge. They have 
not only no alphabet, but have not yet made the 
first step towards acquiring it. No people of any 
other species, have yet been discovered, so low in 
intellectual development as not to possess some mode 
of communicating ideas to others, otherwise than by 
the voice ; but we do not now recollect a single 
nation of Canaanites (Negroes) which has any 
paintings, hieroglyphics, or symbols of any kind, by 
which to communicate ideas. Some Mohammedan 
Negroes, bordering on the Sahara, have received 
some cultivation from the Moors, together with their 


religion, but we speak of cultivation by their own 
unaided efforts. In our estimate of the appetites of 
the different species, we have indulged in no specu- 
lations, in regard to what improvements may be 
made of this attribute by cultivation." 

"7. The callous temperament of the Ishmaelites 
is "unfavorable to any high display of this attribute 
(Prudence.) Revenge, selfishness, wantonness, and 
voluptuousness, are their chief incentives to action. 
Cruelty, robbery, destructiveness, and jealousy, are 
the consequences which follow such principles. 
Prudence is seldom present in such councils. But 
although, in general, they are not distinguished for 
this virtue, we must give them credit for a larger 
endowment of it than belongs to the Canaanites 
(Negroes,) who are almost destitute of it. Reck- 
less, careless, and proverbially improvident, they 
seldom exhibit prudence in their conduct. Even after 
having lived centuries with the white people, from 
whom they have received every possible instruction 
for the purpose of developing an attribute which 
would be so serviceable to them, as well as those 
whom they serve, it is very far from being a virtue 
for which they are distinguished, or even trusted." 

" 8. The sluggish temperament of the Canaanites 
(Negroes) forms another modification of admiration. 
Objects which excite this feeling in them must be 
chiefly those of sense. Loud and boisterous mirth, 
brilliant colors, violent and capricious exercise, are 
especially exciting to them. Gloomy and parched 
as is their soil ; — desolating, enslaving, and cruel as 
are their wars ; — dangerous, fatiguing, and exhaust 


ing, as are their journeys; — scanty as is their food; 
— sulky as are their tempers; — and barren and 
blank as are their intellects; — yet the Almighty has 
given to them a levity of spirits, capable of being 
roused by some rude and clamorous instrument of 
noise, which immediately elevates them above all 
privations, dangers, and depressions, and gives to 
them a boisterous mirth, an outbreak of jollity, 
which no other species can rival. With this child- 
like disposition for mirth, they unite an equally 
childlike simplicity of admiration. Trinkets, toys, 
and fantastic or gay clothing, are treasures to them. 
Nor do they examine them with the stern gravity 
of an Ishmaelite, or the courteous indifference of a 
Japhethite; but with hearts too full of pleasure to 
be smothered up, and too clamorous to be restrained 
within the formal limits of courtesy or indifference." 
"9. But the progress made by the Shemites 
(Whites,) in war, and politics, was not in reality 
more rapid than it was in all the other less obtrusive 
branches of human science. Socrates, Plato, De- 
mosthenes, Euclid, Aristotle, Archimedes, and hosts 
of others whose names have been the pride and de- 
light of succeeding ages, attest the truth of the 
observation. That they resorted to Egypt, Syria, 
Chaldea, and India, for knowledge, is freely acknow- 
ledged ; but, as we have before said, it was only to 
obtain the raw material, to be by them converted 
into valuable and useful articles ; as the bee collects 
materials from every flower, without regard to color 
or quality, which are afterwards elaborated into wax 
and honey. This eagerness for the rude elements 


of knowledge, the money and labor expended in 
obtaining it, and the industry manifested in arrang- 
ing, extending, and beautifying it, exhibit the She- 
mitic (White) strenuous temperament at this very 
early period, in strong contrast with the other spe- 
cies ; a contrast which has continued to the present 
moment with increased intensity. Where is the 
country which will not be visited — where the ob- 
stacles which will not be overcome — where the 
dangers which will not be braved by the She- 
mitic (W 7 hite) species to obtain knowledge? Not 
by an individual only, as an exception to the mass 
of his species, but as a general principle, applicable 
to thousands. No dark race has at any time exhibi- 
ted this appetite for knowledge. We know of two 
Ishmaelites who visited China in the ninth century 
of our era; of several who visited their countrymen 
in Africa, and of several who visited the interior of 
Asia, who have published their travels; and recently 
a professor of Egypt who visited Paris. So rare are 
the instances of any of the dark races visiting for- 
eign countries for information, that they scarcely 
amount to an exception to a general assertion — that 
such a labor is never performed by them, and, if we 
except a few Ishmaelites, it is literally true. The 
callous, the passive, and the sluggish temperaments 
in general, are only excited by sensible objects." 

" 10. We say nothing of the Canaanites on the 
subject of this attribute, because they have receded 
so far, and they sank so rapidly from the patriarchal 
standard, that they have preserved nothing for a 
comparison but the extremity to which they have 


sunk. The strenuous temperament of the Shemites 
(Whites) lias placed them as far above the two 
middle species, as the sluggish temperament of the 
Canaanites (Negroes) has placed them below them." 
il 11. How long would be required for the species 
to separate, if mulattoes were confined to marriages 
among themselves, can only be conjectured. An 
offspring of a European and Negro, if constantly 
intermarried with a European, generally requires 
five generations to efface the stain of impurity. 

"It might be imagined, that by confining mulat- 
toes to mulattoes, more generations would be re- 
quired. This may be the fact, but we think other- 
wise. It is generally the case that the offspring of 
Europeans and Africans partake nearly of the middle 
tint, and physical characters of the parent; and the 
same equal partition of properties generally accom- 
panies each generation, when a mixed intermarries 
with a pure breed. As far as our observations ex- 
tend this does not hold true with intermarriages of 
mulattoes; for it is seldom the offspring have the 
color and physical properties of the parents." 

" 12. Man has the advantage of woman in physi- 
cal power, and some mental modifications which, 
depend upon the peculiar physical organization, and 
functorial powers which constitute male and female. 
But these advantages in the male are balanced by 
those of another kind possessed by the female, which 
place her fully upon a par with him in all commu- 
nities where justice prevails over brute force, and a 
polite taste over brutal instinct. Man, by his supe- 
rior strength, has the power of tyrannizing over 



woman; but such tyranny is never exercised with- 
out inflicting a severe retribution upon those who 
exercise it. Women who are slaves can only be the 
mothers of slaves. ' Like begets like ' is one of the 
few laws of nature applicable to organism univer- 
sally. No people have ever exhibited any consider- 
able advance in arts, sciences, and civilization, 
whose treatment of women has been cruel and 
oppressive. Nay, the gradations of advancement, 
or of degradation, in every thing which constitutes 
the glory of man may be traced, step by step, by the 
treatment of women among a people. From the 
brutal New Hollander who secures his wife by 
knocking her down with a club, and dragging the 
prize to his cave, to the polished European who 
fearfully, but respectfully, and assiduously, spends 
a probation of months, or years, for his better half, 
the ascent may be traced with unfailing accuracy 
and precision.' 7 

" 13. The sluggish temperament of the Canaan- 
ites (Negroes) is manifest in their sexual relations. 
It is not incompatible with such a temperament that 
those who are characterized by it, should occasion- 
ally, or even frequently be roused to boisterous jollity. 
The Creator has benevolently united with the con- 
dition and destiny, the peculiar qualities adapted to 
such condition and destiny. The wretchedness of 
Africa would be beyond human endurance, if it 
were not for the peculiar temperament of the people, 
relieved by a disposition to merriment and boister- 
ous mirth, in which no other people on the earth 
can rival them. It may be called the land of mirth 


and jollity, as well as the land of sorrow and deso- 
lation. Sullenness is their chief refuge for priva- 
tions and difficulties; boisterous jollity and song 
their chief resort for relief and amusement. The 
Shemite (White) is constitutionally calm, cheerful, 
dignified, benevolent, sentimental, and thoughtful. 
The Ishmaelite is reserved, austere, gloomy, cruel, 
vindictive, and voluptuous. The Japhethite is 
quiet, orderly, industrious, courteous, indifferent, 
and insincere. And the Canaanite (Negro) is indo- 
lent, careless, sensual, tyrannical, predatory, sullen, 
boisterous, and jovial. Such are the specific char- 
acteristics, and the sexual relations are founded upon 

" 14. Personal beauty is one of the most power- 
ful impulses of our nature, and has a direct and 
positive influence upon the destiny of man, as it 
regards the development of his moral and intellec- 
tual faculties. 

" What this personal beauty is, and its mode of 
operation on the different races of men are questions 
of primary importance in the natural history of the 
several species. We contend that on these two 
circumstances, more than on any others, depend, 
not only the permanent separation of the species, 
but the actual advance, retardation, or retrogression 
of any, and every species, in moral and intellectual 

" 15. The standard of beauty of a female Canaan- 
ite (Negro) may be thus described. Height, the 
same as the European ; hair, black, wiry, and knot- 
ted; complexion, black, shining, and oily; skin 


very soft and velvet like ; forehead low, narrow, and 
retreating; nose flat, broad, and running into the 
cheeks; eyes small, black, and lively; face broad, 
with high cheek bones; mouth large, with very 
thick lips, particularly the upper one ; chin small 
and receding ; bust large, and the figure gross ; feet 
large, flat, long heels, and low instep; expression 
moody and sulky, or mirthful and merry, but not 
intellectual. Like all of the dark races, there is no 
standard of beauty in the males of this species, in 
their sexual relations. The women have no choice 
of husbands, and polygamy, in its utmost latitude, 
universally prevails. There are several varieties 
of the Canaanites, (Negroes,) who differ as much 
from each other as the varieties of other species. 
On the one hand, the Foolahs, and Wolofs are said 
to be the handsomest, and the Bosjesmen and New 
Hollanders the ugliest. It is strikingly obvious 
upon merely reading the traits which constitute the 
standards of personal beauty of the different species, 
that they present insuperable bars to an amalgama- 
tion to any extent sufficient to endanger the integrity 
of any one of them The horse and the ass, the 
lion and the tiger, the hyena and the wolf, the goat 
and the sheep, are not more distinct in their species, 
their sexual relations, and their tastes, than the dif- 
ferent species of the human species." 

" 16. It has been a favorite theory with some 
visionary philanthropists that intermarriages of the 
different species would be highly favorable to the 
race ; but we have never heard of any of them who 
was willing to commence the practice in their own 


families. There is certainly no method that could 
possibly be devised, which would as certainly, and 
as expeditiously, degrade the whole human family, 
as amalgamation. If there is any hope for the im- 
provement of the condition of the dark races, the 
history of mankind shows it can only be founded 
upon the preservation of the Shemitic (White) spe- 
cies. This is the only species endowed with any 
power to drag the cumbrous dark races out of the 
slough, in which they have been wallowing for 
ages. Its beneficial effects would also be very 
limited, both as it regards the number benefited, and 
the duration of it, supposing amalgamation to be in 
any respect beneficial. The whole Shemitic (White) 
race constitute but about one-fourth of mankind; 
consequently, if every man and woman of this race 
should marry one of another species, a large major- 
ity of the dark races would, nevertheless, continue 
to be propagated ; and if the produce of these amal- 
gamations should continue to intermarry with the 
full blooded dark races in the hope of improving 
them, the Shemitic (White) race would speedily 
disappear, and with it everything which ennobles 
mankind. Thus the only effect of amalgamation 
would be to destroy the Shemitic (White) race ; in 
other words to degrade the Shemitic (White) to the 
Canaanite (Negro,) not to lift the Canaanite (Ne- 
gro) to the Shemitic (White.) The benefit, if any, 
would therefore only be limited to a comparative 
few in number, and to the duration of only a gene- 
ration or two, when it would be irretrievably lost. 

The descendants of the Portuguese in India, and 



Africa, have been lost to the Shemitic (White) fam- 
ily by amalgamation." 

"17. He must have read the pages of history to 
little purpose who cannot trace the operations of in- 
variable laws in the progress of nations, from their 
earliest and rudest state, to the present day-dawn 
of the reign of morals and mind. It was for the 
barbarous Pelasgians of Greece, that Phoenicia and 
Egypt extended their commerce, and preserved civi- 
lization ; that the shepherds conquered Egypt, and 
were subsequently expelled, some of whom found a 
home in Greece, under Cecrops and Danaus. It 
was for Rome, that Greece improved in arts and 
sciences ; that Philip subverted the liberties of 
Greece, and Alexander conquered Egypt and Asia. 
It was for the Germans that Rome conquered 
southern Europe, and the Turks overthrew the 
Eastern Empire. It was for a new people, the 
Americans, that Europe discovered and conquered 
the wilds of a new world, in which the laws of pro- 
gressive development are destined to be unfolded by 
the silent force of example, as they have previously 
been by the violence of arms. And for whom the 
British have conquered India, settled Australasia, and 
opened the bolted and barred gates of China, will be 
no problem, when our population shall have reached 
the Pacific. The progress of civilization and devel- 
opment is, and always has been, westward; and 
westward it will go, until it shall have drawn a belt 
around the globe, of such beauty and brightness as 
to attract the gaze and admiration of the uttermost 
parts of the earth." 




The justly celebrated Samuel George Morton, 
M. D., perhaps the greatest living anatomist, at least 
so I have heard medical men say, has carefully ex 
amined one hundred skulls taken from the cata- 
combs of twelve different localities, and the follow- 
ing are the results of his investigations : Crania 
Egyptiaca, p. 3. 


(< 1. It was remarked by Prof. Blumenbach, fifty 
years ago, that a principal requisite for an inquiry 
such as we now propose, would be a very careful 
technical examination of the skulls of mummies 
hitherto met with, together with an accurate com- 
parison of these skulls with the monuments. This 
is precisely the design I have in view in the follow- 
ing memoir, which I therefore commence by an 
analysis of the characters of all the crania now in 
my possession. They may be referred to two of the 
great races of men, the Caucasian and the Negro, 
although there is a remarkable disparity in the 
number of each. The Caucasian heads also vary 
so much among themselves as to present several 
different types of this race, which may perhaps be 
appropriately grouped under the following desig- 
nations : 


" Pelasgic Type. — In this division I place those 


heads which present the finest conformation as seen 
in the Caucasian nations of Western Asia and Mid- 
dle and Southern Europe. The Pelasgic linea- 
ments are familiar to us in the beautiful models of 
Grecian art which are remarkable for the volume 
of the head in comparison with that of the face, the 
large facial angle and the symmetry and delicacy of 
the whole osteological structure, are among the 
many examples of this conformation.' 7 

" 2. The Semitic type, as seen in the Hebrew 
communities is marked by a comparatively receding 
forehead, long, arched, and very prominent nose, a 
marked distance between the eyes, a low, heavy, 
broad, and strong, and often harsh development of 
the whole facial structure. 

" The Egyptian form differs from the Pelasgic in 
having a narrower and more receding forehead, 
while the face being more prominent, the facial 
angle is consequently less. The nose is straight or 
aquiline, the face angular, the features often sharp, 
and the hair uniformly long, soft, and curling. In 
this series of crania I include many of which the 
conformation is not appreciably different from that 
of the Arab and Hindoo, but I have not as a rule 
attempted to note the distinctions, although they 
are so marked as to have induced me in the early 
stage of the investigation, and for reasons which 
will appear in the sequel to group them together in 
the proper Egyptian form, under the provincial name 
of central Egyptian crania. I now, however, propose 
to restrict the latter term to those Caucasian com- 
munities which inhabited the Nilotic vallev above 


Egypt. Among the Caucasian crania are some 
which appear to blend the Egyptian and Pelasgic 
characters ; these might be called Egypto-Pelasgic 
heads; but without making use of this term, except 
in a very few instances, by way of illustration, I 
have thought best to transfer these examples from 
the Pelasgic group to the Egyptian, inasmuch as 
they so far conform to the latter series as to be 
identified without difficulty. 


" The true Negro conformation requires no com- 
ment, but it is necessary to observe that a practised 
eye readily detects a few heads with decidedly 
mixed characters, in which those of the Negro pre- 

" For these I propose the name of Negroid crania; 
for while the osteological development is more or 
less that of the Negro, the hair is long, but some- 
times harsh ; thus indicating that combination, of 
features which is familiar in the mulatto grades of 
the present day. It is proper, however, to remark 
in relation to the whole series of crania, that while 
the greater part is readily referable to some one of 
the above subdivisions, there remain other exam- 
ples in which the Caucasian traits predominate, but 
are partially blended with those of the Negro, 
which last modify both the structure and expression 
of the head and face. We proceed in the next 
place to analyze these crania individually, arranging 
them for the purpose of convenience into seven 


series, according to their sepulchral localities begin- 
ning with the Necropolis of Memphis in the north. 

"A. Pyramid of live steps. 

" B. Saccara Generally. 

" C. Front of the Brick Pyramid of Darhour. 

" D. Northwest of the Pyramid of five steps. 

"E. Toora on the Nile. 

" Second series from the Grottoes of Maabda. 

" Third series from Abydos. 

" Fourth series from the Catacombs of Thebes. 

" Fifth series from Koun Ombos. 

" Sixth series from the Island of Beggeth, near 

" Seventh series from Debod in Nubia. 




" This vast Necropolis extends from the Pyramids 
of Gizeh to the southern limit of Saccara, a distance 
of about fifteen miles. The tombs are cut in the 
solid rock, and frequently communicate with one 
another, forming a vast subterranean labyrinth. 
Memphis is well known to be one of the oldest, if 
not indeed the oldest of the Egyptian cities; and 
among the tombs now extant, Prof. Rosellini has 
found some which bear inscriptions of a date nearly 
two thousand years before Christ, at which period 
Memphis must have been a large and flourishing 
city. The simpler catacombs were probably con- 
structed before the pyramids ; for these last could 
only result from centuries of civilization, and next 


to the catacombs are the oldest existing monuments 
of the human race. 


" In the month of August, 1839, Mr. J. S. Per- 

ring, the distinguished engineer, discovered a fourth 
entrance to this pyramid, which was found to com- 
municate with a recess at the southwestern corner 
of a large apartment described in his narrative. 
This communication is a horizontal gallery one 
hundred and sixty-six feet long, and this recess is 
seventy feet above the floor. ' The southern end 
of the gallery,' observes Col. Vyse, ' was stopped up 
with sand ; but for the length of one hundred and 
sixty feet from the interior it was open, and did 
not seem to have been previously visited, as nearly 
thirty mummies were found in it, apparently undis- 
turbed. They had neither coffins nor sarcophagi ; 
nor, with the exception of three or four, any painted 
decorations. They crumbled to pieces on being 
touched, and could not be removed. Mr. Perring, 
therefore, proceeded to examine them. He found 
them enclosed in wrappers, with pitch and bitumen, 
but he did not meet with any of the objects usually 
deposited with mummies, excepting some of the 
common stone idols upon the body of the female. 
He therefore concluded that they were the bodies of 
persons employed in the building. 

" Fortunately for my inquiries, Mr. Gliddon was 
at hand when these relics were brought to light, and 
obtained them of Mr. Perring as a contribution to 
my researches. With the utmost care on Mr. Glid- 


don's part, two of them reached me in safety, but 
the third was broken into numberless fragments. 
In fact, the consistence of these bones is but little 
firmer than unbaked clay, and the animal matter is 
nearly obliterated. If Mr. Perring's opinion be cor- 
rect — that the persons to whom these bodies be- 
longed were coeval with the construction of the 
pyramid, we may with safety regard them as the 
most ancient human remains at present known to 
us. Whether, as that gentleman suggests, they per- 
tained to workmen employed in building the pyra- 
mid, I will not pretend to decide ; but although 
they present indifferent intellectual developments, 
their conformation is that of the Caucasian race." 5. 

" 3. A mere glance at this group of skulls will 
satisfy any one accustomed to comparisons of this 
kind, that most of them possess the Caucasian traits 
in a most striking and unequivocal manner, whether 
we regard their form, size, or facial angle. It is, in 
fact, questionable whether a greater proportion of 
beautifully moulded heads would be found among 
an equal number of individuals taken at random 
from any existing European nation. The entire 
series consists of sixteen examples of the Pelasgic, 
and seven of the Egyptian form, a single Semitic 
head, one of the Negroid variety, and one of mixed 
conformation. Of the antiquity of these remains 
there can be no question ; and with respect to a part 
of them, those from the Pyramid of Five Steps, we 
have evidence of a more precise character. 

" These most ancient mummies appear to have 
been prepared with but little bitumen, and to have 


undergone dedication by some primitive and simple 
process of embalming; such, for example, as first 
saturating the body in natron, and then subjecting 
it to heat in an oven. It is also to be remarked, that 
m these two heads the brain has not been removed 
through the nostrils, according to the general cus- 
tom, for the ethnoid bone is unbroken; and the cra- 
nial contents could therefore only have been with- 
drawn through the foramen magnum at the base of 
the skull. 

" This last remark also applies to sixteen other 
heads of this series ; whence I was at first led to 
suppose that they could not pertain to a very remote 
epoch. But when we find that the oldest remains 
are similarly characterized, and bear in mind that 
the removal of the brain through the nose w r as a 
conventional part of the more perfect art of embalm- 
ing, may we not suppose that this imperforate state 
of the cranium points to an early epoch of Egyptian 
history, before mankind had resorted to those elabo- 
rate methods of preserving the dead body which are 
so remarkable in the Theban catacombs? It has 
been conjectured that the proximity of the Natron 
lakes to the city of Memphis gave rise to the custom 
of embalming; and it is not an improbable supposi- 
tion that the profuse employment of bitumen was a 
subsequent refinement of the art. This suggestion 
derives some support from another fact; namely, 
that in every instance in which I have observed the 
brain to have been removed through the nose, the 
bones and integuments are much more charged with 

bitumen than in the imperforate crania. 



" It may, perhaps, be conjectured by some that 
the Pelasgic heads of this series belong to the Ptole- 
maic epoch, and hence pertain to the Greek inhabi- 
tants of that age ; but it must be remembered that 
the rule of the Ptolemies lasted but about three 
hundred years; whereas the Egyptians themselves 
were the masters of Memphis, and entombed their 
dead in its Necropolis more than two thousand 
years before either the Persians or Greeks effected 
the conquest of the country, no less than during the 
period of and after these epochs of foreign domi- 

" Of the sixteen adult Pelasgic skulls in this 
series, two or three are small; yet the whole num- 
ber gives about eighty-eight cubic inches for the 
average internal capacity of the cranium, or size of 
the brain, while the mean of the facial angle is 
eighty degrees. The seven Egyptian crania have 
a mean internal capacity of eighty cubic inches, and 
a facial angle of seventy-seven degrees." 10. 

" The succeeding table speaks for itself. It shows 
that more than eight-tenths of the crania pertain to 
the unmixed Caucasian race; that the Pelasgic 
form is as one to one and two-thirds, and the Se- 
mitic form one to eight, compared to the Egyptian : 
that one-twentieth of the whole is composed of heads 
in which there exists a trace of Negro and other 
exotic lineage : — that the Negroid conformation 
exists in eight instances, thus constituting about one- 
twentieth part of the whole ; and, finally, that the 
series contains a single unmixed Negro, To these 
facts I shall briefly add the results of the observa- 



tions of some authors who have preceded me in this 

" ' The following is a tabular view of the whole 
series of crania, arranged, in the first place, accord- 
ing to their sepulchral localities, and in the second, 
in reference to their national affinities :' 

"Ethnographic Table of one hundred Ancient Egyptian Crania. 























t— I 













































" ' 1 have examined in Paris, and in the various 
collections of Europe,' says Cuvier, ' more that fifty 
heads of mummies, and not one amongst them pre- 
sented the characters of the Negro or Hottentot.' 
Two of the three mummy heads figured by Blu- 
menbach, (Decad. Cran. Figs 1 and 31,) are une- 
quivocally Egyptian, but the second, as that accu- 
rate observer remarks, has something of the Negro 
expression. The third cranium delineated in the 
same work, (Plate 52,) is also Caucasian, but less 
evidently Egyptian, and partakes, in Prof. Blumen- 
bactrs opinion, of the Hindoo form. Of the four 
mummies described by Soemmering, ' two differed 
in no respect from the European formation ; the 


third had the African character of a long space 
marked out for the temporal muscle ; the characters 
of the fourth are not particularized. The skulls of 
four mummies in the possession of Dr. Leach, of the 
British Museum, and casts of three others, aoree 
with those just mentioned in exhibiting a formation 
not differing from the European, without any trait 
of the Negro character.' The two heads figured in 
the great French work, (Description de L'Egypte, 
Antiq. 11., pi. 49, 50,) are both decidedly Egyptian, 
but the second and smaller one is the most strongly 

" Internal capacity of the Cranium. II. — As this 
measurement gives the size of the brain, I have ob- 
tained it in all the crania above sixteen years of age, 
unless prevented by fractures, or the presence of 
bitumen within the skull; and this investigation has 
confirmed the proverbial fact of the general small- 
ness of the Egyptian head, at least as observed in 
the catacombs south of Memphis. Thus, the Pe- 
lasgic crania from the latter city, give an average 
internal capacity of eighty-nine cubic inches ; those 
of the same group from Thebes give eighty-six. 
This result is somewhat below the average of the 
existing Caucasian nations of the Pelasgic, Ger- 
manic, and Celtic families, in which I find the brain 
to be about ninety-three cubic inches in bulk. It 
is also interesting to observe that the Pelasgic brain 
is much larger than the Egyptian, which last gives 
an average of but eighty cubic inches ; thus, as we 
shall hereafter see, approximating to that of the 
Indo- Arabian nations.* 

"•In my Crania Americana, p. 283,1 have described an ingenious 


" The largest head in the series measures ninety- 
seven cubic inches; this occurs three times, and 
always in the Pelasgic group. The smallest cra- 
nium gives but sixty-eight cubic inches, and this is 
three times repeated in the Egyptian heads from 
Thebes. This last is the smallest brain I have met 
with in any nation, with three exceptions, — a Hin- 
doo, a Peruvian, and a Negro. The Negroid heads, 
it will be observed, measure, on an average, eighty 
cubic inches, which is below the Negro mean : 
while the solitary Negro head (that of a person ad- 
vanced in years,) measures but seventy-three cubic 
inches." 20—21. 

" 2. The structure of the cranial bones is as thin 
and delicate as in the European, and a ponderous 
skull is of nnfrequent occurrence. I make this 
remark with the more satisfaction, because it ena- 
bles me to contest one of the observations of Hero- 
dotus; who tells us that on visiting the field of 
battle whereon the Egyptians had fought with the 
Persians, he saw the bones of the latter lying on one 
side, and those of their enemies on the other. He 
then adds, that 'the skulls of the former were so ex- 
method of measuring the internal capacity of the cranium, devised by my 
friend, Mr. John S. Philips. The material used for filling the skull, as 
there directed, was white pepper seed, which was chosen on account of 
its spheroidal form, and general uniformity of size. Finding, however, 
that considerable variation occurred in successive measurements of the 
skull, I substituted leaden shot, one-tenth of an inch in diameter, in place 
of the seeds. The skull must be completely filled by shaking it while 
the shot is poured in at the foramen magnum, into which the finger must 
be frequently pressed for the same purpose, until the various sinuosities 
will receive no more. When this is accomplished, the shor, on being 
transferred to the tube, will give the absolute capacity of the cranium, 
or size of the brain in cubic inches." 



tremely soft as to yield to the slightest impression, 
even of a pebble ; those of the Egyptians, on the 
contrary, were so firm that the blow of a large stone 
would hardly break them.' The historian then ex- 
plains the reason of this difference, by stating that 
the Egyptians have thicker skulls, because their 
heads are frequently shaved, and more exposed to 
the weather : while the Persians have soft skulls, 
owing to the habitual use of caps, which protect 
their heads from the sun. These reveries are wholly 
untenable in a physiological point of view, and de- 
rive not the smallest support from anatomy itself; 
nor can there be a question that the confiding histo- 
rian received his impressions through the ignorance 
or imposition of others. I have in my possession 
eight skulls of Fellahs, or modern Egyptian peas- 
ants, who habitually shave the head, and wear a 
thin cap ; and yet their skulls, which are of various 
ages, from early youth to senility, are without ex- 
ception thin and delicate. Some modern authors 
have also attributed to the mummy skulls a density 
which is not characteristic, but which is adventi- 
tiously acquired by the inflation of bitumen into the 
diploic structure during the process of embalming. 

"Hair. — The hair is fortunately preserved on 
thirty-six heads, in some instances in profusion, in 
others scantily, but always in sufficient quantity to 
enable us to judge of its texture. Thirty-one of 
these examples pertain to the Caucasian series, and 
in these the hair is as fine as that of the fairest Eu- 
ropean nations of the present day. The embalming 
process has changed it, with a few exceptions, from 


a black to a dark brown color. There are also sev- 
eral instances of grey hair, and two in which it is 
of a true flaxen color : it is more than probable, how- 
ever, that the latter hue has been produced artifi- 
cially, — a practice still in use among the Saumau- 
lies south of Ad el. 

"The preceding remarks on the texture of the 
hair accord with those of other observers, as well as 
with the monumental evidences of every epoch. 
Belzoni obtained plaited hair from the Theban cata- 
combs eighteen inches in length ; and M. Villoteau 
mentions another instance, from. the same tombs, in 
which the tresses must have reached to the waist. 
Entire w r igs of the same character are preserved, as 
every one knows, in the British and Berlin mu- 
seums; and I also possess, through the kindness of 
Mr. Gliddon, a portion of a si milar relic from Thebes, 
which is elaborately wrought into a great number of 
long and most delicate tresses. These facts lead to a 
few observations on the celebrated passage of Herodo- 
tus, who, when speaking of the Colchians, gives, 
among other proofs of their Egyptian lineage, that 
they *' were black, and had short curling hair/ 

' " MsXayxQosg ovlotQixeg.' The above translation, 
which is that of the learned Beloe, expresses, in 
respect to the mode of wearing the hair, precisely 
what is verified by my observations ; for in nearly 
all the Caucasian heads on which it has been allowed 
to grow, it is remarkable for a profusion of short 
curls of extreme fineness, — a character which is pre- 
served in several of the accompanying delineations. 
Herodotus farther tells ns that the Egyptians kept 


their heads shaved ; or perhaps he might have said 
with more precision, closely cut. But while the 
priests conformed to this rule, we are certain, from 
the foregoing facts, that there was a diversity of 
usage among the other classes, which is also proved 
by another passage in the same historian ; for he 
assures us that ' you see fewer bald in Egypt than 
in any other country.' Now, if the Egyptians of all 
classes kept their heads shaved, it would be difficult 
to ascertain, and yet more difficult to see whether 
they were subject to natural baldness or not. 

" Again, if Herodotus had not been accustomed 
to observe the Egyptians wearing their hair, how 
could he have compared them in this respect to the 
people of Colchis? The same author informs us 
that the inhabitants of Egypt permitted their hair 
to grow as a badge of mourning ; an observation 
which is everywhere corroborated in monumental 
funeral scenes. This observation, however, was 
probably for a comparatively short period, and will 
not account for the frequent occurrence of long hair 
among the mummies of all classes. It is mentioned 
in history that among other indignities which Cam- 
byses offered to the embalmed body of King Amasis, 
was that of tearing the hair from his head. The 
monuments afford abundant proof that among the 
Egyptians, from the highest to the lowest castes, it 
was not unusual to wear the hair long. The mar- 
ginal drawing represents a rustic, (one of six on the 
monument,) who is engaged in a wrestling match. 
And it is hardly to be supposed that the profusion 
of hair with which his head is covered, can be any 


other than the natural growth. A man thus occu- 
pied would find a difficulty in keeping a wig on his 
head. So also with another from a tomb at Thebes, 
wherein a carpenter of pleasing but rather effemi- 
nate physiognomy, is engaged in the labors of his 
art. Hamilton, in his /Egyptiaca, when describing 
the paintings at Elytheias, says that 'the laborers 
are dressed in a kind of skull cap, and have very 
little if any hair on their heads; while that of the 
others who superintend them spreads out at the 
sides, as with the Nubians and Berabera above the 
cataracts,' — and yet among these very laborers the 
hair of some is represented so long, that it projects 
beneath the cap and falls upon the shoulders. If I 
may judge from the heads that have come under my 
notice, I should infer that the women, as a general 
rule at least, allowed their hair to grow; but that the 
practice was much less frequent among the men. 
In the heads of every Caucasian type in the series 
now before us, the hair is perfectly distinct from the 
woolly texture of the Negro, the frizzled curls of the 
Mulatto, or the lank, straight locks of the Mongo- 
lian. Of the eight Negroid heads, four are more or 
less furnished with hair, one is closely shaved, and 
two are entirely denuded. In those which retain 
the hair, it is comparatively coarse, and in one in- 
stance somewhat wiry. The hair of the solitary 
Negro head possesses the characteristic texture. I 
find a short beard (perhaps half an inch in length) 
on three Theban heads of the Caucasian part of the 
series, (Plate iv., Fig. 1, Plate viii., Fig 1, and 
Plate x., Fig. 5.) The Egyptians habitually shaved 


the beard ; but on their statues and paintings we fre- 
quently see a beard-case, which, as Rosellini re- 
marks, appears to be merely emblematical of the 
male sex, and of manhood. 

" The Teeth. — Prof. Blumenbach, in his Decades 
Craniorum, long ago pointed out what he considered 
a peculiarity in the conformation of the teeth in 
some Egyptian mummies; namely, that the crowns 
of the incisors are very large, thick, and cylindrical, 
or obtusely conical, in place of having the charac- 
teristic chisel like form. I have given especial at- 
tention to this supposed peculiarity ; but although 
the incisors remain more or less perfect in forty-five 
crania, embracing upwards of two hundred teeth of 
this class, I have not been able to confirm the pre- 
ceding observation. On the contrary, there does not 
appear to be the smallest deviation from the ordinary 
form or structure; and I feel confident that the 
learned Blumenbach was deceived by the worn con- 
dition of the crowns of the teeth, obviously resulting 
from the habitual mastication of hard substances. 
Mr. Lawrence expresses the same opinion, from per- 
sonal observation : Dr. Pritchard inclines to a simi- 
lar view of the case, and remarks, that ' the most 
satisfactory method of obtaining information is by 
inspecting the mummies of children.' Here, again, 
I have been so fortunate as to examine the crania of 
three children from one year old to five years, and 
five others between the ages of five and ten years. 
The result is entirely confirmatory of the opinion I 
have already advanced, and also coincides with the 
observations of Mr. Estlin. What the masticated 


substances were, lias not been ascertained ; but the 
ih of some Hindoos, even in early life, are as 
much worn away as those of the Egyptians. The 
latter, as a general rule, are remarkably free from 
decay, and in a number of instances the whole set 
remains unbroken. There are various examples in 
which the teeth appear to have been extracted ; thus 
reminding us of the statement of Herodotus, that 
there was a class of physicians whose attention, like 
that of our modern dentists, was bestowed exclu- 
sive! v upon these organs. 

11 The Xose. — A review of the preceding anatomi- 
cal details, and a glance at the accompanying de- 
lineations, will serve to show that the form of the 
nose in the Caucasian series was straight, or slightly 
aquiline, as in the Hindoo; more prominent, as in 
the Pelasgic tribes ; and long, salient, and acquiline, 
as in the Arabian race, and more especially in the 
Semitic nations of that stock. It may be here ob- 
served, that the nasal bones have in many instances 
been more or less broken in forcing a passage through 
the ethmoid bone for the purpose of removing the 
brain. This operation, which appears to have been 
almost universally practised at Thebes, was com- 
paratively unusual at Memphis; for of the twenty- 
six heads from the latter Necropolis, five only are 
perforated ; while of the fifty-five Theban crania, all 
are perforated but two ; and in a third the ethmoid 
is so little broken that the brain could not have been 
removed through the orifice. I moreover detect 
three instances of complete perforation of the nose, 
in which the brain had been extracted through the 


foramen magnum, by cutting the neck half across 
behind ; the bandages being folded over the incision. 
The absence of the ethmoidal perforation in the 
oldest heads from Memphis, and in many others of 
a later date from the same Necropolis, leads me to 
suppose that the brain may have been primitively 
removed through the foramen magnum ; and that its 
extraction through the nose, as already suggested, 
may have been a subsequent refinement of the em- 
balming art. Again, the different provinces of 
Egypt may have had peculiar and conventional de- 
tails in this as in other usages ; for all the heads 
from Ombos and Maabdeh have the ethmoidal 
opening; all those from Abydos and Debod are 
without it; while of the four from Philae, one is per- 
forated and three are not. Denon long ago pointed 
out a peculiarity of the Egyptian profile, as seen in 
the remarkable distance between the nostrils and 
the teeth. This feature, with a small receding 
chin, is of frequent occurrence both in the mum- 
mies and on the monuments. 

"Position of the Ea?\ — Every one who has paid 
the least attention to Egyptian art, has observed the 
elevated position which is given to the ear ; and I 
have examined my entire series of heads, in order 
to ascertain whether this peculiarity has any exist- 
ence in nature, but I can find nothing in them to 
confirm it The bony meatus presents no deviation 
from the usual relative arrangement of parts ; but 
the cartilaginous structure being dessicated, and 
consequently contracted, may not afford satisfactory 
evidence. Clot Bey and other authors have re- 


marked an elevation of the ear in some modern 
Copts ; and the traveller Raw, quoted by Virey, 
notices the same feature in the Hindoos, and it is 
also said to exist in degree in the Jews. There 
may, therefore, be some foundation for this pecu- 
liarity of Egyptian sculpture and painting ; but I 
feel confident that in nature it is nothing more than 
an upward elongation of the auricular cartilages, 
without any modification of the bony meatus. It 
has also occurred to me that the appearance in 
question may be sometimes owing to the remarkable 
vertical length of the upper jaw in some heads 
(those represented in Plate iv. Fig. 2, and Plate v., 
Fig. 2., for example,) in which it is manifest that the 
ear would possess a remarkable elevation in respect 
to the maxillary bones, without being any nearer to 
the top of the head than usual. These hints may 
possibly afford some clue to a satisfactory explana- 
tion of an almost invariable rule of Egyptian art. 

" Complexion. — On this point our evidence is, 
perhaps, less conclusive than on most others con- 
nected with Egyptian ethnography. Yet, meagre 
as it may seem, we cannot pass it by without a few 
remarks. Herodotus, in the passage already cited, 
(p. 115,) speaks of the color of the Egyptians as if 
it were black; yet this is evidently a relative, and 
not an absolute term. This remark applies, also, to 
the hackneyed fable of the two black doves, who are 
said, in mythological language, to have flown from 
Egypt, and established (at least one of them,) the 
oracle of Delphi. Here, again, Herodotus supposes 
that because the doves were black, they must have 



represented Egyptian personages. But the Greeks, 
observes Maurice, called everything black that re- 
lated to Egypt, not excepting the river, the soil, and 
even the country itself; whence the name %owd; 
— the black country of Hermes. 

" Again, in reference to the statement of Herodo- 
tus, on which I have already, perhaps, too largely 
commented, it may be well to give the evidence of 
another eye-witness, that of Ptolemy the geographer, 
who is believed to have been born in Egypt. He 
wrote in the second century of our era, and his ob- 
servations must consequently have been made some- 
thing more than five hundred years later than 
those of Herodotus. His words are as follows : 

" ' In corresponding situations on our side of the 
equator, that is to say, under the tropic of Cancer, 
men have not the color of Ethiopians, nor are there 
elephants and rhinoceros'. But a little south of 
this, the northern tropic, the people are moderately 
dark, (yQW a ivyiavfai ixelaveg,) as those, for example, 
who inhabit the thirty SchaBni, (as far as Wady 
Haifa, in Nubia,) above Syene. But in the country 
around Meroe they are already sufficiently black, 
and there we first meet with pure Negroes." 

" Here is ample evidence to prove that the natural 
geographical position of the Negroes was the same 
seventeen centuries since as it is now ; and for ages 
antecedent to Herodotus, the monuments are per- 
fectly conclusive on the same subject. I could, 
therefore, much more readily believe that the his- 
torian had never been in Egypt at all,* than admit 

" * Did any one ever read the Euterpe for the first time without some 


the literal and unqualified interpretation of his 
words which has been insisted on by some, and 
which would class the Egyptian with the Negro 

" On the monuments the Egyptians represent the 
men of their nation red, the women yellow ; which, 
leads to the reasonable inference that the common 
complexion was dark, in the same sense in which, 
that term is applicable to the Arabs and other 
southern Caucasian nations, and varying, as among 
the modern Hindoos, from comparatively fair to a 
dark and swarthy hue. l Two facts,' says Heeren, 
1 are historically demonstrated; one, that among the 
Egyptians themselves there was a difference of color; 
for individuals are expressly distinguished from 
each other by being of a darker or lighter complex- 
ion : the other, that the higher castes of warriors and 
priests, wherever they are represented in colors, 
pertain to the fairer class.' That the Ethiopians 
proper, or Meroites, were of a dark, and perhaps 
very dark complexion, is more than probable ; and 
among other facts in support of this view, we find 
that the mother of Amunoph III., and wife of 
Thotmes IV., who was a Meroite princess, is painted 
black on the monuments. Thus the different com- 
plexions of the great divisions of the Egyptian nation 
must sometimes have been blended, like their physi- 
ognomical traits, even in the members of the royal 
family. It is not, however, to be supposed that the 
Egyptians were really red men, as they are repre- 

misgivings of this kind "? I ask this question with a profound respect 
for the venerable historian and traveller.'' 


sented on the monuments. This color, with a sym- 
bolic signification, was conventionally adopted for 
the whole nation, (with very rare exceptions,) from 
Meroe to Memphis. Thus, also, the kings of the 
Greek and Roman dynasties are painted of the same 
complexion. Prof. Rosellini supposes the Egyp- 
tians to have been of a brown, or reddish brown 
color, (rosso-fosco,) like the present inhabitants of 
Nubia; but with all deference to that illustrious 
archaeologist, I conceive that his remark is only ap- 
plicable to the Austral Egyptians as a group, and 
not to the inhabitants of Egypt proper, except as a 
partial result of that mixture of nations to which I 
have already adverted, and which will be more 
fully inquired into hereafter. The well known ob- 
servation of Ammianus Marcellinus, 'Homines 
JEgy])\i\ plerique subfusculi sunt, et atrati,' is suffi- 
ciently descriptive, and corresponds with other 
positive evidence, in relation to the great mass of 
the people ; and when the author subsequently tells 
us that the Egyptians * blush and grow red,' we find 
it difficult to associate these ideas with a black, or 
any approximation to a black skin. The late Dr. 
Young, in his Hieroglyghical Literature, has given 
a translation of a deed on papyrus, of the reign of 
Ptolemy Alexander L, in which the parties to a sale 
of land at Thebes are described in the following 
terms : 

" ' Psammonthes, aged about forty-five, of middle 
size, dark complexion, and handsome figure, bald, 
round faced, and straight nosed ; Snachomneus, aged 
about twenty, of middle size, sallow complexion, 


round faced, and straight nosed; Semmuthis Persi- 
nei, aged about twenty-two, of middle size, sallow 
complexion, round faced, flat nosed, and of quiet de- 
meanor ; and Tathly t Persinei aged about thirty, of 
middle size, sallow complexion, round face, and 
straight nose, the four being children of Petepsais, 
of the leather dressers of the Memnonia; and Ne- 
cheutes the less, the son of Azos, aged about forty, 
of middle size, sallow complexion, cheerful counte- 
nance, long face, and straight nose, with a scar upon 
the middle of the forehead/ 

" In another deed of the same epoch, also trans- 
lated by Dr. Young, an Egyptian named Anophris 
is described as ' tall, of a sallow complexion, hollow- 
eyed, and bald.' Independently of the value of the 
other physical characters preserved in these docu- 
ments, the remarks on complexion have a peculiar 
interest ; for they show that among six individuals 
of three different families, one only had a dark com- 
plexion, and that all the rest were sallow. From 
the preceding facts, and many others which might 
be adduced, I think we may safely conclude, that 
the complexion of the Egyptians did not differ from 
that of the other Caucasian nations in the same lati- 
tudes. That while the higher classes, who were 
screened from the action of a burning sun, were 
fair in the comparative sense, the middle and lower 
classes, like the modern Berbers, Arabs, and Moors, 
presented various shades of complexion, even to a 
dark and swarthy tint, which the Greeks regarded 
as black in comparison with their own. To these 
diversities must also be added others incident to a 



vast servile population, derived from all the adjacent 
nations, among which the sable Negro stood forth 
in bold and contrasted characters. Dr. Wiseman, 
after a critical examination of the evidence in refer- 
ence to this mooted question, has arrived at the fol- 
lowing philosophical conclusion: 

" It is not easy to reconcile the conflicting results 
thus obtained from writers and from monuments; 
and it is no wonder that learned men should have 
differed widely in opinion on the subject. I should 
think the best solution is, that Egypt was the 
country where the Greeks most easily saw the in- 
habitants of interior Africa^ (the Negroes,) many of 
whom, doubtless, flocked thither, and were settled 
there, or served in the army as tributaries or pro- 
vincials, as they have done in later times ; and thus 
they came to be confounded by writers with the coun- 
try where alone they knew them, and were considered 
part of the indigenous population. .' 22 — 29. 

11 3, The monuments from Meroe to Memphis, 
present a pervading type of physiognomy which is 
everywhere distinguished at a glance from the va- 
ried forms which not unfrequently attend it, and 
which possesses so much nationality both in outline 
and expression, as to give it the highest importance 
in Nilotic ethnography. We may repeat that it con- 
sists in an upward elongation of the head, with a 
receding forehead, delicate features, but rather 
sharp and prominent face, in which a long and 
straight, or gently acquiline nose forms a principal 
feature. The eye is sometimes oblique, the chin 
short and retracted, the lips rather tumid, and the 


hair, whenever it is represented, long and flowing. 
This style of features pertains to every class, kings, 
priests, and people, and can be readily traced 
through every period of monumental decoration, 
from the early Pharaohs down to the Greek and 
Roman dynasties. Among the most ancient, and at 
the same time most characteristic examples, are the 
heads of Amunoph the second, and his mother, as 
represented in a tomb at Thebes, which dates, in 
Rosellini's chronology, seventeen hundred and 
twenty-seven years before our era. In these effigies 
all the features are strictly Egyptian, and how 
strikingly do they correspond with those of many 
of the embalmed heads from the Theban catacombs ! 
A similar physiognomy preponderates among the 
royal Egyptian personages of every epoch, as will 
be manifest to any one who will turn over the pages 
of Champollion and Rosellini. The head of Horus 
(Plate xiv. Fig. 2,) is an admirable illustration, 
w T hile in the portraits of Rameses IV., and Rameses 
IX., (Plate xiv., Figs. 6 and 7,) the same lines are 
apparent, though much less strongly marked. How 
admirably also are they seen in the subjoined ju- 
venile head, (Fig. 1,) which is that of a royal prince, 
copied from the very ancient paintings in the tomb 
of Pehrai, at Elethias. So also in the face of Ra- 
meses VII., (Fig. 2,) who lived perhaps one thou- 
sand years later in time. I observe that the priests 
almost invariably present this physiognomy, and in 
accordance with the usage of their cast, have the 
head closely shaven. When colored they are red, 
like the other Egyptians. The subjoined drawing, 


(No. 1,) which is somewhat harsh in outline, is from 
the portico of one of the pyramids of Meroe, and is 
probably one of the oldest human effigies in Nubia. 
They abound in all the temples of that country, and 
especially at Semneh, Dakkeh, Soleb, Gebel-Berkel, 
and Messouri. From the numberless examples of 
similar conformation, I select another of a priest 
from the bas-relief at Thebes, which is remarkable 
for delicacy of outline and pleasing serenity of ex- 
pression, (No. 2.) 

" In addition to the copious remarks already made 
in reference to the hair, we cannot omit the annexed 
picture from a tomb in Thebes, which represents an 
Egyptian woman in the act of lamentation before 
the embalmed body of a relative, while the long 
black hair reaches even below the waist. It is thus 
that we trace this peculiar style of countenance in 
its several modifications, through epochs and in lo- 
calities the most remote from each other, and in 
every class of the Egyptian people. How different 
from the Pelasgic type, yet how obviously Cau- 
casian ! How varied in outline, yet how readily 
identified ! And if we compare these features with 
those of the Egyptian series of embalmed heads, are 
we not forcibly impressed with a striking analogy, 
not only in osteological conformation, but also in the 
very expression of the face ? Compare, for example, 
the head on page 109. Observe, also, the six figured 
skulls, Plate vii. ; Plate xii., Fig. 4.; Plate x., Fig. 
4 ; Plate viii., Fig. 9, and the numerous accompany- 
ing illustrations, and no one, I conceive, will ques- 
tion the analogy I have pointed out. This type is 


certainly national, and presents to our view the 
genuine Egyptian physiognomy, which, in the ethno- 
graphic scale, is intermediate between the Pelasgic 
and Semitic forms. We may add, that this confor- 
mation is the same which Prof. Blumenbach refers 
to the Hindoo variety in his triple classification of 
the Egyptian people. And this leads us briefly to 
inquire, who were the Egyptians? It is in the 
sacred writings only, that we find any authentic 
records of the primeval migrations of our species. 
'In the general allotment of territories to the off- 
spring of Noah,' observes Mr. Gliddon, ' Egypt, by 
the concurrent testimony of all Biblical commenta- 
tors, was assigned to Mizraim, the son of Ham, as a 
domain and for an inheritance;' whence Egypt has, 
from the remotest times, been called by the names 
of Mizraim and Ham, or Kheme. Mr. Gliddon 
adds, that 'although the name of Mizraim has not 
yet been found in hieroglyphic legends, there is 
abundant scriptural evidence to prove that the 
country was called Mizraim and Mitzar by the 
Jews ; while at the present day throughout the East, 
Egypt and Cairo are universally known by the 
cognate appellation of Muss'r.' Entering Africa by 
the Isthmus of Suez, the children of Ham were 
ushered into the fertile valley of the Nile, a region 
prepared by nature for settled communities and a 
primeval civilization. In a country bounded by the 
Red Sea on the one side, and by a wilderness on the 
other, and presenting but a narrow strip of land for 
its inhabitants, laws would at once become neces- 
sary for mutual protection ; and we may suppose 


that while one portion of the Mizraimites embraced 
these social restrictions, another, impatient of con- 
trol, passed beyond the desert barrier on the west, 
and spreading themselves over the north of Africa, 
became those nomadic tribes to which the earliest 
annals give the name of LIBYANS. 

"It follows, from this view of the question, that 
we suppose the Egyptians and Libyans to have been 
cognate people ; that the former were the aboriginal 
inhabitants of the valley of the Nile; and that their 
institutions, however modified by intrusive nations 
in after times, were the offspring of their own minds. 
It will, however, be very naturally objected that 
among the Egyptians no gradations are apparent 
between barbarism and refinement 

" ' It is a remarkable fact,' says Sir G. Wilkinson, 
1 that the first glimpse we obtain of the history and 
manners of the Egyptians, shows a nation already 
advanced in the arts of civilized life ; and the same 
customs and inventions that prevailed in the Augus- 
tan era of the people, after the accession of the 
eighteenth dynasty, are found in the remote ages of 
Osortasen, the contemporary of Joseph.' How then 
could a branch of the Libyan, a people so compara- 
tively obscure, have become the mighty Egyptian 
nation ? How could families of mankind so w T idely 
different in their intellectual manifestations, have 
been derived from a cognate stock ? To which we 
reply that the Egyptians and Libyans were not in 
this respect more widely separated than were the 
Saracens under the Caliphs, and the wandering 
Bedouins ; yet, both these were branches of the 


Arabian race. Egypt may perhaps be regarded as 
the intellectual centre of the posterity of Ham. 
The evidences of these opinions, it must be con- 
fessed, are as yet few in number. That the Libyan 
or Berber speech was once the language of all 
northern Africa, has long been maintained by Rit- 
ter, Heeren, and Shaler, and by Mr. Hodgson, in his 
very interesting letters from Algiers, during the 
period in which he held the United States consulate 
in that regency. Prof. Ritter (whose work I have 
not seen) asserts that the Amazirgh, or Berber lan- 
guage, as detected by certain prefixes and affixes 
peculiar to it and the Coptic tongue, is to be found 
across the whole breadth of the continent, from the 
Red Sea to the Canary Isles ; and he supposes, too, 
that the Hazorta tribes, like the old Bejas and mod- 
ern Bishareens, were originally of the same parent 
stock. To these evidences we may add those of 
Prof. Vater, who traced some affinity between the 
Berber and the Coptic and Amharic, but not suffi- 
cient to lead to satisfactory results. I have before 
me an obliging communication from Mr. Hodgson, 
in which he informs me, that he also discovered 
what he believed to be incontrovertible evidence of 
the Berber origin of the Bishareen language, before 
he had read the work of Prof. Ritter ; and in an 
essay just published, on the Foulahs of Central Afri- 
ca, he reiterates the opinion early expressed by him, 
that the Berber or Libyan tongue was spoken in the 
valley of the Nile, prior to the existence of the Cop- 
tic or Monumental language; a theory which, he 


further remarks, is in accordance with the nature of 
things, and the probable course of events. 

" ' Whilst the positive records of modern history,' 
observes Mr. Hodgson, ' shows that the Coptic 
tongue has been obliterated from the mass of Egypt 
within the short period which has elapsed since the 
Saracenic invasion, need we wonder that so few 
traces remain of the language of that country in pri- 
meval and unrecorded times ? These vestiges, how- 
ever, have been detected by rne, and, I think, with 
a strong degree of probability, in the my thologic and 
geographical names transmitted to us from the ear- 
liest periods of Egyptian history. The meaning of 
Ammon, Thebes, Themis, and Nile, and of Heli- 
opolis, (Tadij,) and Appolinopolis, (Etfu,) have been 
explained from the modern Berber language; and 
the very name of Hykshos, who were called shep- 
herds, means also shepherds in Berber. These 
etymologies serve, at least, as tokens of the exist- 
ence of the Libyans in the valley of the Nile, at a 
period anterior to that of the monumental Egyp- 
tians. I have, also, found grammatical affinities 
between the Coptic and the Berber, which suggest 
that the monosyllabic elements of the former have 
been imposed upon the Berber syntax, and, there- 
fore, that the Coptic is posterior in nationality to the 
Berber.' Leaving this important and difficult 
physiological inquiry to the abler hands of Mr. 
Hodgson, (for it involves some points on which I 
am not qualified to judge, and therefore offer no 
opinion,) we may merely remark, that the Berber 
theory is farther countenanced by various rnytholo- 


gical considerations, among the most remarkable of 
which is the supposed Libyan origin of several 
Egyptian divinities. Particular communities of the 
Libyans are familiar in history by the names of 
Mauritanians, Numidians, and Getuli. 

" Respecting the physical characteristics of these 
people, history is nearly silent; yet there is sufficient 
evidence to prove, that they possessed those fea- 
tures which are now called Caucasian, independent- 
ly of any modifications that may have resulted from 
their lonir intercourse with Phoenician colonies, and 
the Romans, Arabs, and Vandals, in later periods of 
time. The Libyans were a nomadic and warlike 
people ; they were habitually employed in the Car- 
thagenian armies, and in the earlier ages contended 
with the Egyptians themselves; for we learn from 
a passage in Manetho, (Cory, Frag. p. 100,) that in the 
remote age of Necherophes, of the third dynasty, 
the Libyans revolted from the Egyptians, but were 
soon again subdued. The monuments record simi- 
lar triumphs in the reigns of Osortasen I., Thotmes 
I., Rameses III., and indeed in almost every dyn- 
asty down to the Ptolemaic epoch, when Libya 
continued to be an Egyptian province. In fact, the 
Libyans hung upon the skirts of Egypt, as the 
Goths did upon Rome; and until the researches of 
the hierologists identified the Hykshos or shepherd 
kings with an Asiatic people, there was strong pre- 
sumptive evidence that these ruthless invaders 
were, at least in part, no other than the Libyans 

11 The Libyans are represented in our day by the 



various and motley Berber tribes, who under the 
name of Tauricks, Kabyles, and Siwahs, inhabit 
both north and south of Mount Atlas ; and in their 
physical characters combine the Caucasian physi- 
ognomy with various shades of complexion, from a 
fair skin to a dark and tawny hue. ' The Kabyles/ 
says Mr. Shaler, ' are a white people, of middle 
stature, muscular, athletic, and active, but never 
corpulent; and are of lively social manners, and of 
ingenious dispositions. Many of them are of light 
complexions, with hair approaching to flaxen, re- 
sembling rather the peasants of the south of Europe 
than the inhabitants of Africa.' Then come the 
darker Tauricks, men of fine mould and adventurous 
spirit, but nomadic, unfeeling and vindictive. Dr. 
Oudney, who saw them in great number, describes 
them in nearly similar terms, but assures us that 
under favorable circumstances their good sound sense 
would soon render them 'a shining people.' It is 
curious, also, to note the following remark of the 
same intelligent traveller : l On almost every stone, 
in places they frequent, the Taurick characters are 
hewn out. It matters not whether the letters are 
w T ritten from right to left, or vice versa, or horizon- 
tally,' a singular accordance with the graphical 
system of the ancient Egyptians. It would there- 
fore appear, that these roving descendants of the 
Libyan race possess, even now, some vestiges of 
that innate love of sculpture which was cultivated 
on so grand a scale by the temple builders of the 

"Yet farther south are the darker Berber tribes 


called Si walis or Shouas, who are said by Major 
Denham to have 'free open countenances, withacqui- 
line Doses and large eyes; their complexion is a 
light copper color. They possess great cunning with 
their courage, and resemble in appearance, some of 
the besl favored gipsies in England.' Dark as they 
are, he remarks that, 'in comparison with the Ne- 
gresses they are almost white.' They are vastly 
numerous throughout all Soudan, Houssa, and Bor- 
noii. and the Sultan of the latter country has no less 
than fifteen thousand of them in his army. In other 
instances, although they are few in comparison, the 
Berbers assimilate more to the Negro on account of 
the proximity of the two races; a remark which is 
especially made by Dr. Oudney, in reference to the 
Tauricks of Mourzouk, who have black and curling 
hair, but which, 'from a Negro mixture, is inclined 
to be crispy/ Here then are the various gradations 
of the Caucasian type which appear to have marked 
the ancient Egyptians, together with a degree of 
that intermixture of the Negro race which is re- 
vealed in the catacombs, and perpetuated in the 
modern Coptic population. In connexion with this 
subject, it is curious to remark that the Guanches 
of the Canary Islands were a branch of the Berber 
or Libyan stock; and the singular perfection to 
which they brought the art of embalming, long 
since led to the supposition that they might have 
been affiliated with the Egyptians. The only Ber- 
ber skull in my possession is of this insular branch 
of that race, and like the one figured by Prof. Blu- 


menbach, bears a striking resemblance to the Egyp- 
tian conformation. 

" The Ethiopians. — Every one who has paid the 
slightest attention to the present inquiry, is aware of 
the entire vagueness of the name Ethiopia (Cush) 
as used by the ancients ; which, like India in mod- 
ern times, was applied to countries very remote 
from each other, and whose inhabitants were re- 
markably dissimilar. Thus Austral-Egyptians, 
Hindoos, Arabs, and Negroes, and even the Egyp- 
tians themselves, have each in turn been embraced 
in this designation. Our present inquiry, however, 
relates to that people who occupied the valley of the 
Nile, from Philae to Meroe, and perhaps yet farther 
south ; a region at the present time inhabited by the 
Nubians, Senaaree and the Abyssinians, with all 
those endless varieties of race which necessarily 
result from immemorial proximity to the Negro 
countries. It is a point of great interest and impor- 
tance to ascertain the physical characteristics of the 
aboriginal communities of this branch of the Nilotic 
family ; but they become at an early period so 
blended with exotic nations that their distinctive 
features must be chiefly derived from the monu- 
ments, unless the catacombs of Meroe should here- 
after throw additional light on the subject. 

" Of the monumental evidence we have already 
spoken : we have seen that the proper Egyptian 
physiognomy, the same which abounds at Thebes, 
is everywhere conspicuous on the tombs and tem- 
ples of the Meroite or monumental Ethiopians. 
That these people had no affinity, even in the re- 


motest times, to the Negro race, would appear from 
the evidence already adduced, and also from other 
farts which remain to be noticed. Among the 
paintings of the Grand Procession, (epoch of Thot- 
mes IV.,) at Thebes, Mr. Hoskins remarks that the 
Negro is represented with all the characteristic fea- 
tures of his race, but that the Ethiopians are 
painted red like the Egyptians, having their hair 
dressed in curls above their foreheads, and in rinor- 
lets upon their shoulders. (Plate xiv., Fig. 22.) So 
also in the voyage of Scylax, B. C. 360, the Ethio- 
pians are described as a beautiful people, with long 
hair and beard; and the distinguished English 
traveller just quoted remarks that the heads sculp- 
tured on the Pyramids of Meroe have a nearly Eu- 
ropean profile. Two of these, which are associated 
with the same legend, are represented by the sub- 
joined figures. The one to the left hand (that of an 
unknown king) has mixed lineaments, neither 
strictly Pelasgic nor Egyptian ; while the right 
hand personage, who appears to be a priest doing 
homage, presents a countenance which corresponds 
in essentials to the Egyptian type, although the 
profile approaches closely to the Grecian. The 
annexed head, also of a king, and bearing some re- 
semblance to the one above figured, is copied from 
Mr. Waddington's drawing of a group over the por- 
tico of the Fifth Pyramid at Djebel Birkel, (the an- 
cient Armada) supposed to be among the oldest 
sculptures in Nubia." 33 — 41. 

" 4. The Fellahs. — These people, also called Arab- 
Egyptians, are found everywhere in the valley of 



the Nile, of which they are the principal cultivators. 
■ Their heads,' observes Mr. Lane, ' are a fine oval, 
the forehead of moderate size, not high, but gener- 
ally prominent; their eyes are deep sunk, black and 
brilliant ; the nose is straight and rather thick ; the 
mouth well formed ; the lips are rather full than 
otherwise ; the teeth particularly beautiful, and the 
beard is commonly black and curly, but scanty. 
They have a yellow complexion, and are, in gen- 
eral, a strong, well formed people There can be 
little question that the Fellahs are a mixture of the 
Arab stock with the old rural population of Egypt; 
an amalgamation which dates chiefly from the 
seventh century of our era, (A. D. 640,) when the 
Saracens under Amrou conquered the country, and 
separated it from the Greek empire. The constant 
influx of Arab population from that time to the pre- 
sent must have more or less modified the features 
of the previous inhabitants; and yet even now we 
are assured by Jomard and others, that the Fellahs 
of Upper Egypt present a striking resemblance, in 
all respects, to the monumental paintings and 
sculptures." 42. 

" 5. The Pelasgic Race. — The proofs that people 
of the Pelasgic stock were in early times the rulers 
of Egypt is attested by history and the monuments. 
Manetho states that the XVI. dynasty was composed 
1 Of thirty-two Hellenic shepherd kings, ( 

) who reigned five hundred and eighteen 
years.' It is not to be supposed that the number of 
either kings or years is accurately given : all that is 
necessary to our purpose is the main fact of Helle- 


nic dominion in Egypt, which is moreover sustained 
by monumental evidence; for happily the tombs 
and temples preserve the portraits of the Nilotic 
sovereigns, executed with so much individuality of 
feature and expression, as to leave little doubt of the 
general fidelity of the likenesses. These effigies, 
which are now indelibly preserved in the great 
works of Champollion and Rosellini, present the 
following interesting: results : 

" The oldest identified human effigy now extant 
is that on the Tablet of Wady Haifa, preserved in 
the gallery of Florence. This venerable relic, which 
has been satisfactorily proved to date more than two 
thousand two hundred years before the Christian 
era, represents Osortasen the first in the form of 
Ammon, and receiving from the god Monthou 
(Mars) the people of Lybia bound with cords as 
captive nations. The features of the king are 
strictly Pelasgic ; and the facial angle, (allowing for 
the unnatural elevation of the ear,) measures up- 
wards of eighty degrees. It is also remarkable that 
this head is strikingly like those of the Ptolemaic 
sovereigns of Egypt, and especially corresponds in 
every feature with the portrait of Ptolemy Euerge- 
tes II., although eighteen centuries elapsed between 
their respective reigns. We therefore recur to our 
proposition, that whether this effigy be a portrait or 
not, it at least proves that the artists of those pri- 
meval times derived their ideas of the human coun- 
tenance from Caucasian models. The next of these 
heads which can be identified with its epoch, is that 
of Amunoph I. This again presents a fine cast of 


European features; such, in fact, as would embel- 
lish a Grecian statue ; and yet this monarch reigned 
in the valley of the Nile, and held his court in 
Memphis more than eighteen hundred years before 
the birth of Christ. (Plate xiv., Fig. 1.) And if from 
this remote period we trace the physiognomy of 
kings and queens of the subsequent reigns, we per- 
ceive among them many equally beautiful models, 
some of which are not inferior to the beau ideal of 
classic art. Take, for example, the heads of Menep- 
thah, and Rameses III., in the character of priest, — 
Rameses X., Rameses XL, and Amenmeses, — the 
queens Nofre-Ari, and Nitocris, and the daughter 
of Phisham, (or Pihme,) the regent priest, and let 
me ask among what people we shall find more grace- 
ful facial lines, or more varied intellectual expres- 
sion ? It may be suggested that in some of these 
heads the Pelasgic character is not wholly unmixed, 
and especially in reference to Amunoph the First. 
In this instance there is something of the Egyptian, 
or, as Prof. Blumenbach would express it, ' the 
Hindoo physiognomy.' I wish it to be understood, 
however, that I do not assert all these sovereigns to 
have been of the Pelasgic or Japhetic stock ; for 
some of them, as Rameses III., and Menepthah I., 
are on other occasions represented with decidedly 
Egyptian features. These mixed and varied Cau- 
casian lineaments may perhaps have been derived 
from the antecedent Hellenic kings, who in giving 
place again to the native Egyptians, must doubtless 
have left their national characteristics more or less 


blended with those of the indigenous families." 

" 6. The same style of face is not less decidedly 
expressed in another head (2) from Rosellini, of 
which the original painting is preserved in the 
Royal Gallery at Florence. It represents an artisan. 
How admirably do the features conform to the 
Grecian type ! I repeat the remark, and yet more 
emphatically, in reference to the admirable battle 
scene at Abousimbel, of the age of Rameses III., 
wherein eighty soldiers are depicted in a single 
group, each one bearing a shield and spear. Are 
they mercenaries from one of the Hellenic tribes? 
I select the two subjoined examples; (3) for a close 
resemblance pervades them all. Here again every 
line is Grecian ; and yet when these paintings were 
executed, the wandering Pelasgi had hardly begun 
to associate themselves in civilized communities, 
and the arts of Greece were unknown." 45. 

"7. The Nubians. — It seems necessary, in further 
elucidation of this subject, to submit a few addition- 
al facts and observations in reference to the Berbers, 
or present inhabitants of Nubia, in order to show 
their relative position to the ancient occupants of 
that country. As the celebrated Burckhardt saw 
them in almost every locality, we shall mainly con- 
tent ourselves with his graphic delineation. The 
Berbers, says he, are of a dark red brown complex- 
ion, ' which, if the mother is a slave from Abyssinia, 
becomes a light brown in the children ; and if from 
the Negro countries, extremely dark. Their fea- 
tures are not at all those of the Negro, the face 


being oval, the nose often perfectly Grecian, and the 
cheek bones not prominent. The upper lip, how- 
ever, is somewhat thicker than is considered beau- 
tiful among northern nations, though it is still far 
from the Negro lip. Their hair is bushy and 
strong, but not woolly.' The same intelligent tra- 
veller subsequently speaks of their language, re- 
specting which he was certainly well qualified to 
judge : he assures us that the people south of Siout 
are ancient Bedouin tribes, who speak a very pure 
Arabic ; and he makes a nearly similar remark re- 
specting those who inhabit the river banks from 
Dongola to Senaar, and'thence westward to Bornou, 
although they speak many different dialects. It is 
w r ell known, however, that there are whole tribes in 
Nubia, whose language is not derived from the 
Arabic ; and these may be more nearly allied to the 
primitive population. 

" ' The inhabitants of Dar Dongola,' says Dr. 
Ruppell, ' are divided into two principal classes, 
viz : the Barabra, or descendants of the old Ethiopian 
natives of the country, and the races of Arabs who 
have emigrated to the Hedjar. The ancestors of the 
Barabra, who, in the course of centuries have been 
repeatedly conquered by hostile tribes, must have 
undergone some intermixture with people of foreign 
blood ; yet an attentive inquiry will enable us to 
distinguish among them the old national physiog- 
nomy which their forefathers have marked upon 
colossal statues, and the bas-reliefs of temples and 
sepulchres. A long, oval countenance, a beautifully 
curved nose, somewhat rounded towards the tip, 


proportionately thick lips, but riot protruding exces- 
sively, a retreating chin, scanty beard, lively eyes, 
strongly frizzled but never woolly hair, a remarka- 
bly beautiful figure, generally of middle size, and a 
bronze color, are the characteristics of the genuine 
Dungolawi.' He adds, that the same traits of phy- 
siognomy are generally found among the Ababde, 
the Bishareen, and partially among the people of 
Shendy and Abyssinia. It must be acknowledged, 
however, that we can hardly expect to find the genu- 
ine Egypto-Ethiopian lineaments in any considera- 
ble number among the modern Nubians. Placed as 
the former were, between the Egyptians on the 
north, the Indo-Arabian nations on the east, and the 
Negroes on the south and west, and this, too, 
through the long period of several thousand years, 
their features must have become sensibly modified, 
even in the earliest times, by that blending of race 
which was inseparable from their position ; and as 
the Koldagi and other Negro tribes have, at differ- 
ent times, established themselves in large bodies in 
Nubia, we need be at no loss, I conceive, in ac- 
counting for any traces of Negro lineage in some 
Barabra communities of the present day. Dr. 
Prichard considers ' the descent of the modern Nu- 
bians, or Barabra, from the Nouba, (a Negro na- 
tion,) of the hill country of Kordofan, to be estab- 
lished as very many facts which are regarded as 
certain by writers on ethnography.' With every 
deference to that distinguished ethnographer, we 
may inquire what became of the pre-existing inhabi- 
tants when the tribes of Kordofan colonized Nu- 


bia ? Were they destroyed or expelled ? History 
makes no mention of either; and we are justified in 
the opinion that an amalgamation of races took 
place, whence some of those diversities of organiza- 
tion observable in the modern Nubians. That this 
intermixture of races has continued to the present 
time, the reader will find abundant evidence in 
other parts of this memoir ; yet I cannot here refrain 
from adding an observation from Cailliand, who, re- 
marking on the shortness of life among the people 
of Senaar, from disease and dissipation, declares 
that the number of Negroes which pours into the 
country, and the fruitfulness of the women, are the 
resources which serve to repair the vast and contin- 
ual waste of population. 

" I may be told that this is proving too much. A 
sensible writer, and one who has ingeniously and 
instructively investigated the Nubian question, re- 
marks as follows : — ' The Arab tribes near Shendy 
may still, perhaps justly, boast of the purity of their 
blood ; but, generally speaking, within the limits 
mentioned above, the slave, or Negro population is 
about a sixth of the whole, and continually amalga- 
mating with it. While nature kindly endeavors to 
wash out the stain, every caravan from the south or 
west pours in a new supply of slaves, and restores 
the blackening element.' This author, however, in 
his desire to ascribe to climate the chief agency in 
the transformation of the Negro into the Nubian, 
seems to overlook the fact that while the Negroes 
flow into the country on the one side, the migratory 
Arabs invade it on the other, thus furnishing inex- 


hanstible materials for the blending of the two 
races. I fully acquiesce, as before hinted, in the 
accuracy of the following opinion, as applied to a 
large proportion of the modern Nubians, viz : ' that 
they are descended, not from the possessors of Ethio- 
pia in its flourishing period, but from the prasdial 
and slave population of the country, increased by 
colonists, and raised into a nation by peculiar cir- 
cumstances, between the third and sixth centuries 
of the Christain era." 57 — 59 

" 8. The Negroes, — We have the most unequivo- 
cal evidence, historical and monumental, that sla- 
very w r as among the earliest of the social institu- 
tions of Egypt, and that it was imposed on all 
conquered nations, white as well as black. So 
numerous w r as this unfortunate class of persons, 
that it was the boast of the Egyptian kings, recorded 
by Diodorus, that the vast structures of Luxor and 
Karnak were erected by the labor of foreigners 
alone. Of Negro slavery, in particular, the paint- 
ings and sculptures give abundant illustration. 
1 Black people,' says Sir G. Wilkinson, ' designated 
as natives of the foreign land of Cush, are generally 
represented on the Egyptian monuments as captives 
or bearers of tribute to the Pharaohs ;' and the at- 
tendant circumstances of this inhuman traffic appear 
to have been much the same in ancient as in mod- 
ern times. It is curious, also, in a numerical point 
of view, to observe that Arrian, who wrote in the 
second century, gives three thousand as the number 
of Negroes annually brought down the Nile in his 
time; while Madden, writing in our own day, and 



consequently sixteen hundred years later than 
Arrian, estimates the present number in nearly the 
same words. If it be allowable to make these data 
the basis of calculation for the past thirty-five cen- 
turies, it will follow that upwards often millions of 
Negroes have been brought as bondsmen into Egypt 
during that period. This I regard a reasonable cal- 
culation ; for in the present wasted and depopulated 
condition of the country, the demand for servants 
and slaves must be far below what it was in the 
flourishing epoch of the Pharaohs. This vast influx 
of Negroes into the valley of the Nile must neces- 
sarily have left its impression on the physical traits 
of the Egyptians themselves; in modern times, as 
seen in the Copts, and in more distant periods, as 
proved by the Negroid heads, in which both the 
configuration and expression are too obvious to be 
mistaken. But it may be inquired, how does it 
happen that Negroes or their descendants should be 
found in the catacombs, if they constituted a menial 
or slave caste in Egypt? In reply, it may be ob- 
served that persons of this race have been capable, 
in all ages, of elevating themselves to posts of dis- 
tinction in the East, and especially and proverbially 
those who have belonged to the class of eunuchs. 
It is also important to observe, that so tenacious 
were the Egyptians of the rights of their offspring, 
that they admitted them to equal privileges with 
themselves, even when the mother was a slave ; and 
these usages extended to inheritance. The preced- 
ing facts, without multiplying more on the same 
subject, amply account for that interminable amal- 


gamation of the Caucasian and Negro races which 
lias been going on in Egypt from the remotest 
times ; while they also explain that incidental social 
elevation of the Negro caste, to which the monu- 
ments and catacombs alike bear witness. This 
blending of races is farther illustrated in the present 
population of Nubia. The traveller Burckhardt 
remarks that the slaves sent down the Nile, and 
those transported to Arabia, bear but a small pro- 
portion to the number kept by the Mahommedans 
of the more southern countries of Africa. At 
Shendy, for example, from one to six are seen in 
every family; and the custom prevails as far as 
Senaar, and westward to Kordofan, Darfour, and 
Bornou. All the Bedouin tribes who inhabit or 
surround these countries are well stocked with 
slaves, nor does the number diminish in the very 
remote provinces of Houssa and Begarmeh ; and we 
are told by the same intelligent observer, that the 
result of this promiscuous intercourse is a mixed 
progeny, which blends the characteristics of the 
Arab with those of the Negro. Negroes are abun- 
dantly represented on the pictorial delineations of 
the Egyptian monuments of every epoch. Com- 
plexion, features, and expression, these and every 
other attribute of the race, are depicted precisely as 
we are accustomed to see them in our daily walks : 
indeed, were we to judge by the drawings alone, 
we might suppose them to have been executed but 
yesterday; and yet some of these vivid delineations 
are nearly three thousand five hundred years old ! 
and, moreover, as if to enforce the distinction of 


race by direct contrast, they are placed side by side 
with people of the purest Caucasian features. The 
delineations of the Negro which are supposed to be 
of the most ancient date have not yet been identified 
with the epoch to which they belong. Such are 
those in a tomb at Thebes, of the age of Amontu- 
onch, an ' unplaced king,' who is supposed to date 
prior to the sixteenth dynasty, and consequently 
more than two thousand years before Christ. There 
is, however, a difference of opinion on this point ; 
but we can refer with confidence and certainty to 
the celebrated ' Procession ' of the age of Thotmes 
IV., at Thebes, in which Negroes are represented 
as tribute-bearers to that monarch, at a period which 
dates about seventeen hundred years before our 
era. Sir G. Wilkinson describes a painting in a 
catacomb at Thebes of the age of Amnnoph III., in 
which that personage, seated on his throne, receives 
the homage and tribute of various nations. Among" 
these are represented several ' black chiefs of Cush, 
or Ethiopia,' whose presents consist of rings of gold, 
bags of precious stones, l a cameleopard, panthers, 
skins, and long horned cattle, whose heads are 
strangely ornamented with the hands and heads of 
Negroes.' The author justly adds that the latter 
effigies were probably artificial; for the people of 
Cush would scarcely have decapitated their own 
people to adorn their offerings to a foreign prince : 
yet at the same time these melancholy symbols 
were obviously designed to express the most abject 
self-abasement and vassalage. Other Negro delinea- 
tions, which can be identified with the age to which 


they belong, are found on the monuments of Horus, 
Rameses II., Rameses III., &c, in various places 
in Egypt and Nubia; and the first of these kings, 
(who dates with the nineteenth dynasty,) is repre- 
sented standing on a platform, which is supported 
by prostrate Negroes. For the purpose of illustra- 
tion, we select a single picture from the temple 
(hemispeos) of Beyt-el-Walee, in Nubia, in which 
Rameses II. is represented in the act of making war 
upon the Negroes; who, overcome with defeat, are 
flying in consternation before him. From the mul- 
titude of fugitives in this scene, (which has been 
vividly copied by Champollion and Rosellini, and 
which I have compared in both,) I annex a fac- 
simile group of nine heads, which, while they pre- 
serve the national features in a remarkable degree, 
present also considerable diversity of expression. 
The hair on some other figures of this group is 
dressed in short and separate tufts, or inverted cones, 
precisely like those now worn by the Negroes of 
Madagascar, as figured in Botteller's voyage. In 
the midst of the vanquished Africans, seated in his 
car, and urging on the conflict, is Rameses himself; 
whose manly and beautiful countenance will not 
suffer by comparison with the finest Caucasian 
models. The annexed outline, (for all the figures 
are represented in outline only,) will enable the 
reader to form his own conclusions respecting this 
extraordinary group, which is believed to date about 
fifteen hundred and seventy years before the Chris- 
tian era/' 59—62. 




"1. The valley of the Nile, both in Egypt and 
in Nubia, was originally peopled by a branch of the 
Caucasian race. 

" 2. These primeval people, since called Egyp- 
tians, were the Mizraimites of Scripture, the pos- 
terity of Ham, and directly affiliated with the Lib- 
yan family of nations. 

" 3. In their physical character, the Egyptians 
were intermediate between the Indo-European and 
Semitic races. 

" 4. The Austral-Egyptian or Meroite commu- 
nities were an Indo-Arabian stock engrafted on the 
primitive Libyan inhabitants. 

" 5. Besides these exotic sources of population, 
the Egyptian race was at different periods modified 
by the influx of the Caucasian nations of Asia and 
Europe, — Pelasgic, or Hellenes, Scythians, and 

" 6. Kings of Egypt appear to have been inci- 
dentally derived from each of the above nations. 

" 7. The Copts, in part at least, are a mixture of 
the Caucasian and the Negro, in extremely variable 

" 8. Negroes were numerous in Egypt, but their 
social position in ancient times was the same that it 
now is, that of servants and slaves. 

"9. The national characteristics of all these fami- 
lies of Man are distinctly figured on the monuments; 
and all of them, excepting the Scythians and Phoe- 
nicians, have been identified in the catacombs. 


" 10. The present Fellahs are the lineal and least 
mixed descendants of the ancient Egyptians; and 
the latter are collaterally represented by the Tau- 
ricks, Kabyles, Siwahs, and other remains of the 
Libyan family of nations. 

"11. The modern Nubians, with a few excep- 
tions, are not the descendants of the monumental 
Ethiopians, but a variously mixed race of Arabs and 

" 12. Whatever may have been the size of the 
cartilaginous portion of the ear, the osseous struc- 
ture conforms in every instance to the usual relative 

"13. The Teeth differ in nothing from those of 
other Caucasian nations. 

" 14. The Hair of the Egyptians resembled, in 
texture, that of the fairest Europeans of the present 

" 15. The physical or organic characters which 
distinguish the several races of men, are as old as 
the oldest records of our species. 

" Note. — I have taken frequent occasion to quote 
the opinions of the late Prof. Blumenbach, of Got- 
tingen, whose name is inseparably connected with 
the science of Ethnography ; but I have to regret 
that up to the present time I have not been able to 
procure, either in this country or from Europe, the 
last two memoirs which embrace his views on 
Egyptian subjects, and especially the work entitled, 
1 Specimen historise naturalis antiquae artis operibus 
illustratse.' His views, however, as previously 
given to the world, have been repeatedly adverted 


to in these pages; and his matured and latest obser- 
vations, as quoted by Dr. Wiseman, appear to have 
confirmed his original sentiments. 'In 1808,' says 
Dr. Wiseman, 'he more clearly expressed his opin- 
ion that the monuments prove the existence of three 
distinct forms or physiognomies among the ancient 
inhabitants of Egypt. Three years later he entered 
more fully into this inquiry, and gave the monu- 
ments, which he thought bore him out in this hy- 
pothesis. The first of these forms he considers to 
approach to the Negro model, the second to the 
Hindoo, the third to the Berber, or ordinary Egyp- 
tian head. (Betrage zur Naturgeschichte, 2 ter 
Th. 1811.) But I think an unprejudiced observer 
will not easily follow him so far. The first head 
has nothing in common with the Black race, but is 
only a coarser representation of the Egyptian type; 
the second is only its mythological or ideal purifica- 
tion.' Lectures on the Connection between Science 
and Revealed Religion, 2d edit. p. 100. I thus place 
side by side the opinions of these learned men. 
With respect to Prof. Blumenbach, I may add that 
when he wrote on Egyptian ethnography, there 
were no facsimile copies of the monuments, such as 
have since been given to the world by the French 
and Tuscan commissions; and again, that learned 
author had not access to a sufficient number of em- 
balmed heads to enable him to compare these with 
the monumental effigies. With these lights he 
would at once have detected an all-pervading physi- 
ognomy which is peculiarly and essentially EGYP- 
TIAN ; and in respect to which all the other forms, 


— Pelasgic, Semitic, Hindu, and Negro are inciden- 
tal and subordinate; sometimes, it is true, represen- 
ted with the attributes of royalty, but for the most 
part depicted as foreigners, enemies, and bondsmen. 
With Egyptian statuary I am little acquainted. 
The only four years of my life which were spent in 
Europe were devoted almost exclusively to profes- 
sional pursuits; and the many remains of Egyptian 
art which are preserved in the British and Conti- 
nental museums, have left but a vague impression 
on my memory. How invaluable to Ethnography 
are the two statues of the First Osortasen, now in 
the Royal Cabinet of Berlin ! These I have not 
seen, nor the memoir in which Dr. Lepsius has 
described them." 




[Extracts from a letter ; received by the compiler of 
this work, from Thomas Dunn English, M. D., 
Physician-ill- Chief to the Western Clinical Hospi- 
tal ; Corresponding Secretary, and Emeritus 
Counsellor of the Medico- Chirurgical College of 
Pliiladelphia, and member of various other learned 
societies. .] 

" Anatomy, physiology, and microscopy concur 
in proving that the Negro is of a distinct and inferior 
species to the Caucasian ; and history confirms the 
evidence furnished by the investigation of the natural 
philosopher. The unvarying color of the hair — the 
distinctive mark of all animals incapable of civiliza- 
tion — as well as the peculiarity of its structure; the 
volume, shape, and weight of the brain, inferior to 
that of the dominant species, and the half brute-like 
character of the physiognomy, and general forma- 
tion, are evidences not to be disregarded by the care- 
ful and conscientious philosopher. Neither in an- 
cient nor modern times has the Negro, even when 
placed under the most favorable circumstances, 
achieved anything of moment. The steady advance 
of the white species meets with no parallel in the 
black. The latter has proved itself, when left to 
itself, to be incapable of progress. Even when 
taught by a superior species, it soon retrogrades to 
hopeless barbarism. To give it dominance is to ex- 
tinguish agriculture, destroy the mechanic arts, and 


root out science. Such an apparent exception as 
may be seen in Liberia, gladly as the philanthropist 
may hail it, proves only the power given by the in- 
fusion of other blood. The mulattoes there, as here, 
have the most intellectual force. When these wear 
out, as they will in time, a recurrence to the charac- 
teristics of the predominant original race, will re- 
introduce barbarism — unless, indeed, this calamity 
be averted by a renewed amalgamation. Nor do the 
isolated eases of Negro smartness, in this country, 
prove anything more than the value of Caucasian 
admixture. I doubt much whether there be a pure 
Negro in the whole United States of America. 
Where such a one is found, he will also be found to 
be, body and soul, a barbarian. Nature has marked 
by unerring lines, the distinction between the spe- 
cies ; and her tokens cannot be wiped out by either 
the sophistry of the Negrophilist, or the cant of the 
fanatic. The manifest moral, intellectual, and phy- 
sical inferiority of the Negro issues from the decree 
of God, which no efforts of man can either alter or 
abrogate. Even modification must be but partial, 
at least. It is the destiny of the Negro, if by him- 
self, to be a savage ; if by the white, to be a serf. 
He may be a savage in name and in fact, as in Afri- 
ca, or in fact only, as in Hayti ; he may be a serf, in 
name and in fact, as in the Southern States, or in 
fact only, as in the Northern States; but savage or 
serf he must be. 

" No man who values himself, who has any re- 
gard for sound morality, or who feels any desire to 
see intellectual progress made certain, can join in 


the absurd attempt to raise the Negro to his own 
level. A movement for such ends is necessarily 
impotent, and can only result, at the best for the 
Negro, in the degradation of the white. Kindness 
to these unfortunate beings is the duty of every man. 
They may be styled human beings, though of an 
inherently degraded species. To relieve them from 
their natural inferiority is idle of itself, and may be 
mischievous in its results. Calculated as it is to 
arouse evil passions, it may one day provoke a ne- 
cessity, not to be contemplated without horror. It 
may lead to a war between the species, which will 
result in the extirpation of the Negro. True phi- 
lanthropy — not that sickly sentiment which ne- 
glects the interest of the white laborer to cant about 
the black — but a true and honest regard for the best 
interests of mankind, will maintain the Negro un- 
disturbed in the relation which God has marked 
out for him. 

" The inefficiency of the Negro in any occupa- 
tion requiring intellectual capacity, is manifest to 
any unprejudiced observer. But his inferiority 
extends even farther than this. The black never 
makes even a good laborer. He lacks the mind 
which animates, guides, and cheers the toil of the 
white. Let the white and the black dig together 
in the trench, and the superiority of the former 
shows itself in a palpable manner. He works as a 
machine — unerringly, so long as the machinist 
directs him, but uncertainly, when the directing 
power is withdrawn. As an economical laborer he 
is inferior. His energies are ill-directed. They 


lack the judgment which elevates. They are solely 
those of the ' hewer of wood and the drawer of 
water.' Of the great divisions of the human family, 
the white alone is capable of perfect civilization ; 
other races move to a point, whereat they stop, but 
the Negro never can pass beyond barbarism, nor 
take a higher position than that of an intermediate 
step, upon which nature advances from the brute to 
the human being." 





The following extract from "Jefferson's Notes 
on Virginia" deserves a place in this book; his 
knowledge of human nature, and the opportunities 
he had of observing the Negro enabled him to form 
a sound and important opinion of that race. 

" It will probably be asked, Why not retain and 
incorporate the blacks into the state, and thus save 
the expense of supplying by importation of white 
settlers, the vacancies they will leave ? Deep rooted 
prejudices entertained by the whites; ten thousand 
recollections, by the blacks, of the injuries they have 
sustained ; new provocations ; the real distinctions 
which nature has made ; and many other circum- 
stances, will divide us into parties, and produce 
convulsions, which will probably never end but in 
the extermination of the one or the other race. To 
these objections, which are political, may be added 
others, which are physical and moral. The first 
difference which strikes us is that of color. Whether 
the black of the Negro resides in the reticular mem- 
brane between the skin and scarf skin, or in the 
scarf skin itself; whether it proceeds from the color 
of the blood, the color of the bile, or from that of 
some other secretion, the difference is fixed in nature, 
and is as real as if its seat and cause were better 
known to us. And is this difference of no impor- 
tance ? Is it not the foundation of a greater or less 
share of beauty in the two races? Are not the 


fine mixtures of red and white, the expressions of 
every passion by greater or less suffusions of color 
in the one, preferable to that eternal monotony 
which reigns in the countenances, that immovable 
veil of black which covers all the emotions of the 
other race ? Add to these, flowing hair, a more ele- 
gant symmetry of form, their own judgment in favor 
of the whites, declared by their preference of them, 
as uniformly as is the preference of the Oranootan 
for the black women over those of his own species. 
The circumstance of superior beauty is thought 
worthy of attention in the propagation of our horses, 
dogs, and other domestic animals; why not in that 
of man ? Besides those of color, figure, and hair, 
there are other physical distinctions proving a dif- 
ference of race. They have less hair on the face 
and body. They secrete less by the kidneys, and 
more by the glands of the skin, which gives them a 
very strong and disagreeable odor. This greater 
degree of transpiration renders them more tolerant 
of heat, and less so of cold than the whites. Per- 
haps, too, a difference of structure in the pulmonary 
apparatus, which a late ingenious* experimentalist 
has discovered to be the principal regulator of ani- 
mal heat may have disabled them from extricating, 
in the act of inspiration, so much of that fluid from 
the outer air, or obliged them in expiration to part 
with more of it. They seem to require less sleep. 
A black, after hard labor through the day, will be 
induced by the slightest amusements to sit up till 
midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out 

" * Crawford." 


with the first dawn of the morning. They are at 
least as brave, and more adventursome. But this 
may perhaps proceed from a want of forethought, 
which prevents their seeing a danger till it be pre- 
sent. When present, they do not go through it with 
more coolness or steadiness than the whites. They 
are more ardent after their female : but love seems 
with them to be more an eager desire, than a tender 
delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation. Their 
griefs are transient. Those numberless afflictions, 
which render it doubtful whether heaven has given 
life to us in mercy or in wrath, are less felt, and 
sooner forgotten with them. In general, their ex- 
istence appears to participate more of sensation than 
reflection. To this must be ascribed their disposi- 
tion to sleep when abstracted from their diversions, 
and unemployed in labor. An animal whose body 
is at rest, and who does not reflect, must be disposed 
to sleep of course. Comparing them by their facul- 
ties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears 
to me, that in memory they are equal to the whites ; 
in reason much inferior, as I think one could scarcely 
be found capable of tracing and comprehending the 
investigations of Euclid; and that in imagination 
they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous. It would be 
unfair to follow them to Africa for this investigation. 
We will consider them here, on the same stage with 
the whites, and where the facts are not apochryphal 
on which a judgment is to be formed. It will be 
right to make great allowances for the difference of 
condition, of education, of conversation, of the 
sphere in which they move. Many millions of them 


have been brought to, and born in America. Most 
of them, indeed, have been confined to tillage, to 
their own homes, and their own society : yet many 
have been so situated, that they might have availed 
themselves of the conversation of their masters; 
many have been brought up to the handicraft arts, 
and from that circumstance have always been asso- 
ciated with the whites. Some have been liberally 
educated, and all have lived in countries where the 
arts and sciences are cultivated to a considerable 
degree, and have had before their eyes samples of 
the best works from abroad. The Indians, with no 
advantages of this kind, will often carve figures on 
their pipes, not destitute of design and merit. 
They will crayon out an animal, a plant, or a coun- 
try, so as to prove the existence of a germ in their 
minds which only wants cultivation. They aston- 
ish you with strokes of the most sublime oratory; 
such as prove their reason and sentiment strong, 
their imagination ^lowing and elevated. But never 
yet could I find that a black had uttered a thought 
above the level of plain narration ; never saw even 
an elementary trait of painting or sculpture. In 
music they are more generally gifted than the whites 
with accurate ears for tune and time, and they have 
been found capable of imagining a small catch. * 
Whether they wall be equal to the composition of a 
more extensive run of melody, or of complicated 
harmony, is yet to be proved. Misery is often the 

11 * The instrument proper to them is the Banjar, which they brought hither 
from Africa, and which is the original of the guitar, its chords being precisely 
the four lower chords of the guitar." 

37 * 


parent of the most affecting touches in poetry. 
Among the blacks is misery enough, God knows, 
but no poetry. Love is the peculiar oestrum of the 
poet. Their love is ardent, but it kindles the senses 
only, not the imagination. Religion indeed has 
produced a Phyllis Whately ; but it could not pro- 
duce a poet. The compositions published under her 
name are below the dignity of criticism. The he- 
roes of the Dunciad are to her, as Hercules to the 
author of that poem. Ignatius Sancho has ap- 
proached nearer to merit in composition ; yet his 
letters do more honor to the heart than the head. 
They breathe the purest effusions of friendship and 
general philanthropy, and show how great a degree 
of the latter may be compounded with strong reli- 
gious zeal. He is often happy in the turn of his 
compliments, and his style is easy and familiar, ex- 
cept when he affects a Shandean fabrication of 
words. But his imagination is wild and extrava- 
gant, escapes incessantly from every restraint of 
reason and. taste, and, in the course of its vagaries, 
leaves a tract of thought as incoherent and eccentric 
as is the course of a meteor through the sky. His 
subjects should often have led him to a process of 
sober reasoning : yet we find him always substitut- 
ing sentiment for demonstration. Upon the whole, 
though we admit him to the first place among those 
of his own color who have presented themselves to 
the public judgment, yet when we compare him 
w T ith the writers of the race among whom he lived, 
and particularly with the epistolary class, in which 
he has taken his own stand, we are compelled to 


enrol him at the bottom of the column. This criti- 
cism supposes the letters published under his name 
to be genuine, and to have received amendment from 
no other hand ; points which would not be of easy 
investigation. The improvement of the blacks in 
body and mind, in the first instance of their mixture 
with the whites, has been observed by every one, 
and proves that their inferiority is not the effect 
merely of their condition of life. We know that 
among the Romans, about the Augustan age espe- 
cially, the condition of their slaves was much more 
deplorable than that of the blacks on the continent 
of America. The two sexes were confined in sepa- 
rate apartments, because to raise a child cost the 
master more than to buy one. Cato, for a very re- 
stricted indulgence to his slaves in this particular,^ 
took from them a certain price. But in this country 
the slaves multiply as fast as the free inhabitants. 
Their situation and manners place the commerce 
between the two sexes almost without restraint. 
The same Cato, on a principle of economy, always 
sold his sick and superannuated slaves. He gives it 
as a standing precept to a master visiting his farm, 
to sell his old oxen, old wagons, old tools, old and 
diseased servants, and every thing else become use- 
less. ' Vendat boves vetulos, plaustrum vetus, fer- 
menta vetera, servum senem, servum morbosum, et 
si quid aliud supersit vendat.' Cato de re rustica, 
c. 2. The American slaves cannot enumerate this 
among the injuries and insults they receive. It 

" * Tous doulous etaxen orismenou nomesmatos homilein tais therapainsin. 
Plutarch. Cato." 


was the common practice to expose in the island 
iEsculapius, in the Tiber, diseased slaves, whose 
cure was like to become tedious.* The Emperor 
Claudius, by an edict, gave freedom to such of them 
as should recover, and first declared that if any per- 
son chose to kill rather than expose them, it should 
be deemed homicide. The exposing them is a crime 
of which no instance has existed with us; and were 
it to be followed by death, it would be punished 
capitally. We are told of a certain Vedius Pollio, 
who, in the presence of Augustus, would have given 
a slave as food to his fish, for having broken a glass. 
With the Romans, the regular method of taking the 
evidence of their slaves was under torture. Here it 
has been thought better never to resort to their evi- 
dence. When a master was murdered, all his 
slaves, in the same house, or within hearing, were 
condemned to death. Here punishment falls on the 
guilty only, and as precise proof is required against 
him as against a freeman. Yet notwithstanding 
these and other discouraging circumstances among 
the Romans, their slaves were often their rarest 
artists. They excelled too, in science, insomuch as 
to be usually employed as tutors to their master's 
children. Epictetus, Terence, and Phaedrus were 
slaves. But they were of the race of whites. It is 
not their condition then, but nature, which has pro- 
duced the distinction. Whether further observation 
will or will not verify the conjecture, that nature has 
been less bountiful to them in the endowments of 
the head, I believe that in those of the heart she 

«*Suet. Claud. 25." 


will be found to have done them justice. That dis- 
position to theft with which they have been branded, 
must be ascribed to their situation, and not to any 
depravity of the moral sense. The man, in whose 
favor no laws of property exist, probably feels him- 
self less bound to respect those made in favor of- 
others. When arguing for ourselves, we lay it down 
as a fundamental, that laws, to be just, must give a 
reciprocation of right; that, without this, they are 
mere arbitrary rules of conduct, founded in force, 
and not in conscience : and it is a problem which I 
give to the master to solve, whether the religious 
precepts against the violation of property were not 
framed for him as well as his slave? And whether 
the slave may not as justifiably take a little from one 
who has taken all from him, as he may slay one 
who would slay him? That a change in the rela- 
tions in which a man is placed should change his 
ideas of moral right or wrong, is neither new, nor 
peculiar to the color of the blacks. Homer tells us 
it was so twenty-six hundred years ago. 

" iJ E(ii(Jv ysQ t' ctQETeg aTtoaivvrai evQVoria Zsvg 
HanQog evx' av [uv nora dovhov efia eIeoiv.' " 

[Odd. 17. 323. 

" ' Jove fix'd it certain, that whatever day- 
Makes man a slave, takes half his worth away.' " 

"But the slaves of which Homer speaks were 
whites. Notwithstanding these considerations, 
which must weaken their respect for the laws of 
property, we find among them numerous instances 
of the most rigid integrity, and as many as among 
their better instructed masters, of benevqlence, grati- 


tude, and unshaken fidelity. The opinion, that they 
are inferior in the faculties of reason and imagina- 
tion, must be hazarded with great diffidence. To 
justify a genera] conclusion, requires many observa- 
tions, even where the subject may be submitted to 
the anatomical knife, to optical glasses, to analysis 
by fire, or by solvents. How much more, then, 
where it is a faculty, not a substance, we are exam- 
ining ; where it eludes the research of all the senses ; 
where the conditions of its existence are various and 
variously combined; where the effects of those 
which are present or absent bid defiance to calcula- 
tion ; let me add, too, as a circumstance of great ten- 
derness, where our conclusion would degrade a 
whole race of men from the rank in the -scale of 
beings which their Creator may perhaps have given 
them. To our reproach it must be said, that though 
for a century and a half we have had under our 
eyes the races of black and of red men, they have 
never yet been viewed by us as subjects of natural 
history. I advance it therefore as a suspicion only, 
that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, 
or made distinct by time and circumstances, are in- 
ferior to the whites in the endowments both of body 
and mind. It is not against experience to suppose, 
that different species of the same genus, or varieties 
of the same species, may possess different qualifica- 
tions. Will not a lover of natural history then, one 
who views the gradations in all the races of animals 
with the eye of philosophy, excuse an effort to keep 
those in the department of man as distinct as nature 
has formed them? This unfortunate difference of 


color, and, perhaps, of faculty, is a powerful obsta- 
cle to the emancipation of these people. Many of 
their advocates, while they wish to vindicate the 
liberty of human nature are anxious also to preserve 
its dignity and beauty. Some of these, embarrassed 
by the question, ' What further is to be done with 
them V join themselves in opposition with those who 
are actuated by sordid avarice only. Among the 
Romans emancipation required but one effort. The 
slave, when made free, might mix with, without 
staining the blood of his master. But with us a 
ond is necessary, unknown to history. When 
freed, he is to be removed beyond the reach of 




" 1. Every organized body, independently of the 
qualities common to its tissue, has a form peculiar 
to itself, not merely general and external, but ex- 
tending to the detail of the structure of each of its 
parts ; and it is upon this form, which determines 
the particular direction of each of the partial move- 
ments that take place in it, that depends the com- 
plication of the general movement of its life — it con- 
stitutes its species and renders it what it is. Each 
part co-operates in this general movement by a 
peculiar action, and experiences from its particular 
effects, so that in every being life is a whole, result- 
ing from the mutual action and reaction of all its 

" Life, then, in general, presupposes organization 
in general, and the life proper to each individual 
being presupposes an organization peculiar to that 
being, just as the movement of a clock presupposes 
the clock ; and accordingly we behold life only in 
beings that are organized and formed to enjoy it, and 
all the efforts of philosophy have never been able to 
discover matter in the act of organization, neither 
per se, nor by any external cause. In fact, life ex- 
ercising upon the elements which at every moment 
form part of the living body, and upon those which 
it attracts to it, an action contrary to that which, 
without it, would be produced by the usual chemi- 
cal affinities, it seems impossible that it can be pro- 


duced by these affinities, and yet we know of no 
other power in nature capable of re-uniting pre- 
viously separated molecules. 

" The birth of organized beings is, therefore, the 
greatest mystery of the organic economy and of all 
nature : we see them developed, but never being 
formed ; nay more, all those whose origin we can 
trace, have at first been attached to a body similar in 
form to their own, but which was developed before 
them — in a word, to a parent. So long as the off- 
spring has no independent existence, but partici- 
pates in that of its parent, it is called a germ. 

"The place to which the germ is attached, and 
the cause which detaches it, and gives it an inde- 
pendent life, vary ; but this primitive adhesion to a 
similar being is a rule without exception. The se- 
paration of the germ is called generation. 

" Every organized being reproduces others that 
are similar to itself, otherwise, death being a neces- 
sary consequence of life, the species would become 

" Organized beings have even the faculty of 
reproducing, in degrees varying with the species, 
particular parts of which they may have been de- 
prived — this is called the power of reproduction. 

" The development of organized beings is more 
or less rapid, and more or less extended, as circum- 
stances are more or less favorable. Heat, the abun- 
dance and species of nutriment, with other causes, 
exercise great influence, and this influence may 
extend to the whole body in general, or to certain 
organs in particular : thence arises the impossibility 



of a perfect similitude between the offspring and 

"Differences of this kind, between organized 
beings, form what are termed varieties. 

" There is no proof, that all the differences which 
now distinguish organized beings, are such as may 
have been produced by circumstances. All that has 
been advanced upon this subject is hypothetical. 
Experience, on the contrary, appears to prove, that, 
in the actual state of the globe, varieties are confined 
within rather narrow limits, and go back as far as 
we may, we still find those limits the same. 

" We are thus compelled to admit of certain forms, 
which, from the origin of things, have perpetuated 
themselves without exceeding these limits, and 
every being appertaining to one or other of these 
forms constitutes what is termed a species. Varieties 
are accidental subdivisions of species. 

" Generation being the only means of ascertaining 
the limits to which varieties may extend, species 
should be defined — the reunion of individuals de- 
scended one from the other, or from common parents ', 
or from such as resemble them as strongly as they re- 
semble each other. But although this definition is 
strict, it will be seen that its application to particu- 
lar individuals may be very difficult, where the 
necessary experiments have not been made. 

" Thus then it stands — absorption, assimilation, 
exhalation, development, and generation, are func- 
tions common to all living bodies; birth and death 
the universal limits of their existence ; an areolar 
contractile tissue, containing within it laminae fluids 


or gases in motion, the general essence of it struc- 
ture; substances, almost all susceptible of conver- 
sion into fluids or gases, and combinations capable 
of an easy and mutual transformation, the basis of 
their chemical composition. Fixed forms that are 
perpetuated by generation distinguish their species, 
determine the complication of the secondary func- 
tions proper to each of them, and assign to them the 
parts they are to play on the great stage of the uni- 
verse. These forms are neither produced nor 
changed by their own agency — life supposes their 
existence, its flame can only be kindled in an or- 
ganization already prepared, and the most profound 
meditation, and lynx-eyed and delicate observation 
can penetrate no further than the mystery of the 
pre-existence of germs." 7 — 8. 


"2. Although the promiscuous intercourse of the 

" * Notwithstanding the high character of Cuvier as a founder of clas- 
ses, yet the arrangement established by Blumenbach of the varieties of the 
human species has been universally adopted. In this classification the 
varieties are five, viz: 

"I. The Caucasian, which comprehends the ancient and modern inhab- 
itants of Europe, the Western Asiatics, or those of this side of the Cas- 
pian Sea, and of the rivers Obi and the Ganges, together with the North- 
ern Africans. The characters of this race are as follows : The head is 
nearly the figure of a globe ; the forehead is high and expanded ; the 
cheek bones are without prominences; the nose is narrow and slightly 
aquiline ; the face is oval and straight ; the mouth small, with lips slightly 
everted ; the skin is white, and the cheeks florid ; the hair is long, soft, and 
shining, and varies in color, from a nut brown to the deepest black. 
There are thirty-eight crania of this variety in the Hunterian Museum, 
London College of Surgeons. (See Plate I., Mammalia, Fig. 1. The por- 
trait of Jesuf Aguiah Efendi, a Turk, and ones Ambassador from the Sub- 
lime Porte at the Court of London.) 


human species which produces individuals capable 
of propagation, would seem to demonstrate its unity, 

" II. The Mongolian, commonly called the Tartarian, takes in the Fin- 
nish tribes inhabiting the colder parts of the north of Europe, such as the 
Laplanders and Esquimaux, and also the Asiatics not included in the 
Caucasian variety, so that it comprehends the Chinese, but not the Ma- 
lays. The head approximates to a quadrilateral figure ; the face broad, 
and flattened, so that the parts appear to run into each other; the nose is 
small and flat, and the space between the eyes flat andbroad; the cheek 
bones are rounded and projecting; the aperture made by the eye-lids is 
narrow, and its line extends towards the temples, the internal angle of the 
eye being depressed towards the nose, and the upper eye-lid being at that 
angle continued into the lower one by a rounded sweep ; the skin is pale 
olive, and the hair is thin, black, stiff, and straight. There are nine cra- 
nia of this variety in the Hunterian Museum. (See Plate I. Mammalia^ 
Fig. 2. The portrait of Feodor Iwanowitsch, a Calmuck, who was sent, 
when young, by the Empress of Russia to the Hereditary Princess of 
Baden, was educated at Carlsruhe, and became a famous engraver at 

" III. Tlie Ethiopian, consists of all the Africans not included in the 
Caucasian division, and these partake more or less of the Negro charac- 
ter. The front of the head is compressed laterally, and looks as if the 
forehead were removed, being, in this respect, a perfect contrast with the 
globular form of the head in the Caucasian variety. The entire cranium 
is contracted anteriorly, its cavity is considerably lessened; the foramen 
magnum, and the condyles at its circumference, are placed farther back 
towards the occipital region ; there is great development of the face, and 
great prominence of the jaws, particularly of their alveolar margins and 
teeth, the upper incisors are oblique ; the chin recedes, and the zygo- 
matic arch projects towards the front ; the skin is brown, black, and some- 
times yellow, and the hair is deep black, crisp, and curly. There are ten 
crania of this variety in the Hunterian Museum. (See Plate I., Mamma- 
lia, Fig. 3. The portrait of J. J. E. Capitein, a Negro, who received holy 
orders in Holland.) 

"IV. The American includes all the inhabitants of the vast continent 
of North and South America, excepting those of the northern part of the 
continent, and some of the islands, particularly the Caribbee. The cheeks 
are broad, but the molar bones are more rounded and arched than in the 
Mongolian race; the forehead is small and low; the orbits of the eye are 
unusually deep, and the nasal cavity is very large. The Caribs were in 
the habit of lowering the forehead by employing artificial pressure on 
the head in early infancy ; hence, in this community, the characteristic 


certain hereditary peculiarities of conformation are 
observed, which constitute what are termed races. 

14 Three of them in particular, appear very distinct 
— the Caucasian or white, the Mongolian or yellow, 
and the Ethiopian or Negro. 

" The Caucasian, to which we belong-, is distin- 
guished by the beauty of the oval formed by his 
head, varying in complexion and the color of the 
hair. To this variety, the most highly civilized 
nations, and those which have generally held all 
others in subjection, are indebted for their origin. 

" The Mongolian is known by his high cheek 
bones, flat visage, narrow and oblique eyes, straight 
black hair, scanty beard, and olive complexion. 
Great empires have been established by this race in 
China and Japan, and their conquests been extended 
to this side of the Great Desert. In civilization, 
however, it has always remained stationary. 

14 The Negro race is confined to the south of 
Mount Atlas ; it is marked by a black complexion, 

feature of the American variety, the low forehead, is much more strik- 
ingly marked than in any other class of Americans. There are five cra- 
nia of this variety in the Hunterian Museum. (See Plate I., Mammalia, 
Fig. 4. The portrait of Thay Endaneega, a chief of the Mohawks or Six 

" V. The Malar/ embraces the whole of the natives of the numerous 
Asiatic islands, and of those of the Pacific ocean, New Zealand, New 
Holland, &c. Their head is moderately narrowed; the forehead is 
slightly arched; the face is large, and all its parts are fully developed; 
the jaws are more or less prominent; the skin is tawny, or clear ma- 
hogany or chestnut brown ; the hair is black, soft, and curled. There 
are thirty-four crania of this variety in the Hunterian Museum. (See 
Plate I., Mammalia, Fig. 5. The portrait of Omai, a native of Ulietea, one 
of the Society Islands, brought to England in 1773, and carried back by 
Cook.— Eng. Ed. 



crisped or woolly hair, compressed cranium, and a 
flat nose. The projection of the lower parts of the 
face, and the thick lips, evidently approximate it to 
the monkey tribe : the hordes of which it consists 
have always remained in the most complete state of 
utter barbarism. 

" The race from which we are descended has been 
called Caucasian, because tradition and the filia- 
tion of nations seem to refer its origin to that group 
of mountains situated between the Caspian and 
Black Seas, whence, as from a centre, it has been 
extended like the radii of a circle. Various nations 
in the vicinity of Caucasus, the Georgians and Cir- 
cassians, are still considered the handsomest on 
earth. The principal ramifications of this race may 
be distinguished by the analogies of language. The 
Armenian or Syrian branch, stretching to the south, 
produced the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the hitherto 
untameable Arabs, who, after Mahomet, were near 
becoming masters of the world ; the Phoenicians, 
Jews, and Abyssinians, which were Arabian colo- 
nies ; and most probably the Egyptians. It is from 
this branch, always inclined to mysticism, that have 
sprung the most widely extended forms of religion 
— the arts and literature have sometimes flourished 
among its nations, but always enveloped in a strange 
disguise, and figurative style. 

" The Indian, German, and Pelasgic branch is 
much more extended, and was much earlier divided : 
notwithstanding which, the most numerous affini- 
ties may be observed between its four principal lan- 
guages — the Sanscrit, the present sacred language 


of the Hindoos, and the parent of the greater num- 
ber of the dialects of Hindostan ; the ancient lan- 
guage of the Pelasgi, common mother of the Greek, 
Latin, many tongues that are extinct, and of all 
those of the south of Europe; the Gothic or Teu- 
tonic, from which are derived the languages of the 
north and northwest of Europe; such as the Ger- 
man, Dutch, English, Danish, Swedish, and other 
dialects; and finally, the Sclavonian, from which 
sprung those of the northeast, the Russian, Polish, 
Bohemian, &c. 

" It is by this great and venerable branch of the 
Caucasian stock, that philosophy, the arts, and the 
sciences have been carried to the greatest perfec- 
tion, and remained in the keeping of the nations 
which compose it for more than three thousand 

"It was preceded in Europe by the Celts, who 
came from the north, whose tribes, once very nu- 
merous, are now confined to its most eastern ex- 
tremity, and by the Cantabrians, who passed from 
Africa into Spain, now confounded with the many 
nations whose posterity have intermingled in that 

" The ancient Persians originate from the same 
source as the Indians, and their descendants to the 
present hour bear great marks of resemblance to the 
people of Europe. 

" The predatory tribes of the Scythian and Tar- 
tar branch, extending at first to the north and north- 
east, always wandering over the immense plains of 
those countries, returned only to devastate the hap- 


pier abodes of their more civilized brethren. The 
Scythians, who, at so remote a period made irrup- 
tions into Upper Asia ; the Parthians, who there de- 
stroyed the Greek and Roman domination; the 
Turks, who there subverted that of the Arabs, and 
subjugated in Europe the unfortunate remnant of 
the Grecian people, all swarmed from this prolific 
branch. The Finlanders and Hungarians are tribes 
of the same division, which have strayed among the 
Sclavonic and Teutonic nations. Their original 
country, to the north and northeast of the Caspian 
Sea still contains inhabitants who have the same 
origin, and speak similar languages, but mingled 
with other petty nations, variously descended, and 
of different languages. The Tartars remained un- 
mixed longer than the others in the country inclu- 
ded between the mouth of the Danube to beyond 
the Irtische, from which they so long menaced Rus- 
sia, and where they have finally been subjugated by 
her. The Mongoles, however, have mingled their 
blood with that of those they conquered, many 
traces of which may still be found among the in- 
habitants of lesser Tartary. 

"It is to the east of this Tartar branch of the 
Caucasian races that the Mongolian race begins, 
whence it extends to the eastern ocean. Its branches, 
the Calmucs, &c, still wandering shepherds, are 
constantly traversing the desert. Thrice did their 
ancestors, under Attila, Genghis, and Tamerlane, 
spread far the terror of their name. The Chinese 
are the earliest and most civilized branch, not only 
of this race, to which they belong, but of all the 


nations upon earth. A third branch, the Mant- 
chures, recently conquered, and still govern China. 
The Japanese, Coreans, and nearly all the hordes 
■which extend to the northeast of Siberia, subject to 
Russia, are also to be considered, in a great measure, 
as originating from this race ; and such also is es- 
teemed the fact, with regard to the original inhabi- 
tants of various islands of that Archipelago. With 
the exception of a few Chinese literati, the different 
nations of the Mongoles are universally addicted to 
Buddism, or the religion of Fo. 

" The origin of this great race appears to have 
been in the mountains of Atlai, but it is impossible 
to trace the filiation of its different branches with 
the same certainty as we have done those of the 
Caucasian. The history of these wandering nations 
is as fugitive as their establishments ; and that of the 
Chinese, confined exclusively to their own empire, 
gives us nothing satisfactory with respect to their 
neighbors. The affinities of their languages are 
also too little known to direct us in this labyrinth. 

" The languages f the north of the Peninsula 
beyond the Ganges, as well as that of Thibet, are 
somewhat allied to the Chinese, at least in their 
monosyllabic structure, and the people who speak 
them have features somewhat resembling other 
Mongoles. The south of this Peninsula, however, 
is inhabited by Malays, whose forms approximate 
them much nearer to the Indians, whose race and 
language are extended over all the coasts of the 
islands of the Indian Archipelago. The innumera- 
ble little islands of the southern ocean are also peo- 


pled by a handsome race, nearly allied to the 
Indians, whose language is very similar to the Ma- 
lay ; in the interior of the largest of these islands, 
particularly in the wilder portions of it, is another 
race of men with black complexions, crisped hair, 
and Negro faces, called Alfourous. On the coast 
of New Guinea, and in the neighbouring- islands, 
we find other Negroes, nearly similar to those of the 
eastern coast of Africa, named Papuas;* to the 
latter, are generally referred the people of Van-Die- 
man's Land, and those of New Holland to the Al- 

" These Malays, and these Papuas are not easily 
referable to either of the three great races of which 
we have been speaking ; but, can the former be 
clearly distinguished from their neighbors, the Cau- 
casian Hindoos, and the Mongolian Chinese? As 
for us, we confess we cannot discover any sufficient 
characteristics in them for that purpose. Are the 
Papuas Negroes, which may formerly have strayed 
into the Indian ocean? We possess neither figures 
nor descriptions sufficiently precise to enable us to 
answer this question. 

" The northern inhabitants of both continents, the 
Samoiedes, the Laplanders, and the Esquimaux, 
spring, according to some, from the Mongolian race, 
while others assert that they are mere degenerate 

" * With respect to the various nations of the Indian and Pacific 
oceans, see the dissertation of Messrs. Leeson and Garnot in the ' Zoo- 
logie du Voyage de la Coquille, p. 1 — 113.' For the languages of the 
Asiatics and their affinities, consult the 'Asia Polyglotta' of M. 



offsets from the Scythian and Tartar branch of the 
Caucasian stock. 

" We have not yet been able to refer the Ameri- 
cans to any of the races of the eastern continent ; 
still, they have no precise or constant character 
which can entitle them to be considered as a par- 
ticular one. Their copper-colored complexion is 
not sufficient ; their generally black hair and scanty 
beard would induce us to refer them to the Mon- 
goles, if their defined features, projecting nose, large 
and open eye, did not oppose such a theory, and 
correspond with the features of the European. 
Their languages are as numberless as their tribes, 
and no demonstrative analogy has as yet been ob- 
tained, either with each other, or with those of the 
old world."* 

" * See the * Voyage de M. de Humboldt,' and the dissertations of 
Vater and Mitchill." 



The reader will feel satisfied that I have re- 
deemed my promise in proving that the Negro 
never can be made, politically, socially, morally, or 
intellectually, equal with the white. The authors 
I have cited are names which stand on the very 
highest pinnacle of anatomical and physiological 
fame ; and how completely do they tear away every 
rag and tatter w^hich have been used to clothe the 
idol of Negro equality. Since this question has 
been met openly and above board, since men have 
dared to meet the canting whine of hypocrites, fana- 
tics and traitors by defying them to the proof of their 
assertions, "that the Negro is naturally our equal 
and our brother," a great change has taken place in 
the minds of nearly all my acquaintances regarding 
the question of race. Many of them used to believe 
that time and climate made all the differences in 
color and physical appearances, of these notions their 
minds are entirely disabused. All that is wanting 
is to send knowledge abroad among the people. Let 
our citizens understand the real merits of the ques- 
tion at issue and there is no fear but a healthy 
tone will be given to public opinion, and that maud- 
lin, silly humanitarianism will give way to true ideas 
and plain, practical common sense. 

It may be remarked that differences of opinion do 
exist among writers as to whether the Negro is de- 
scended from this or that man — but no matter how 
much they may differ as regards their descent or 


origin, they are all decided — Pricliard alone ex- 
cepted — from Jefferson to Cuvier that inferiority is 
their doom. We could not make them our equals 
even were we willing. Make them our equals, in- 
deed ! what folly — when the ringer of God, and the 
eternal laws of nature, place an impenetrable barrier 
between them and us, warning us in terms not to 
be misunderstood, never to permit such a transac- 
tion. Negro equality — who believes in it? Does 
Lucretia Mott, or Gerritt Smith, or Wm, Lloyd 
Garrison, or Wendell Phillips, or Abbey Folsom, or 
George Thomson believe in this equality — and here 
by the way I may as well explain an occurrence 
which took place in this city some five or six weeks 
ago, George Thompson, M. P., came to Philadelphia 
to speak — some of his friends waited on me to know 
if it would be prudent to allow him to address the 
citizens — I gave an emphatic and decided negative 
answer. The propriety of freedom of speech of 
Geo. Thompson was discussed afterwards during 
three evenings. I and my friends took the ground 
that the emissary of Great Britain had no right here 
at all ; his friends maintained the contrary. The 
results were that public opinion would not sustain 
this man in his attack upon our institutions and 
constitutions, and he had to clear himself from our 
midst. I have been highly censured by the aboli- 
tionists and their press for preventing this man sow- 
ing the seeds of disunion in our country and saving 
Philadelphia the disgrace of being polluted by his 
foul and filthy language. I am satisfied in my own 
mind that the course I pursued was both wise and 



just — believing as I do, in the idea, that the 
American people best understand their own affairs ; 
and that the officious interference of an English M. 
P. is a piece of arrogance and impertinence which 
they will not submit to. 

I had intended to give quotations from Pri- 
chard's other work but find it now useless. I 
have the work before me in five octavo vol- 
umes. I have read it carefully through, and find 
that he commences, continues and ends determined 
to prove an idea, no matter how anatomy, physio- 
logy, history, natural law and common sense may 
suffer. Moreover, as Peter A. Brown, Esq., and 
Professor Knox have exposed his errors, it would be 
a waste of paper and time to allude further to his 
" researches." 

The investigation of this matter has compelled 
me to depart from an idea I offered in the early part 
of this work, that "I did not intend to discuss sla- 
very." I find after the most careful examination 
and a close perusal of a variety of books and docu- 
ments that I cannot avoid entering upon this in- 
quiry and doing it justice. 

Jefferson has clearly proved in his " Notes on 
Virginia" that no equality can exist between the 
black and white on this continent, nor is this won- 
derful, for nature, and nature's God established this 
law from the beginning. Slavery now exists in 
fifteen of the thirty-one States of the Union. Can 
the slaves there be emancipated and placed upon 
the same social and political platform with their 
masters ? What measures do the abolitionists pro- 


pose to abolish slavery — are they prepared to fight, 
or is it by mere talking — will they insist upon im- 
mediate and unconditional emancipation — will they 
rob the present slave owners of one thousand mil- 
lions of dollars. I know of no practical, systematic 
scheme proposed by them. It is all crudity, bom- 
bast, fustian. They have been so long in the habit 
of praising themselves as the "salt of the earth," 
and of denouncing everybody else, and especially, 
southern men, as vile sinners, wicked reprobates, et 
cetera, that many good men have been entrapped 
by them ; but it is only necessary to demand dis- 
cussion, open, fair, and free discussion, to prove to 
our working citizens the extreme wickedness of free- 
ing the Negro under any pretext at all. According 
to the recent census there are 3,179,589 slaves 
in the United States. Now will any one dare 
to say that were the whole slave population 
thrown into the free white labor market at once that 
the results would not be most disastrous to our me- 
chanics and working men. How is this to be proved ? 
In more ways than one. The Negro if left to him- 
self will not work, he will lie down and bask in the 
sun. Mere animals — now it is very evident that 
with such a population of such a character our 
alms houses, grogshops and gaols would be crammed 
to suffocation, and as a consequence, the free white 
operative would be compelled to pay all the ex- 
penses necessary to support this idle, drunken, lazy 
population. But there is another view of the 
matter : Negroes, according to all authority, are 
more subservient than white men ; hence the de- 


sire of many abolitionists to secure negresses in pre- 
ference to white women for domestic servants. Have 
our mechanics considered the fall effects of emanci- 
pation ? Is it not an established fact that the Negro 
constitution alone is able to endure the heat of the 
tropics ; and, that had we not a slave Negro popu- 
lation to grow our cottons, sugars, and rice, that the 
diminution of these necessaries must become in a 
couple of years very great. Jesse H. Hammond in 
his letters to Clarkson, page 45, thus speaks : 

" Who can estimate the consequences that must 
follow the annihilation of the cotton crop of the 
slave-holding States ! I do not undervalue the 
importance of other articles of commerce, but no ca- 
lamity could befall the world at all comparable to 
the sudden loss of two millions of bales of cotton 
annually. From the deserts of Africa to the Sibe- 
berian wilds — from Greenland to the Chinese Wall, 
there is not a spot of earth but would feel the 
sensation. The factories of Europe would fall with 
a concussion that would shake down castles, pal- 
aces, and even thrones ; while the " purse-proud, 
elbowing insolence" of our Northern monopolists 
would disappear forever under the smooth speech 
of the Pedlar, scouring our frontiers for a liveli- 
hood, or the bluff vulgarity of the South sea 
whaler, following the harpoon amid storms and 
shoals. Doubtless the abolitionists think we could 
grow cotton without slaves, or that at worst the re- 
duction of the crop would be moderate and tempo- 
rary. Such gross delusions show how profoundly 
ignorant they are of our condition here." 

negromania. 461 

Are our mechanics prepared to aid knaves and 
villains to entail upon themselves effects similar to 
those I have here depicted. It must also be remem- 
bered that the cotton plant is one of the great me- 
diums of commerce, and its manufacture affords 
employment to thousands upon thousands — decrease 
its growth and the number of hands disem ployed 
will be in proportion to its decrease. Bricklayers, 
carpenters, machinists, miners, et cetera, must all 
equally be sufferers from want of employment. 
No white race can labor out of doors in the 
South — the negro race alone is able to do it, but 
it will not labor unless it is forced. Were they 
to be freed this year, next year would see no- 
thing but ruined plantations and lazy, idle, good 
for nothing Africans. But it is not merely as 
laborers we are to examine this question. It 
must be viewed from every possible quarter — 
the dread of public odium ought not to prevent 
one from speaking the truth, although no citizen 
ought to wantonly hurt the feelings of his fellows. 

To use the words of the Southern Quarterly Re- 
view for January, 1851, "Is Southern civilization 
worth preserving." The language of the Review 
is so appropriate that I cannot forbear citing certain 
portions. It will be found that I select the argu- 
ments of others whenever they sustain my position, 
in preference to using my own. 

" To take a comprehensive view of our present 
condition, let us single out from the rest of the 
world, these United States and consider them as a 
nation. Every nation must be viewed in a double 

39 * 


aspect — that is, that the nation that we are now 
considering is a republic : an observation early 
made, either in respect to itself, or in relation to 
the rest of the world. But in looking to itself alone, 
in making an analysis of its component parts, and 
tracing their mutual connection and relation, the 
fact is detected, that this vast republic is made up 
of a number of separate, and, in many respects, in- 
dependent republics, differing essentially in num- 
bers, wealth, size and policy ; but all constituted 
by the solemnest compact, equals, as integral frac- 
tions of the great whole. The next process must 
be to classify these individual governments or 
States, and range them in groups, distinguished by 
important peculiarities. Homogeneousness, or di- 
versity of population will be, perhaps the first point 
of inquiry : whence came the people who have 
overrun the new world ? are they from the same 
origin? do they spring from one common race? 
Examination discloses that in about one-half of 
these integral fractions, the population consists of a 
white Caucasian race, sparsely intermingled, here 
and there, with an insignificant portion of the de- 
scendants of some of the black African tribes. In 
the other half, the same two races co-exist, but their 
proportion is materially changed, there being, in 
point of number, about an equality between them. 
In neither division are they fused together or con- 
sidered as equals; in both, the blacks occupy a sit- 
uation, socially and politically inferior to the whites, 
who are, in all places, the governing race. A glance 
at the map shows that the small proportion of Afri- 


cans is found in the northern and the large in the 
southern parts of the nation, and a geographical line 
decides the division between them. Looking to the 
causes which have placed distinct races upon the 
same area, it is seen that to both divisions the 
white came by spontaneous immigration ; the black 
by enforced transportation. And the involuntary 
removal of the latter from Africa was effected as 
a commercial operation, by the joint efforts of a 
now foreign power and that portion of the na- 
tion which, in the early part of its colonization, 
was the most mercantile in its pursuits. Upon 
their first introduction, they were more equally 
distributed than at present, and in all places were 
held in bondage for the sake of their labour. In 
course of time they were subjected to and obeyed 
the law of civilization, in the emigration of labour, 
and gradually tended to that quarter where cli- 
mate and other circumstances assisted their in- 
crease and made their labor most beneficial. In 
all places they were brought over to be slaves. 
As, under the law alluded to, they decreased in 
numbers at the North, and were supplied in part 
by other labor, they were gradually released 
from bondage, but have never been admitted to 
the full rights of their former owners. In the South, 
the old relations have not been disturbed ; many 
regulations and improvements have been intro- 
duced, but this is not the place to advert to them. 
The grand distinction, then, is that the North is not 
slaveholding ; the South is, and the slavery is that 
of a race markedly different from the dominant one. 


Thus the first classification is based upon a social 
organization, existing in some and not prevailing in 
others of the States. In other respects, (politically 
considered,) they mainly agree, and whatever dif- 
ferences broadly exist are connected with this dis- 
tinction — a distinction which is admitted on all 
sides, to have exercised a controlling influence upon 
the character and pursuits of the government popu- 
lation, and the resources and condition of the 

The constitutionality of slave emancipation it is 
neither my duty or inclination to discuss just here. 
I take it for granted that there is a "higher law " 
than all parchments and constitutions, which law 
says that all races of men must submit to the fair ; 
but to continue in the words of the reviewer, " Have 
we Social Institutions worth preserving?" 

" This question has been often decided against us 
without examination, and in fact the denunciations 
against us are frequently based upon an assumption 
that we have not a social system worthy of preserva- 
tion. Indeed, for a long time, even our own people 
were disposed to admit our inferiority in this re- 
spect, and were used to base their apology for sla- 
very mainly upon the ground of the present impos- 
sibility of abandoning it. Nor was this a matter of 
surprise. Serfdom had, in the course of events, 
passed away from those countries of Europe with 
which we are most acquainted, and Negro slavery 
had ceased to exist in many States of our continent. 
No other country, which had any influence over the 
American mind, was in a like situation with our- 


selves. In no other place were to be found two races, 
equal in number, but so entirely different in degree, 
inhabiting the same area. The matter had not been 
profoundly investigated, and the mistake had al- 
ways been made, of arguing the question as if the 
two races, one of which was in bondage, were fully 
the equals, morally and intellectually, of each other. 
No distinction was made between African slavery 
and European serfdom. Hence the numberless fal- 
lacies which arose in the investigation, but which 
were received and promulgated as profound truths, 
by those who fancied themselves masters of the 
subject. Received as established facts in Europe, 
they crossed the Atlantic, and were speedily natural- 
ized at the North. The self-satisfaction of conscious 
virtue, which so often makes men thankful they are 
not like others, made the North cheerfully accept 
the conclusions, and it was with no small degree of 
pride that they believed in their social superiority 
to their brothers. Every intellectual resource was 
directed against the system. The statesman framed 
his ordinances, the orator fulminated his denuncia- 
tions, and the fashionable theology of the day saw 
in it a complete subversion of all christian spirit. 
Lawyers applied to it precedents framed for entirely 
different subjects ; jurists, led away by the general 
current of opinion, sustained the application ; while 
a sentimental literature, abandoning reason and de- 
spising observation, wept over the state of the un- 
happy captive, of whose actual condition it carefully 
preserved an ignorance. Influences surrounded us, 
on all sides, to inculcate the leading idea, that our 


system was in itself wrong and injurious, criminal 
and impoverishing. It is always easier to permit 
others to think for us, than to assume the task of 
reasoning for ourselves ; and thus many, if not most 
slaveholders, gradually adopted the often repeated 
assertion, and were wont to admit, in argument, that 
our system was, in all points, inferior to others, and 
could only be sustained on the plea of necessity. 
The admission was fata] to our cause; it strength- 
ened our opponents, by conceding they were right, 
and weakened confidence in ourselves, by admitting 
we were wrong. Thanks to the energy with which 
these false positions were pressed upon us, we were 
at length driven to the necessity of investigating the 
subject from its very depth ; we were forced to think 
for ourselves. Satisfied that the results of the in- 
stitution were not in accordance with necessary de- 
ductions from such premises, powerful intellects 
were induced to retrace the line of argument, and 
examine carefully the grounds upon which it was 
based. The investigation is of comparatively recent 
date ; but its results are of vast importance. It has 
effected a revolution in the intelligence of the 
South, which places the system upon an impregna- 
ble position. It has been examined from every 
point of view, and we believe that every examina- 
tion has increased its value. We are satisfied now 
that we are right — right politically, industrially, so- 
cially, and above all, religiously." 

This is grappling with the question as it must be 
grappled with It is now Negro slavery or Negro 
freedom. Whether white men shall take the place 


of the Negro in the rice and sugar grounds, and 
upon the cotton and tobacco plantations ; that is the 
gist of these subjects. The advocates of Negro 
equality shall be dragged before the nation until 
their doctrines shall be held up to the scorn and 
execration of all good men. True it is that the 
opponents of Negro equality need not fear the most 
open and free discussion, for the results must be 
always in their favor. Indeed, this idea has not 
escaped Dr. William Elder, of this city, although 
he does not view it in precisely the light that I do. 
The Dr. with his usual sagacity has not failed to 
observe the results of the Congressional discussions 
upon the public mind, but he ought to have carried 
his reasoning a little farther, and have fallen back 
upon first principles; however, hear the eloquent 
language of the Dr. himself. 

" From another ground I draw the same conclu- 
sion. Agitation was once the best service that could 
be rendered to the cause of liberty, and Congress 
Hall the best place for it. The North understood 
it so, and desired it ; the South understood it so, and 
feared it. Silence, absolute, was the demand in 
1837, and the slaveholders at that time used every 
means, most unscrupulously, to enforce it. But 
how is it now ? The discussions of slavery have 
been almost uninterrupted through the period of the 
last Congress, and they were led off in almost every 
instance by the pro-slavery leaders ! Whatever this 
change means in other respects, it is a significant 
one touching the policy of agitation and debate in 
the Capitol for out-door purposes. And the effect of 


the long discussion upon the respective Houses ! 
No abolitionist looks without amazement at the re- 
ports. He finds none of the effects upon the oppo- 
sition members which he expected, from the faith- 
ful exhibition of the truth, when, some years ago, 
he labored so hard merely to get it a hearing. Lib- 
erty and slavery have had a hand-to-hand struggle 
in the freest field of combat in the world ; Europe 
has all the while been shaken with revolutions; and 
America has been even extravagant in its sympa- 
thies ; the issues involved were of the most urgent 
practical importance : the sentiment and the inte- 
rests were in their fullest activity ; yet the cham- 
pions of the wrong have not been overwhelmed ; 
they have not been made to confess it ; and they 
are even supported in their defiant attitude by 
frequent and flagrant apostacies from principle in 
the ranks of allies which the friends of liberty 
relied upon with the greatest assurance. In all 
these years legislation has constantly answered to 
the demands of the enemy ; the victory rests with 
the spirit of aggression, and success is, as usual, 
working out its own justification, and changing it- 
self into glory that passes almost unchallenged ! 

" So soon as the field of debate was fairly 
opened and freed, the friends of the right brought 
the abstract principles of truth and righteousness 
to bear upon the opposition ; and behold ! this 
day they are openly repudiated. Seven years 
ago, these principles asked only a hearing , to- 
day they are seeking shelter and defence ! Con- 
science and the higher law have the reputation of a 


pestilence — Compromise and quiet are the only pa- 
triotism and orthodoxy ! 

" A political party with abolitionism for its exclu- 
sive, or principal, or central idea, gets no counte- 
nance from any of these considerations. In this 
form and array it has already suffered the defeat of 
its aims in the policy of the Government and 
country. " 

Here is one of the most honest, most consistent, 
and far-seeing anti-slavery men admitting the fall 
force of my position ; and I hesitate not to say that 
now there is a rapid change going on in the public 
mind in the North, favorable to Negro slavery. 

The howls of fanatics, the falsehood of knaves, 
and the treason of renegades, as to the sufferings of 
the southern slave, and the cruelty of their masters, 
humanitarianism, rights of man, woman's rights, 
Negroism, &c, are eternally upon the lips of the 
abolitionists; but do they sympathize with the 
white laborer in his endeavors to improve his social 
condition. I speak from experience ; in the strug- 
gles for children of ten years of age to be prevented 
from working thirteen hours in a factory ; how 
many of these men have aided us in establishing 
the ten hour law? Burleigh, M'Kim, Mott, Plum- 
ley, Thomas, Grew, Cayley, have ye moved a finger 
in favor of shortening the hours of factory labor? 
The smaller fry of abolitionists, the hangers on and 
toadies, it is entirely out of my way to mention. 

I know it may be said that these remarks are 
trivial, and perhaps ill-natured, but it is absolutely 
necessary that citizens at a distance should know 



arid appreciate that philanthropy which will encour- 
age the negro to rob his master, but which will not 
lift a finger in behalf of the oppressed and degraded 
of their own race. Nor do I believe that the New 
York or New England abolitionists have ever ac- 
complished or attempted to accomplish anything for 
their white brethren. Pennsylvania has a ten hour 
law, New Jersey has another, but no thanks to the 
abolitionists. The fact is, that some of the bitterest 
opponents of the ten hour system are rank, rabid 

I presume I may safely assert that the factory 
masters of Massachusetts have had no rebuke for 
their tyranny to their factory operatives. Yet Mas- 
sachusetts is the State, and the good city of Boston 
the place w r here the English emissary, George 
Thompson, was allowed to insult every slaveholder 
in America, and to abuse our institutions, state and 
national : but have Theodore Parker, William 
Lloyd Garrison, Phillips, Abby Folsom, Quincy, 
and the other abolitionists ever attempted to arrest 
the rascality of the Cotton Lords of Massachusetts 
by having a ten hour law passed to protect helpless 
women and little children? A straw tells which 
way the wind blows. 

All the crimes in the Newgate calendar are laid 
at the doors of the slaveholders. Licentiousness is 
one of those sins charged against the South. Its 
refutation by J. H. Hammond, Ex-Governor of 
South Carolina, is so ably done that I cite his 

"But your grand charge is that licentiousness 


in intercourse between the sexes is a prominent 
trait of our social system, and that it necessarily 
arises from slavery. This is a favorite theme with 
the abolitionists, male and female. Folios have 
been written on it. It is a common observation 
that there is no subject on which ladies of eminent 
virtue so much delight to dwell, and on which in 
especial learned old maids like Miss Martineau lin- 
ger with such an insatiable relish. They expose it 
to the slave States with the most minute observ- 
ance and endless iteration. Miss Martineau, with 
peculiar gust, relates a series of scandalous stories 
which would have made Boccacio jealous of her 
pen, but which are so ridiculously false as to leave 
no doubt that some wicked wag, knowing she 
would write a book, has furnished her materials — 
a game too often played on Tourists in this country. 
The constant recurrence of the female abolitionists 
to this topic, and their bitterness in regard to it, 
cannot fail to su ggest to even the most charitable 


mind, that 

* Such rage without betrays the fires within.' 

Nor are their immaculate coadjutors of the other 
sex, though perhaps less specific in their charges, 
less violent in their denunciations. But recently in 
your Island a clergyman has, at a public meeting, 
stigmatized the whole slave region as a ' Brothel.' 
Do these people thus cast stones being l without 
sin V Or do they only 

' Compound for sins they are inclined to 
By damning those they have no mind to.' 

Alas that David and Solomon should be allowed to 


repose in peace — that Leo should be almost canon- 
ized, and Luther more than sainted — that in our 
own day courtezans should be formally licensed in 
Paris, and tenements in London rented for years to 
women of the town for the benefit of the Church, 
with the knowledge of the Bishop — and the poor 
slave States of America, alone pounced upon and 
offered up as a holocaust on the Altar of Immacu- 
lateness to atone for the abuse of natural instinct by 
all mankind; and if not actually consumed, at least 
exposed, anathematized and held up to scorn, by 
those who 

' write 
Or with a Rival's or an Eunuch's spite.' 

" But I do not intend to admit that this charge is 
just or true. Without meaning to profess uncom- 
mon modesty, I will say that I wish the topic could 
be avoided. I am of opinion, I doubt every right 
minded man will concur, that the public exposure 
and discussion of this vice, even to rebuke, invaria- 
bly does more harm than good ; and that if it can- 
not be checked by instilling pure and virtuous 
sentiments, it is far worse than useless to attempt to 
do it, by exhibiting its deformities. I may not, how- 
ever, pass it over ; nor ought I to feel any delicacy 
in examining a question to which the slaveholder is 
invited and challenged by Clergymen and Virgins. 
So far from allowing, that licentiousness pervades 
this region, I broadly assert, and I refer to the records 
of our Courts, to the public press, and to the know- 
ledge of all who have ever lived here, that among 
our white population there are fewer cases of di- 


vorcc, separation, crim con, seduction, rape and bas- 
tardy, than among any other live millions of people 
on the civilized earth. And this fact I believe will 
be conceded by the abolitionists of this country 
themselves. I am almost willing to refer it to them 
and submit to their decision on it. I would not 
hesitate to do so if I thought them capable of an im- 
partial judgment on any matter where slavery is in 
question. But it is said that the licentiousness con- 
's in the constant intercourse between white males 
and colored females. One of your heavy charges 
against us has been that we regard and treat these 
people as brutes ; you now charge us with habit- 
ually taking them to our bosoms. I will not 
comment on the inconsistency of these accusa- 
tions. I will not deny that some intercourse of 
the sort does take place. Its character and ex- 
tent, however, are grossly and atrociously exagge- 
rated. No authority divine or human has yet been 
found sufficient to arrest all such irregularities 
among men. But it is a known fact that they are 
perpetrated here, for the most part, in the cities. 
Very few mulattoes are reared on our own planta- 
tions. In the cities a large proportion of the inhab- 
itants do not own slaves. A still larger proportion 
are natives of the North, or foreigners. They should 
share, and justly, too, an equal part in this sin 
with the slaveholders. Facts cannot be ascertained, 
or I doubt not it would appear they are the chief 
offenders. If the truth be otherwise, then persons 
from abroad have stronger prejudices against the 
African race than we have. Be this as it may, it is 

40 * 


well known that this intercourse is regarded in our 
society as highly disreputable. If carried on habit- 
ually it seriously affects a man's standing, so far as 
it is known; and he who takes a colored mistress — 
with rare and extraordinary exceptions — loses caste 
at once. You would say that one exception should 
damn our whole country. How much less criminal 
is it to take a white mistress ? In your eyes it 
should be at least an equal offence. Yet look 
around you at home, from the cottage to the throne, 
and count how many mistresses are kept in un- 
blushing notoriety, without any loss of caste. Such 
cases are almost unknown here, and down even to 
the lowest walks of life it is almot invariably fatal 
to a man's position and prospects to keep a mis- 
tress openly, whether white or black. What Miss 
Martineau relates of a young man's purchasing a 
colored concubine from a lady and avowing his 
designs, is too absurd even for contradiction. No 
person would dare to allude to such a subject in 
such a manner to any decent female in this coun- 
try. If he did, he would be lynched — doubtless 
with your approbation. 

" After all, however, the number of the mixed 
breed in proportion to that of the black is infinitely 
small, and out of the towns next to nothing. And 
when it is considered that the African race has been 
among us for two hundred years, and that those of 
the mixed breed continually intermarry — often 
rearing large families — it is a decided proof of our 
continence that so few comparatively are to be found. 
Our misfortunes are two-fold. From the prolific 


propagation of these mongrels among themselves, 
we are liable to be charged by tourists with delin- 
quencies where none have been committed, while, 
where one has been, it cannot be concealed. Color 
marks indelibly the offence, and reveals it to every 
eye. Conceive that, even in your virtuous and pol- 
ished country, if every bastard through all the cir- 
cles of your social system was thus branded by na- 
ture, and known to all, what shocking develop- 
ments might there not be ! How little indignation 
might your saints have to spare for the licentious- 
ness of the slave region. But I have done with this 
disgusting topic. And I think I may justly con- 
clude, after all the scandalous charges which tea- 
table gossip and long-gowned hypocrisy have 
brought against the slaveholders, that a people 
whose men are proverbially brave, intellectual and 
hospitable, and whose women are unaffectedly 
chaste, devoted to domestic life and happy in it, 
can neither be degraded nor demoralized, whatever 
their institutions may be. My decided opinion is, 
that our system of slavery contributes largely to 
the development and culture of these high and 
noble qualities." 

And again he says: 

"I do not know that I can subscribe in full to 
the sentiment so often quoted by the abolitionists, 
and by Mr. Dickinson in his letter to me : ' Homo 
sum et nihil humanum a me alienum puto,' as trans- 
lated and practically illustrated by them. Such a 
doctrine would give wide authority to every one 
for the most dangerous intermeddling with the 


affairs of others. It will do in poetry — perhaps in 
some sorts of Philosophy — but the attempt to make 
it a household maxim, and introduce it into the 
daily walks of life, has caused many an ' Homo/ a 
broken crown ; and probably will continue to do it. 
■Still, though a slaveholder, I freely acknowledge 
my obligations as a man ; and that I am bound to 
treat humanely the fellow creatures whom God has 
entrusted to my charge. I feel therefore somewhat 
sensitive under the accusation of cruelty, and dis- 
posed to defend myself and fellow slaveholders 
against it. It is certainly the interest of all, and I 
am convinced that it is also the desire of every one 
of us, to treat our slaves with proper kindness. It 
is necessary to our deriving the greatest amount of 
profit from them. Of this we are all satisfied. 
And you snatch from us the only consolation we 
Americans could derive from the opprobrious impu- 
tation of being wholly devoted to making money, 
which your disinterested and gold-despising coun- 
trymen delight to cast upon us, when you neverthe- 
less declare that we are ready to sacrifice it for the 
pleasure of being inhuman. You remember that 
Mr. Pitt could never get over the idea that self-in- 
terest would insure kind treatment to slaves, until 
you told him your woful stories of the Middle Pas- 
sage. Mr. Pitt was right in the first instance, and 
erred, under your tuition, in not perceiving the dif- 
ference between a temporary and permanent owner- 
ship of them. Slaveholders are no more perfect 
than other men. They have passions. Some of 
them, as you may suppose, do not at all times re- 


strain them. Neither do husbands, parents, and 
friends. And in each of these relations as serious 
sufferings as frequently arise from uncontrolled 
passions as ever does in that of master and slave, 
and with as little chance of indemnity. Yet you 
would not on that account break them up. I have 
no hesitation in saying that our slaveholders are as 
kind masters, as men usually are kind husbands, 
parents and friends — as a general rule, kinder. A 
bad master — he who overworks his slaves, provides 
ill for them, or treats them with undue severity — 
loses the esteem and respect of his fellow citizens to 
as £reat an extent as he would for the violation of 
any of his social and most of his moral obligations. 
What the most perfect plan of management would 
be is a problem hard to solve. From the commence- 
ment of slavery in this country, this subject has 
occupied the minds of all slaveholders, as much as 
the improvement of the general condition of man- 
kind has those of the most ardent philanthropists; 
and the greatest progressive amelioration of the 
system has been effected. You yourself acknow- 
ledge that in the early part of your career you were 
exceedingly anxious for the immediate abolition of 
the slave trade, lest those engaged in it should so 
mitigate its evils as to destroy the force of your 
arguments and facts. The improvement you then 
dreaded has gone on steadily here, and would doubt- 
less have taken place in the slave trade but for the 
measures adopted to suppress it. 

" Of late years we have been not only annoyed, 
but greatly embarrassed in this matter, by the abo- 


litionists. We have been compelled to curtail some 
privileges; we have been debarred from granting 
new ones. In the face of discussions which aim at 
loosening all ties between master and slave, we have 
in some measure to abandon our efforts to attach 
them to us, and control them through their affec- 
tions and pride. We have to rely more and more 
on the power of fear. We must in all our inter- 
course with them assert and maintain strict mas- 
tery, and impress it on them that they are slaves. 
This is painful to us, and certainly no present ad- 
vantage to them. But it is the direct consequence 
of the abolition agitation. We are determined to 
continue masters, and to do so we have to draw the 
rein tighter and tighter day by day, to be assured 
that we hold them in complete check. How far this 
process will go on depends wholly and solely on the 
abolitionists. When they desist we can relax. We 
may not before. I do not mean by all this to say 
that we are in a state of actual alarm and fear of our 
slaves ; but under existing circumstances we should 
be ineffably stupid not to increase our vigilance and 
strengthen our hands. You see some of the fruits 
of your labors. I speak freely and candidly — not as 
a colonist who, though a slaveholder has a master ; 
but as a free white man, holding, under God, and 
resolved to hold, my fate in my own hands ; and I 
assure you that my sentiments, and feelings, and 
determinations are those of every slaveholder in this 

" The research and ingenuity of the abolitionists, 
aided by the invention of runaway slaves — in which 


faculty, so far as improvising falsehood goes, the 
African race is without a rival — have succeeded in 
shocking the world with a small number of preten- 
ded instances of our barbarity. The only wonder 
is, that, considering the extent of our country, the 
variety of our population, its fluctuating character, 
and the publicity of all our transactions, the number 
of cases collected is so small. It speaks well for us. 
Yet of these, many are false, all highly colored ; 
some occurring half a century, most of them many 
years ago ; and no doubt a large proportion of them 
perpetrated by foreigners. With a few rare excep- 
tions the emigrant Scotch and English are the 
worst masters among us, and next to them our 
Northern fellow citizens. Slaveholders born and 
bred here are always more humane to slaves, and 
those who have grown up to a large inheritance of 
them, the most so of any — showing clearly that the 
effect of the system is to foster kindly feelings. I 
do not mean so much to impute innate inhumanity 
to foreigners, as to show that they come here with 
false notions of the treatment usual and necessary 
for slaves, and that newly-acquired power here, as 
every where else, is apt to be abused. I cannot 
enter into a detailed examination of the cases stated 
by the abolitionists. It would be disgusting, and 
of little avail. I know nothing of them. I have 
seen nothing like them, though born and bred here, 
and have rarely heard of any thing at all to be com- 
pared with them. Permit me to say that I think 
most of your facts must have been drawn from the 
West Indies, where undoubtedly slaves were treated 


much more harshly than with us. This was owing 
to a variety of causes, which might, if necessary, be 
stated. One was, that they had at first to deal more 
extensively with barbarians fresh from the wilds of 
Africa ; another, and a leading one, the absenteeism 
of proprietors. Agents are always more unfeeling 
than owners, whether placed over West Indian or 
American slaves, or Irish tenantry. We feel this 
evil greatly even here. You describe the use of 
thumb-screws as one mode of punishment among 
us. I doubt if a thumb-screw can be found in 
America. I never saw or heard of one in this coun- 
try. Stocks are rarely used by private individuals, 
and confinement still more seldom, though both are 
common punishments for whites, all the world over. 
I think they should be more frequently resorted to 
with slaves, as substitutes for flogging, which I 
consider the most injurious and least efficacious 
mode of punishing them for serious offences. It is 
not degrading-, and unless excessive occasions little 
pain. You may be a little astonished, after all the 
flourishes that have been made about 'cart whips/ 
&c, when I say flogging is not the most degrading 
punishment in the world. It may be so to a white 
man in most countries, but how is it to the white 
boy ? That necessary coadjutor of the schoolmaster, 
the ' birch ' is never thought to have rendered infa- 
mous the unfortunate victim of pedagogue ire ; nor 
did Solomon in his wisdom dream that he was 
counselling parents to debase their offspring, when 
he exhorted them not to spoil the child by sparing 
the rod. Pardon me for recurring to the now ex- 


ploded ethics of the Bible. Custom, which, you 
will perhaps agree, makes most things in this world 
good or evil, has removed all infamy, from the pun- 
ishment of the lash to the slave. Your blood boils 
at the recital of stripes inflicted on a man ; and you 
think you should be frenzied to see your own child 
flogged. Yet see how completely this is ideal, aris- 
ing from the fashions of society. You doubtless 
submitted to the rod yourself, in other years, when 
the smart was perhaps as severe as it would be 
now ; and you have never been guilty of the folly 
of revenging yourself on the preceptor w T ho in the 
plenitude of his 'irresponsible power' thought 
proper to chastise your son. So it is with the ne- 
gro, and the negro father. 

" As to chains and irons, they are rarely used ; 
never I believe except in cases of running away. 
You must admit that if we pretend to own slaves 
they must not be permitted to abscond wmenever 
they see fit ; and that if nothing else will prevent it 
these means must be resorted to. See the inhu- 
manity necessarily arising from slavery, you will 
exclaim, Are such restraints imposed on no other 
class of people giving no more offence ? Look to 
your army and navy. If your seamen, impressed 
from their peaceful occupations, and your soldiers, 
recruited at the gin shops — both of them as much 
kidnapped as the most unsuspecting victim of the 
slave trade, and doomed to a far more wretched fate 
— if these men manifest a propensity to desert, the 
heaviest manacles are their mildest punishment : It 
is most commonly death, after summary trial. But 



armies and navies you say are indispensable, and 
must be kept up at every sacrifice. I answer that 
they are no more indispensable than slavery is to 
us — and to you ; for you have enough of it in your 
country, though the form and name differ from 

" Depend upon it that many things, and in regard 
to our slaves, most things which appear revolting at 
a distance, and to slight reflection, would on a nearer 
view and impartial comparison with the customs 
and conduct of the rest of mankind, strike you in a 
very different light. Remember that on our estates 
we dispense with the whole machinery of public 
police, and public courts of justice. Thus we try, 
decide, and execute the sentences, in thousands of 
cases, which in other countries would go into the 
courts. Hence, most of the acts of our alleged 
cruelty which have any foundation in truth. 
Whether our patriarchal mode of administering 
justice is less humane than the assizes can only be 
determined by careful inquiry and comparison. 
But this is never done by the abolitionists. All our 
punishments are the outrages of ' irresponsible 
power.' If a man steals a pig in England he is 
transported — torn from wife, children, parents, and 
sent to the Antipodes, infamous, and an outcast for-' 
ever, though perhaps he took from the superabun- 
dance of his neighbor to save the lives of his fam- 
ishing little ones. If one of our well fed negroes, 
merely for the sake of fresh meat, steals a pig, he 
gets perhaps forty stripes. If one of your cottagers 
breaks into another's house, he is hung for burglary. 


If a slave does the same here, a few lashes, or per- 
haps a few hours in the stocks, settles the matter. 
Are our courts or yours the most humane ? If sla- 
very were not in question you w T ould doubtless say 
ours is mistaken lenity. Perhaps it often is; and 
slaves too lightly dealt with sometimes grow 
daring. Occasionally, though rarely, and almost 
always in consequence of excessive indulgence, an 
individual rebels. This is the highest crime he can 
commit. It is treason. It strikes at the root of our 
whole system. His life is justly forfeited, though it 
is never intentionally taken, unless after trial in our 
public courts. Sometimes, however, in capturing, 
or in self-defence, he is unfortunately killed. A 
legal investigation always follows. But, terminate 
as it may, the abolitionists raise a hue and cry, and 
another ' shocking case r is held up to the indigna- 
tion of the world by tender hearted male and female 
philanthropists, who w T ould have thought all right 
had the master's throat been cut, and would have 
triumphed in it. 

" I cannot go into a detailed comparison between 
the penalties inflicted on a slave in our patriarchal 
courts, and those of the courts of sessions to which 
freemen are sentenced in all civilized nations ; but 
I know well that if there is any fault in our crimi- 
nal code, it is that of excessive mildness. 

" Perhaps a few general facts will best illustrate 
the treatment this race receives at our hands. 
It is acknowledged that it increases at least as 
rapidly as the white. I believe it is an estab- 
lihsed law, that population thrives in proportion 


to its comforts. But when it is considered that 
these people are not recruited by immigration 
from abroad as the whites are, and that they 
are usually settled on our richest and and least 
healthy lands, the fact of their equal comparative 
increase and greater longevity, outweighs a thou- 
sand abolition falsehoods, in favor of the leniency 
and providence of our management of them. It is 
also admitted that there are incomparably fewer 
cases of insanity and suicide among them than 
among the whites. The fact is, that among the 
slaves of the African race these things are almost 
wholly unknown. However frequent suicide may 
have been among those brought from Africa, I can 
say that in my time I cannot remember to have 
known or heard of a single instance of deliberate 
self-destruction, and but of one of suicide at all. As 
to insanity, I have seen but one permanent case of 
it, and that twenty years ago. It cannot be doubted 
that among three millions of people there must be 
some insane and some suicides ; but I will venture 
to say that more cases of both occur annually 
among every hundred thousand of the population 
of Great Britain, than among all our slaves. Can it 
be possible, then, that they exist in that state of 
abject misery, goaded by constant injuries, outraged 
in their affections, and worn down with hardships, 
which the abolitionists depict, and so many igno- 
rant and thoughtless persons religiously believe? 

" With regard to the separation of husbands and 
wives, parents and children, nothing can be more 
untrue than the inferences drawn from what is so 


constantly harped on by abolitionists. Some pain- 
ful instances perhaps may occur. Very few that can 
be prevented. It is, and it always has been an object 
of prime consideration with our slaveholders to 
keep families together. Negroes are themselves 
both perverse and comparatively indifferent about 
this matter. It is a singular trait, that they almost 
invariably prefer forming connections with slaves 
belonging to other masters, and at some distance. 
It is therefore impossible to prevent separations 
sometimes, by the removal of one owner, his death, 
or failure, and dispersion of his property. In all 
such cases, however, every reasonable effort is made 
to keep the parties together, if they desire it. And 
the negroes forming these connexions, knowing the 
chances of their premature dissolution, rarely com- 
plain more than we all do of the inevitable strokes 
of fate. Sometimes it happens that a negro prefers 
to give up his family rather than separate from his 
master. I have known such instances. As to wil- 
fully selling off a husband or wife, or child, I believe 
it is rarely, very rarely done, except when some 
offence has been committed demanding ' transporta- 
tion.' At sales of estates, and even at sheriff's 
sales, they are always, if possible, sold in families. 
On the whole, notwithstanding the migratory char- 
acter of our population, I believe there are more 
families among our slaves, who have lived and died 
together without losing a single member from their 
circle, except by the process of nature, and in the 
enjoyment of constant, uninterrupted communion, 

than have flourished in the same space of time and 

41 * 


among the same number of civilized people in mod- 
ern times. And to sum up all, if pleasure is cor- 
rectly defined to be the absence of pain — which, so 
far as the great body of mankind is concerned, is 
undoubtedly its true definition — I believe our slaves 
are the happiest three millions of human beings on 
whom the sun shines. Into their Eden is coming 
Satan in the guise of an abolitionist." 

The following rebuke towards Clarkson and his 
confreres exposes that canting philosophy which 
forms so conspicuous a part in the English aboli- 
tion character : 

" If any farther proof was wanted of the utter and 
well known though not yet openly avowed failure 
of West Indian emancipation, it would be furnished 
by the startling fact, that the African Slave Trade 
has been actually revived under the auspices and pro- 
tection of the British Government. Under the spe- 
cious guise of ' Immigration' they are replenishing 
those islands with slaves from the coast of Africa. 
Your colony of Sierra Leone, founded on that coast- 
to prevent the slave trade, and peopled, by the bye, 
in the first instance by negroes stolen from these 
States during the Revolutionary War, is the Depot 
where captives taken from Slavers by your armed 
vessels are transported. I might say returned, 
since nearly half the Africans carried across the 
Atlantic are understood to be embarked in this vi- 
cinity. The wretched survivors who are there set 
at liberty, are immediately seduced to ' immigrate' 
to the West Indies. The business is systematically 
carried on by Black ' Delegates,' sent expressly from 


the West Indies, where on arrival the ' immi- 
grants' are sold into Slavery for twenty-one years, 
under conditions ridiculously trivial and wickedly 
void, since few or none will be able to derive any 
advantage from them. The whole prime of life 
thus passed in bondage, it is contemplated, and 
doubtless it will be carried into effect, to turn them 
out in their old age to shift for themselves, and to 
supply their places with fresh and vigorous ' Im- 
migrants.' Was ever a system of slavery so bar- 
barous devised before ? Can you think of compar- 
ing it with ours ? Even your own religious mis- 
sionaries at Sierra Leone denounce it ' as worse 
than the slave state in Africa.' And your Black 
Delegates, fearful of the influence of these mis- 
sionaries, as well as on account of the inadequate 
supply of captives, are now preparing to procure 
the able bodied and comparatively industrious 
Kroomen of the interior, by purchasing from their 
Headmen the privilege of inveigling them to the 
West India market ! So ends the magnificent farce 
— perhaps I should say tragedy, of West India 
Abolition ! I will not harrow your feelings by ask- 
ing you to review the labors of your life and tell me 
what you and your brother enthusiasts have ac- 
complished for ' injured Africa,' but while agreeing 
with Lord Stowell, that ' Villeinage decayed,' and 
admitting that slavery might do so also, I think I 
am fully justified by passed and passing events in 
saying, as Mr. Grosvenor said of the slave trade, 
that its abolition is ' impossible.' " 
The ignorance manifested by the negro-maniacs 


is only equalled by their deliberate treason against 
our Republic. Clarkson says in writing to certain 
Americans I hope I may be excused for calling men 
Americans who can sympathise with the following 
sentiment : " You must either separate yourselves 
from all political connection with the South." Geo. 
Thompson also spoke in the most bitter and trea- 
sonable manner during his recent visit to this coun- 
try ; and there are persons born on the soil of 
America not ashamed to associate with such men. 
Cannot their machinations be seen through — is not 
the severance of these States the very thing aimed 
at and desired by the despots of Europe, so that the 
Kossuths, Mazzinis and McManuses shall have no 
spot under the canopy of Heaven to flee to ? Ame- 
ricans who have not viewed this matter seriously 
will do well to observe how the abolitionists sympa- 
thise with each other. The tyrants of the old world 
are even vigilant to destroy our form of govern- 
ment ; and they will leave no stone unturned to ac- 
complish their wicked and treasonable designs. 

The only way to counteract the machinations is 
by demanding a full and open discussion upon the 
question of races ; and before one year has passed 
away the abolitionists will meet only to be laughed 
at and despised. 

The late Major Noah says, 

" Setting aside all that has been said in favor of 
the position, that slavery is a natural condition of 
the Negro, which must of necessity exist as a natu- 
ral consequence of the imperfect organization of the 
negro, we now come to the question whether it is 


not absolutely necessary as a component element in 
the structure of society in this country. Whatever 
might have been the result of a dense population in 
the southern states, exclusively composed of whites, 
we would now put the question whether it would 
have been possible to have cultivated the soil of the 
southern states, possessing the peculiarities of cli- 
mate which they do, without the aid of a negro 
population ? Whether the staple commodities of 
cotton, tobacco, rice, &c, which are the growth of 
that peculiar climate and soil, could have ever been 
brought to the successful cultivation that they have 
been without slave labor? Is it not clear that these 
rich staples to which we of the North, as well as of 
the South, owe all the wealth, prosperity and great- 
ness of our country, would have been a dead letter 
without the aid of slave labor ? Is it not certain 
that, without this dispensation in our behalf, the 
whole South would have been an entire swamp and 
morass of stagnant pools and weeds, and overgrown 
forests ? We think this undeniable. And who are 
those that have been most benefitted and most en- 
riched by this state of things ? The North and her 
enterprising citizens, who have been the active 
traders that have brought this wealth into the market, 
and who, for want of any peculiar staples them- 
selves, have become the factors and merchants, and 
ship builders and manufacturers, by which the great 
southern staple of cotton has been consumed and 
turned into a most profitable source of wealth. The 
North, therefore, in countenancing any interference 
with the slave property of the South, or in endea- 
voring by emancipation, abolition, or otherwise, to 


weaken the relation existing between master and 
slave, is stabbing her own vital interests to the 

Mr. Franklin, in his " Present State of Hayti," 
gives the following account of the consequences of 
free labor in that island : 

"I cannot avoid repeating that Hayti must not 
be held up as an example of what can be accom- 
plished by free labor; but that it ought rather to be 
the beacon to warn the government of England 
against an experiment which may prove absolutely 
fatal to her colonial system. If it be not wished 
that a fate similar to that which has befallen Hayti 
should overtake our colonies, that they should be 
rendered wholly unproductive to the revenue of the 
country, and that the property invested in them 
should be preserved from destruction, the advisers 
of the crown must pause before they listen to the 
ill-judged suggestions of enthusiasts ; for they must 
banish from their minds the idea that the work of 
cultivation can be made productive by means of 
free labor. Such a thing appears to me impossible. 
The negro, constituted as he is, has such an aver- 
sion to labor, and so great a propensity for indul- 
gence and vice, that no prospect of advantage can 
stimulate him; and as for emulation it has not the 
slightest influence over him. Without force he 
will sink into lethargy, and revert to his primitive 
savage character, and the only feasible and effectual 
plan to promote his civilization is to persist in those 
measures which compel him to labor, inculcate mo- 
rality, and tend to extirpate those vices which are 
inherent in the descendants of the African race." 




Judge Conrad in his "Plea for the South," pub- 
lished in 1836, says : 

" We are willing, for the sake of investigating the 
practicability of abolition, to suppose impossibilities 
— to imagine that the Southern states are willing to 
witness, with apathy and indifference, the most 
sacred provisions of the constitution violated, and 
their domestic institutions and domestics rights 
trampled, by their brethren, in the dust. We are 
willing to suppose, that they will voluntarily sur- 
render their chartered rights, quietly beggar them- 
selves and their children, and tamely give them- 
selves up to the management of the Northern 
fanatics : in short that the slave-holders will them- 
selves become abolitionists. Still it would be im- 
possible to effect abolition without commotion and 
bloodshed, 7vithout the desolation of the entire South, 
and the extermination of one or the other of the races 
which i?ihabit it. 

" Were the slaves emancipated they would claim 
political and social equality. This is already claim- 
ed by the abolitionists ; and it is not to be supposed 
that a mass of ignorant freed men, drunken with the 
excitement of unwonted exemption from restraint, 
would be more moderate in their views or desires, 
than their pious and temperate advocates in the 
North. They would claim political and social 
equality. Would it be denied? If so, they would, 


in the exultation and boastfulness of newly acquired 
importance, demand it. Pleased with a pretext for 
collision, they would at once fall upon the whites, 
and wrest, or attempt to wrest, the political power of 
the Southern states from their hands, at the point 
of the sword. Whatever might be the final result 
— the immediate consequences would be a war of 

"But let us suppose that these rights were con- 
ceded, and that the slave was at once elevated to all 
the privileges and powers of complete citizenship — 
the right to vote, to hold office, to make laws, orga- 
nize armies, &c. &c. Can any man, in the maturity 
of reason, uninfluenced by fanaticism, and disposed 
to look dispassionately at facts, suppose that the 
two races could exist together, in tranquility under 
such circumstances? Can it be conceived that 
social amalgamation will, or can, take place? The 
reader has no doubt noted with apprehension and 
regret the proscriptive and bitter prejudices of par- 
ties as they now exist in this country. A popula- 
tion, united by every national tie, identical in 
language, character, interests and feelings, and knit 
together by all the bonds of kindred — are still so 
divided by the spirit of faction, that the tranquility 
and even the existence of the Union have been at 
times endangered. If such excitements distract 
our present population, what must be expected 
w T hen the South is possessed by two races, differing 
in color, character and interests ? What power will 
overthrow the barrier which indissolubly divides 
them? What magic will remove the distinction 
which makes social amalgamation impossible ? 


Without kindred connections, without social or 
sexual intercourse, with every thing that can sepa- 
rate and embitter the races — it is impossible that 
they could move in the same sphere. It is impos- 
sible that they could sit in the same legislative hall, 
stand in the same military ranks, occupy the same 
civil posts, or mingle in the same political meetings. 
So long as intermarriage is out of the question, so 
long must these prejudices — the necessary result 
of social separation — prevail. On one side will be 
the whites, on the other the blacks; on one side the 
intelligence and refinement of the country, on the 
other the ignorance and barbarity ; on one side the 
wealth, on the other the poverty ; on one side con- 
tempt and the feeling produced by former power, 
on the other dark brooding- feelings of malice and 
revenge. The blacks, too, would be unwilling to 
work, and when pressed by want — would wrench 
the means of existence from the white man, and in 
case of resistance, resort to the torch and the knife. 
The lands would remain in the possession of the 
whites, and being the only source of wealth, the 
impoverished negroes would insist on their division. 
A thousand subjects of contention would arise ; and 
when the parties are indissolubly divided, separated 
by the hand of Nature, marked, on the front, as 
foes, and embittered by every feeling of hostility 
which can enter into human quarrels — the arbitra- 
ment must eventually be by the sword.* 

* The following extract from De Lamartine, contains impressive and 
pregnant truths, which should not be overlooked by the political phi- 



" The abolitionist will, perhaps, point to the North- 
ern states, as furnishing a proof of the safety of 
abolition. It is true, that the slaves have been 
emancipated in the North — it is also true that they 
have not destroyed the lives of our citizens. But 
the facts prove nothing for the abolitionists. Not- 
withstanding the paucity of the numbers of the 
blacks, they have given the greatest trouble to the 
authorities of the Northern cities. Insignificant in 
power and resources, they are still insolent and 
arrogant to a degree which renders them dangerous 
to the community. The officers of justice scarce 
venture to arrest them ; and it is a task of great and 
mortal peril to take a fugitive slave, or a fugitive 
from justice, from among them. It is unnecessary 
to refer the reader to the columns of our news- 
papers, which give, almost weekly, accounts of res- 
cues by the blacks. The very hall of the Court 

" The more I have travelled, the more I am convinced that races of men 
form the great secret of history and manners. Man is not so capable of 
education as philosophers imagine. The influence of governments and 
laws has less power, radically, than is supposed, over the manners and 
instincts of any people, while the primitive constitution and the blood 
of the race have always their influence, and manifest themselves, thou- 
sands of years afterwards, in the physical formations and moral habits of 
a particular family or tribe. Human nature flows in rivers and streams 
into the vast ocean of humanity ; but its waters mingle but slowly, some- 
times never; and it emerges again, like the Rhone from the Lake of Ge- 
neva, with its own taste and color. Here is indeed an abyss of thought 
and meditation, and at the same time a grand secret for legislators. As 
long as they keep the spirit of the race in view they succeed ; but they 
fail when they strive against this natural predisposition : nature is 
stronger than they are. This sentiment is not that of the philosophers 
of the present time, but it is evident to the traveller; and there is more 
philosophy to be found in a caravan journey of a hundred leagues, than 
in ten years reading and meditation." 


House in Philadelphia, was made the scene of a 
rescue but a short, time since ; and the Judge him- 
self saw, through the window, the officers of the 
court assailed and the prisoner seized by a negro 

" While referring to the free negroes of the North, 
it may be well to inquire whether the social and 
moral improvement, promised by the abolitionists 
as the result of emancipation, has been there at- 
tained. The negro in the North has equal, if not 
superior advantages to the mass of poor white men. 
Our public institutions afford hirn the advantages 
of an education; and the partiality of the negroites 
furnishes him with every advantage for the prose- 
cution of business. It cannot, however, be boasted, 
that his intellectual character has been materially 
elevated, or his moral nature greatly improved. 
The free blacks are, in the mass, the most igno- 
rant, voluptuous, idle, vicious, impoverished, and 
degraded population of this country. They are 
seldom seen pursuing regular trades, and avoid all 
continuous labor with characteristic solicitude. 
They have sunk lower than the Southern slaves, 
and constitute but a melancholy proof of the advan- 
tages of abolition." 227—230. 


" 1. The first act of open rebellion took place, on 
the Cape, in August, 1791. The slaves murdered 
the whites, and burned all the improvements. The 
slaves of the neighbouring plantations joined them ; 
and the whole South was threatened with ruin. 


'The barbarity/ says Franklin, ' which marked 
their progress exceeds description ; an indiscrimi- 
nate slaughter of the whites ensued, except in in- 
stances where some of the females were reserved 
for a more w r retched doom, being made to submit 
to the brutal lusts of the most sanguinary wretches 
that ever disgraced humanity. Cases are upon 
record, where the most amiable of the female sex 
were first brought forth to see their parents inhu- 
manly butchered, and were afterwards compelled 
to submit to the embraces of the very villain who 
acted as their executioner. The distinctions of age 
had no effect on these ruthless savages; for even 
girls of twelve and fourteen vears were made the 
objects of satiating their lust and revenge. Nothing 
could exceed the consternation of the white people ; 
and the lamentations of the unhappy women struck 
every one with horror. Such a scene of massacre 
has scarcely been heard of, as that which accom- 
panied the commencement of the revolution in the 
South." 258—259. 

" 2. The ravages of the slaves, meanwhile, con- 
tinued. The loss of the whites was extensive, but 
not equal to that of the slaves. It is estimated that 
ten thousand slaves perished, by the sword and by 
famine, in the first revolt in the South. In their 
encounters with the whites, they exhibited no 
courage; and when successful, it was wholly to be 
ascribed to their immense superiority of numbers. 
Cowardly, ignorant, and unprovided with military 
resources, they were cut down by thousands, and 
might have been readily suppressed, had not the 


policy of the National Government divided and dis- 
tracted the free inhabitants of the colony." 260. 

11 3. When the revolters first entered the city, 
every man, woman, and child, were bayoneted or 
cut down with such instruments as they could 
muster ; but the young females were, in most cases, 
spared for the momentary gratification of the lust 
of those into whose hands they fell ; one case of the 
most singular enormity took place : — the leader of 
the revolted slaves, named Gautier, had entered the 
house of a respectable merchant in the square, in 
which were the proprietor, his wife, his two sons 
and three daughters. The sons were young, not 
exceeding the age of ten, but the daughters were 
elegant young women, the eldest about eighteen, 
and the youngest not exceeding fourteen. Gautier. 
assisted by one or two wretches, equally inhuman, 
promised to spare the family, on account of his hav- 
ing received many acts of kindness from the father, 
to whom he was often sent by his master on busi- 
ness, he being a domestic slave. These poor crea- 
tures, who were at first half expiring from the terror 
of the scene around them, and from the idea of 
being the captives of barbarians, recovered some- 
what from the alarm into which they had been 
thrown, through the promises of security, thus "un- 
conditionally pledged to them ; and although not 
permitted to go out of the sight of their captors, they 
did not apprehend that any mischief was in embryo, 
and that their lives were to be sacrificed. Im- 
pressed with the idea of safety, they proceeded to 
prepare a repast for their supposed guardians, and 



set it before them in the same splendor as they were 
wont to do, when receiving their best and dearest 
"riends. Gautier drank freely, and bis compeers did 
no little justice to the rich repast. Night coming 
on, and apprehensive of the consequences of a sur- 
prise from the enemy's force, they began to deliber- 
ate upon what plan they should adopt to secure 
their unhappy captives from flight, when, not being 
able to devise any thing likely to be effectual, they 
came to the savage resolution of murdering them 
all. The daughters were locked up in a room, 
under the watch of two of the revolters, whilst the 
remainder of them commenced the bloody task by 
bayoneting the two sons. The mother, on her 
knees, imploring mercy with pitiful cries, met with 
the same fate; whilst the husband, who was bound 
hand and foot, was barbarously mangled by having 
first his arms, and then his legs cut off, and after- 
wards run through the body. During this blood- 
thirsty scene, the daughters, ignorant of the tragic 
end of their parents, were in a state of alarm and 
terror not to be described, yet hoping that their 
lives were safe. But, alas ! how deceitful that hope ! 
for their destiny was fixed, and their time but short. 
Gautier and his diabolical associates went into their 
room, stripped them naked, and committed on their 
defenceless persons the most brutal enormities, when, 
with the dead bodies of their parents, they were 
thrown into the flames, which were then surround- 
ing them, where they all perished." 262 — 263. 

"4. On the first of January, 1804, Hayti was de- 
clared independent. Dessalines, who had been in- 


vested with the chief command, on the departure of 
the French, permitted those who wished it to leave 
the island, but in the most solemn manner promised 
protection and security to those who preferred 
remaining. The inhabitants availed themselves of 
this offer of clemency, and remained. But scarcely 
were they in the power of this monster, before he 
invited, by a general call, the people to revenge 
their wrongs, and execute vengeance on the whites. 
' The white French people, therefore/ says Frank- 
lin, ' were indiscriminately sacrificed. No age nor 
sex was spared; the brutal soldiers, led on by their 
merciless officers, ran from door to door, and left not 
one alive whom they could find within ; the females, 
whose amiable softness might have stayed the hand 
of the savage in his native wilds, first endured the 
most dreadful violation, and then were bayoneted 
and most shockingly mangled.' 

" This massacre of an entire population, was suc- 
ceeded by an act of crafty ferocity, which history 
cannot parallel. ' He gave out by proclamation, 
that, as he intended to stay his vengeance for the 
sufferings to which his brethren had been exposed, 
all those who had escaped execution under his mili- 
tary decree, should appear at an appointed spot, for 
the purpose of receiving tickets, which might in 
future protect them from the vengeance of the 
people ; and many who had been fortunate enough 
to escape, as they thought, in the first massacre, be- 
came the victims of the second ; for no sooner did 
these unsuspecting and deluded creatures obtain 
what they conceived an assurance, that their lives 


would be spared, than, leaving their hiding places, 
they ran with eagerness to the place announced for 
issuing the tickets, when they were immediately 
seized and led away for instant execution.' " 266-267. 

" 5. The population of the island previous to the 
revolution was estimated at 643,000, The popula- 
tion in 1802 was estimated by Humboldt at 375,000. 
Such were the ravages of the revolution. The popu- 
lation in 1 826 appears to have been 423,042. The 
increase of population is estimated at sixty-one hun- 
dredths per cent., which is very little more than one 
half the increase in densely peopled countries. The 
people of Hayti are universally described as idle, 
improvident, licentious and immoral. Mackenzie, 
the British consul, in his report to government says, 
— * No measures of the government can induce the 
young Creoles to labor, or depart from their habitual 
licentiousness and vagrancy.' 'The few young fe- 
males that live on plantations seldom assist in any 
labor whatever, but live in a constant state of idle- 
ness and debauchery. This is tolerated by the sol- 
diery and military police, whose licentiousness is 
gratified by this means.' ■ Marriage, formally sol- 
emnized, is not so common as unions of another 
kind; and it is not uncommon for one man to be 
the protector of many women.' 

" l In the interior,' says Franklin, ' the people 
are in the lowest state of moral degradation — every 
thing shows it — their habits and manner of living. 
In secluded places they congregate, and follow all 
the propensities of nature ; and indulge in all the 
vices of lust and sensuality, without limits, and 


without control. It is not possible, I think, for any 
one to visit their habitations without returning from 
them with the conviction that their present state is 
much below anything that can be imagined to have 
existed in the worst state of society in any part of 
the world. In the new republics of South America, 
in which society is very backward also, the prevail- 
ing habits present some appearance of improvement ; 
but in the country districts of Hayti there are no 
demonstrations of advancement from that deplora- 
ble ignorance in which they seem to have existed 
from the period of the revolution; no change in 
their loose and dissolute manners and customs, but 
a fixed and determined perseverance in all the 
primitive vices of the African race." 269 — 270. 




" My Philanthropic Friends, — It is my painful 
duty to address some words to you, this evening, on 
the Rights of Negroes. Taking, as we hope we do, 
an extensive survey of social affairs, which we find 
all in a state of the frightfuilest embroilment, and, 
as it were, of inextricable final bankruptcy, just at 
present; and being desirous to adjust ourselves in 
that huge upbreak, and unutterable welter of tum- 
bling ruins, and to see well that our grand proposed 
Association of Associations, the Universal Abolition- 
of -Pain- Association, which is meant to be the con- 
summate golden flower and summary of modern 
Philanthropisms all in one, do not issue as a uni- 
versal " Slu££ard-and-Scoundrel Protection So- 
ciety," — we have judged that, before constituting 
ourselves, it would be very proper to commune 
earnestly, with one another, and discourse together 
on the leading elements of our great Problem, which 
surely is one of the greatest. With this view the 
council has decided, both that the Negro Question, 
as lying at the bottom, was to be the first handled, 
and if possible the first settled ; and then also, what 
was of much more questionable wisdom, that — that, 
in short, I was to be speaker on the occasion. An 
honorable duty ; yet, as I said, a painful one ! — 
Well, you shall hear what I have to say on the 
matter; and you will not in the least like it. 

" West Indian affairs, as we all know, and some 


of us know to our cost, are in a rather troublous con- 
dition this good while. In regard to West Indian 
affairs, however, Lord John Russell is able to com- 
fort us with one fact, indisputable, where so many 
are dubious. That the negroes are all very happy, 
and doing well. A fact very comfortable, indeed. 
West Indian whites, it is admitted, are far enough 
from happy; West Indian colonies not unlike sink- 
ing wholly into ruin : at home too, the British 
whites are rather badly off; several millions of them 
hanging on the verge of continual famine, and, in 
single towns, many thousands of them very sore put 
to it, at this time, not to live ' well,' or as a man 
should, in any sense, temporal or spiritual, but to 
live at all: — these, again, are uncomfortable facts; 
and they are extremely extensive and important 
ones. But, thank heaven, our interesting black 
population — equalling almost in number of heads 
one of the ridings of Yorkshire, and in worth (in 
quantity of intellect, faculty, docility, energy, and 
available human valor and value) perhaps one of the 
streets of Seven dials — are all doing remarkably 
well. ' Sweet blighted lilies,' — as the American 
epitaph on the nigger child has it — -sweet blighted 
lilies, they are holding up their heads again ! How 
pleasant, in the universal bankruptcy abroad, and 
dim dreary stagnancy at home, as if for England 
too there remained nothing but to suppress Chartist 
riots, banish united Irishmen, vote the supplies, and 
wait with arms crossed till black anarchy and 
social death devoured us also, as it has done the 
others; how pleasant to have always this fact to 


fall back upon : Our beautiful black darlings are at 
last happy ; with little labor except to the teeth, 
which surely, in those excellent horse jaws of theirs, 
will not fail ! 

" Exeter Hall, my philanthropic friends, has had 
its way in this matter. The twenty millions, a 
mere trifle, despatched with a single dash of the 
pen, are paid ; and, far over the sea, we have a few 
black persons rendered extremely 'free' indeed. 
Sitting yonder with their beautiful muzzles up to 
the ears in pumpkins, imbibing sweet pulps and 
juices; the grinder and incisor teeth ready for every 
new work, and the pumpkins cheap as grass in 
those rich climates ; while the sugar crops rot round 
them uncut, because labor cannot be hired, so cheap 
are the pumpkins ; — and at home we are but re- 
quired to rasp from the breakfast loaves of our own 
English laborers some slight ' differential sugar 
duties,' and lend a poor half million, or a few more 
millions, now and then, to keep that beautiful state 
of matters going on. A state of matters lovely to 
contemplate, in these emancipated epochs of the 
human mind; which has earned us not only the 
praises of Exeter Hall, and loud, long-eared hallelu- 
jahs of laudatory psalmody from the friends of free- 
dom everywhere, but lasting favor (it is hoped) from 
the Heavenly Powers themselves ; — which may, at 
least, justly appeal to the Heavenly Powers, and ask 
them, if ever, in terrestrial procedure, they saw the 
match of it ? Certainly in the past history of the 
human species it has no parallel ; nor, one hopes, 
will it have in the future. 


" Sunk in deep froth oceans of ' Benevolence,' 
1 Fraternity,' ' Emancipation-principle,' ' Christian 
Philanthropy,' and other most amiable looking, but 
most baseless, and in the end baleful and all-bewil- 
dering jargon — sad product of a sceptical eighteenth 
century, and of poor human hearts left destitute of 
any earnest guidance, and disbelieving that there 
ever was any, Christian or heathen, and reduced to 
believe in rosepink sentimentalism alone, and to cul- 
tivate the same under its Christian, anti-Christian, 
broad-brimmed, Brutus-headed, and other forms — 
has not the human species gone strange roads during 
that period ? and poor Exeter Hall, cultivating the 
broad-brimmed form of Christian sentimentalism, 
and long talking and bleating and braying in that 
strain has it not worked out results? Our West 
India legislatings, with their spoutings, anti-spout- 
ings, and interminable jangle and babble; our 
twenty millions down on the nail for blacks of our 
own ; thirty gradual millions more, and many brave 
British lives to boot, in watching blacks of other 
people's ; and now, at last, our ruined sugar estates, 
differential sugar duties, ' immigration loan,' and 
beautiful blacks sitting there up to the ears in 
pumpkins, and doleful whites sitting here without 
potatoes to eat ; never, till now, I think, did the sun 
look down on such a jumble of human nonsenses ; — 
of which, with the two hot nights of the Missing- 
Despatch Debate,* God grant that the measure 

" * Does any reader now remember it 1 A cloudy reminiscence of 
some such thing, and of noise in the newspapers upon it, remains with 
us — fast hastening to abolition for every man." 



might now at last be full! But no. it is not yet 
full ; we have a long way to travel back, and terri- 
ble flounderings to make, and in fact an immense 
load of nonsense to dislodge from our poor heads, 
and manifold cobwebs to rend from our poor eyes, 
before we get into the road again, and can begin to 
act as serious men that have work to do in this Uni- 
verse, and no longer as windy sentimentalists, that 
merely have speeches to deliver and despatches to 
write. Oh Heaven, in West Indian matters, and in 
all mariner of matters, it is so with us — the more is 
the sorrow ! 

" The West Indies, it appears, are short of labor ; 
as indeed is very conceivable in those circumstances. 
Where a black man, by working half an hour a day, 
(such is the calculation,) can supply himself, by aid 
of sun and soil, with as much pumpkin as will suf- 
fice, he is likely to be a little stiff to raise into hard 
work! Supply and demand, which, science says, 
should be brought to bear on him, have an uphill 
task of it with such a man. Strong sun supplies 
itself gratis, rich soil, in those unpeopled or half-peo- 
pled regions, almost gratis; these are his supply; 
and half an hour a day, directed upon these, will 
produce pumpkin, which is his 'demand.' The 
fortunate black man, very swiftly does he settle his 
account with supply and demand; — not so swiftly 
the less fortunate white man of these tropical locali- 
ties. He himself cannot work; and his black 
neighbor, rich in pumpkin, is in no haste to help 
him. Sunk to the ears in pumpkin, imbibing sac- 
charine juices, and much at his ease in the creation, 


he can listen to the less fortunate white man's ' de- 
mand. ' and take his own time in supplying it. 
Higher wages, massa; higher, for your cane-crop 
cannot wait; still higher — till no conceivable opu- 
lence of cane-crop will cover such wages! In I)e- 
merara, as I read in the blue book of last year, the 
cane-crop, far and wide, stands rotting; the fortu- 
nate black gentlemen, strong in their pumpkins, 
having all struck till the 'demand' rise a little. 
Sweet blighted lilies, now getting up their heads 


" Science, however, has a remedy still. Since 
the demand is so pressing, and the supply so inade- 
quate, (equal in fact to notlmig in some places, as 
appears,) increase the supply; bring more blacks 
into the labor-market, then will the rate fall, says 
science. Not the least surprising part of our West 
Indian policy is this recipe of ' immigration ;' of 
keeping down the labor-market in those islands by 
importing new Africans to labor and live there. If 
the Africans that are already there could be made 
to lay down their pumpkins, and labor for their liv- 
ing, there are already Africans enough. If the new 
Africans, after laboring a little, take to pumpkins 
like the others, what remedy is there? To bring in 
new and ever new Africans, say you, till pumpkins 
themselves grow dear ; till the country is crowded 
with Africans; and black men there, like white 
men here, are forced by hunger to labor for their 
living? That will be a consummation. To have 
' emancipated ' the West Indies into a Black Ireland 
— ■ free,' indeed, but an Ireland, and black ! The 


world may yet see prodigies, and reality be stranger 
than a nightmare dream. 

u Our own white or sallow Ireland, sluttishly 
starving from age to age on its act-of-parliament 
1 freedom,' was hitherto the flower of mismanage- 
ment among- the nations ; but what will this be to 
a Negro Ireland, with pumpkins themselves fallen 
scarce like potatoes? Imagination cannot fathom 
such an object; the belly of Chaos never held the 
like. The human mind, in its wide wanderings, 
has not dreamt yet of such a ' freedom ' as that will 
be. Towards that, if Exeter Hall and science of 
supply and demand are to continue our guides in 
the matter, we are daily travelling, and even strug- 
gling, with loans of half a million and such like, to 
accelerate ourselves. * * * 

"In fact, it will behove us of this English nation 
to overhaul our West Indian procedure from top to 
bottom ; and to ascertain a little better what it is 
that fact and nature demand of us, and what only 
Exeter Hall wedded to the Dismal Science de- 
mands. To the former set of demands we will en- 
deavor, at our peril — and worse peril than our 
purse's, at our soul's peril — to give all obedience. 
To the latter we will very frequently demur ; and 
try if we cannot stop short where they contradict 
the former; and especially before arriving at the 
black throat of ruin, whither they appear to be lead- 
ing us. Alas, in many other provinces besides the 
West Indian, that unhappy wedlock of Philan- 
thropic Liberalism and the Dismal Science has 
engendered such all-enveloping delusions, of the 


moon-calf sort ; and wrought huge woe for us, and 
for the poor civilized world, in these days. And 
sore will be the battle with said moon-calves; and 
terrible the struggle to return out of our delusions, 
floating rapidly on which, not the West Indies 
alone, but Europe generally, is nearing the Niagara 

[" Here various persons, in an agitated manner, 
with an air of indignation, left the room ; especially 
one very tall gentleman in white trousers, whose 
boots creaked much. The president, in a resolved 
voice, with a look of official rigor, whatever his own 
private feelings might be, enjoined, 'Silence! Si- 
lence !' The meeting again sat motionless.' "] 

" My philanthropic friends, can you discern no 
fixed headlands in this wide-weltering deluge of 
benevolent twaddle and revolutionary grape-shot 
that has burst forth on us : no sure bearings at all ? 
Fact and Nature, it seems to me, say a few words 
to us, if happily we have still an ear for fact and 
nature. Let us listen a little, and try. 

" And first, with regard to the West Indies, it may 
be laid down as a principle, which no eloquence in 
Exeter Hall, or Westminster Hall> or elsewhere, can 
invalidate or hide, except for a short time only, that 
no black man, who will not work according to what 
ability the gods have given him for working, has 
the smallest right to eat pumpkin, or to any fraction 
of land that will grow pumpkin, however plentiful 
such land may be; but has an indisputable and per- 
petual right to be compelled, by the real proprietors 
of said land to do competent work for his living. 



This is the everlasting duty of all men, black or 
white, who are born into this world. To do com- 
petent work, to labor honestly according to the 
ability given them ; for that, and for no other pur- 
pose, was each one of us sent into this world ; and 
woe is to every man who, by friend or by foe, is 
prevented from fulfilling this the end of his being. 
That is the ' unhappy ' lot ; lot equally unhappy 
cannot otherwise be provided for man. Whatsoever 
prohibits or prevents a man from this his sacred ap- 
pointment to labor while he lives on earth — that, I 
say, is the man's deadliest enemy ; and all men are 
called upon to do what is in their power or opportu- 
nity towards delivering him from it. If it be his 
own indolence that prevents and prohibits him, then 
his own indolence is the enemy he must be deliv- 
ered from ; and the first ' right ' he has — poor indo- 
lent blockhead, black or white — is, that every un- 
prohibited man, whatsoever wiser, more industrious 
person may be passing that way, shall endeavor to 
' emancipate ' him from his indolence, and by some 
wise means, as I said, compel him to do the work he 
is fit for. This is the eternal law of nature for a 
man, my beneficent Exeter Hall friends; this, that 
he shall be permitted, encouraged, and, if need be, 
compelled to do what work the Maker of him has 
intended by the making of him for this world. Not 
that he should eat pumpkin with never such felicity 
in the West India Islands is, or can be, the blessed- 
ness of our black friend ; but that he should do use- 
ful work there, according as the gifts have been 
bestowed on him for that. And his own happiness, 


and that of others around him, will alone be possible 
by his and their getting into such a relation that 
this can be permitted him, and in case of need that 
this can be compelled him. I beg you to under- 
stand this ; for you seem to have a little forgotten 
it, and there lie a thousand inferences in it, not 
quite useless for Exeter Hall, at present. The idle 
black man in the West Indies had not long since 
the right, and will again under better form, if it 
please Heaven, have the right (actually the first 
'right of man' for an indolent person) to be com- 
pelled to work as he was fit, and to do the Maker's 
will, who had constructed him with such and such 
prefigurements of capability. And I incessantly 
pray Heaven, all men, the whitest alike and the 
blackest, the richest and the poorest, in other 
regions of the world, had attained precisely the 
same right, the divine right of being compelled, (if 
i permitted ' will not answer) to do what work they 
are appointed for, and not to go idle another minute, 
in a life so short ! Alas, we had then a perfect 
world ! and the millenium, and true \ organization 
of labor,' and reign of complete blessedness, for all 
workers and men, had then arrived— which, in these 
our own poor districts of the planet, as we all lament 
to know, it is very far from having yet done. 

" Let me suggest another consideration withal. 
West India Islands, still full of waste fertility, pro- 
duce abundant pumpkins ; pumpkins, however, you 
will please to observe, are not the sole requisite for 
human well-being. No ; for a pig they are the one 
thing needful — but for a man, they are only the first 


of several things needful. And now, as to the right 
of chief management in cultivating those West 
India lands ; as to the ' right of property ' so called, 
and of doing what you like with your own. The 
question is abstruse enough. Who it may be that 
has a right to raise pumpkins and other produce on 
those islands, perhaps none can, except temporarily, 
decide. The islands are good withal, for pepper, 
for sugar, for sago, arrow-root, for coffee, perhaps 
for cinnamon and precious spices — things far nobler 
than pumpkins, and leading towards commerces, 
arts, politics, and social developments, which alone 
are the noble product, where men (and not pigs 
with pumpkins) are the parties concerned ! Well, 
all this fruit, too, fruit spicy and commercial, fruit 
spiritual and celestial, so far beyond the merely 
pumpkinish and grossly terene, lies in the West 
India lands; and the ultimate ' proprietorship ' of 
them — why, I suppose, it will vest in him who can 
the best educe from them whatever of noble produce 
they were created fit for yielding. He, I compute, 
is the real ' Vicegerent of the Maker ' there ; in him, 
better and better chosen, and not in another, is the 
' property ' vested by decree of Heaven's chancery 

"Up to this time it is the Saxon British mainly; 
they hitherto have cultivated with some manfulness ; 
and when a manfuller class of cultivators, stronger, 
worthier to have such land, abler to bring fruit from 
it, shall make their appearance, they, doubt it not, 
by fortune of war and other confused negotiation 
and vicissitude,, will be declared by Nature and 


Fact to be the worthier, and will become proprietors 
— perhaps also only for a time. That is the law, I 
take it; ultimate, supreme, for all lands in all coun- 
tries under this sky. The one perfect eternal pro- 
prietor is the Maker who created them ; the tempo* 
rary better or worse proprietor is he whom the 
Maker has sent on that mission; he who the best 
hitherto can educe from said lands the beneficent 
gifts the Maker endowed them with; or, which is 
but another definition of the same person, he who 
leads hitherto the manfullest life on that bit of soil, 
doing better than another yet found can do, the 
Eternal Purpose and Supreme Will there. 

" And now observe, my friends, it was not Black 
Quashee, or those he represents, that made those 
West India Islands what they are, or can by any 
hypothesis be considered to have the right of grow- 
ing pumpkins there. For countless ages, since 
they first mounted oozy on the back of earthquakes, 
from their dark bed in the ocean deeps, and reeking 
saluted the tropical sun, and ever onwards till the 
European white man first saw them some three short 
centuries ago, those islands had produced mere jun- 
gle, savagery, poison-reptiles, and swamp-malaria ; 
till the white European first saw them, they were 
as if not yet created — their noble elements of cinna- 
mon, sugar, coffee, pepper, (black and gray,) lying 
all asleep, waiting the white Enchanter who should 
say to them, Awake ! Till the end of human his- 
tory and the sounding of the trump of doom, they 
might have lain so, had Quashee and the like of 
him been the only artists in the game. Swamps, 


fever-jungles, man-eating Caribs, rattle-snakes, and 
reeking waste and putrefaction — this had been the 
produce of them under the incompetent Caribal 
(what we call cannibal) possessors till that time; 
and Quashee knows, himself, whether ever he could 
have introduced an improvement. Him, had he by 
a miraculous chance been wafted thither, the Cari- 
bals would have eaten, rolling him as a fat morsel 
under their tongue; for him, till the sounding of 
the trump of doom, the rattle-snakes and savageries 
would have held on their way. It was not he, then ; 
it was another than he ! Never by art of his could 
one pumpkin have grown there to solace any hu- 
man throat; nothing but savagery and reeking pu- 
trefaction could have grown there. These plentiful 
pumpkins I say, therefore, are not his ; no, they 
are another's ; they are his only under conditions — 
conditions which Exeter Hall, for the present, has 
forgotten ; but which Nature and the Eternal Pow- 
ers have by no manner of means forgotten, but do 
at all moments keep in mind ; and, at the right mo- 
ment, will, with the due impressiveness, perhaps in 
rather a terrible manner, bring again to our mind 
also !" 

" If Quashee w T ill not honestly aid in bringing 
out those sugars, cinnamons, and nobler products of 
the West India Islands, for the benefit of all man- 
kind, then I say neither will the powers permit 
Quashee to continue growing pumpkins there for 
his own lazy benefit; but will sheer him out, by 
and bye, like a lazy gourd overshadowing rich 
ground ; him and all that partake with him — per- 


haps in a very terrible manner. For, under favor 
of Exeter Hall, the ' terrible manner ■ is not yet 
quite extinct with the destinies in this universe ; 
nor will it quite cease, I apprehend, for soft sawder 
or philanthropic stump-oratory now or henceforth. 
" No ; the gods wish, besides pumpkins that spices 
and valuable products be grown in their West In- 
dies ; thus much they have declared in so making 
the West Indies : — infinitely more they wish, that 
manful industrious men occupy their West Indies, 
not indolent two-legged cattle, however ' happy' over 
their abundant pumpkins ! Both these things we 
may be assured, the immortal gods have decided 
upon, passed their eternal act of parliament for ; and 
both of them, though all terrestrial parliaments and 
entities oppose it to the death, shall be done. 
Quashee, if he will not help in bringing out the 
spices, will get himself made a slave again, (which 
state will be a little less ugly than his present one,) 
and with beneficent whip, since other methods avail 
not, will be compelled to work. Or, alas, let him 
look across to Haiti, and trace a far sterner prophe- 
cy ! Let him by his ugliness, idleness, rebellion, 
banish all white men from the West Indies, and 
make it all one Haiti — with little or no sugar grow- 
ing, black Peter exterminating black Paul, and, 
where a garden of the Hesperides might be, nothing 
but a tropical dog-kennel and pestiferous jungle — 
does he think that will forever continue pleasant to 
gods and men? I see men, the rose pink cant all 
peeled away from them, land one day on those black 
coasts ; men sent by the laws of this universe, and 


the inexorable course of things; men hungry for 
gold, remorseless, fierce as old Buccaneers were ; — 
and a doom for Quashee which I had rather not 
contemplate ! The gods are long suffering; but the 
law from the beginning was, He that will not work 
shall perish from the earth, and the patience of the 
gods has limits ! 

" Before the West Indies could grow a pumpkin 
for any negro, how much European heroism had to 
spend itself in obscure battle ; to sink, in mortal 
agony, before the jungles, the putrescences and 
waste savageries could become arable, and the devils 
be in some measure chained there ! The West In- 
dies grow pine-apples, and sweet fruits, and spices; 
we hope they will one day grow beautiful he- 
roic human lives too, which is surely the ulti- 
mate object they were made for : beautiful souls 
and brave ; sages, poets, what not ; making the 
earth nobler around them, as their kindred from of 
old have been doing ; true * splinters of the old Harz 
Rock ;' heroic white men, worthy to be called old 
Saxons, browned with a mahogany tint in those new 
climates and conditions. But under the soil of Ja- 
maica, before it could even produce spices or any 
pumpkin, the bones of many thousand British men 
had to be laid. Brave Col. Fortescue, brave Col. 
Sedgwick, brave Col. Brayne — the dust of many 
thousand strong old English hearts lies there ; worn 
down swiftly in frightful travail, chaining the devils 
which were manifold. Heroic Blake contributed a 
bit of his life to that Jamaica. A bit of the great 
protector's own life lies there ; beneath those pump- 


kins lies a bit of the life that was Oliver Cromwell's. 
How the great Protector would have rejoiced to 
think that all this was to issue in growing pump- 
kins to keep Quashee in a comfortable idle condi- 
tion ! No ; that is not the ultimate issue ; not that. 

" The West Indian whites, so soon as this bewil- 
derment of philanthropic jargon abates from them, 
and their poor eyes get to discern a little what the 
facts are and what the laws are, will strike into an- 
other course, I apprehend ! I apprehend they will, 
as a preliminary, resolutely refuse to permit the black 
man any privilege whatever of pumpkins till he 
agree for work in return. Not a square inch of soil 
in those fruitful isles, purchased by British blood, 
shall any black man hold to grow pumpkins for him, 
except on terms that are fair towardsBritain. Fair; 
see that they be not unfair, not towards ourselves, 
and still more, not towards him. For injustice is 
forever accursed : and precisely our unfairness to- 
wards the enslaved black man has — by inevitable 
revulsion and fated turn of the wheel — brought 
about these present confusions. Fair towards Brit- 
ain it will be, that Quashee give work for privilege 
to grow pumpkins. Not a pumpkin Quashee, not 
a square yard of soil, till you agree to do the state so 
many days of service. Annually that soil will grow 
you pumpkins ; but annually also without fail shall 
you, for the owner thereof, do your appointed days 
of labor. The state has plenty of waste soil; but 
the state will religiously give you none of it on other 
terms. The state wants sugar from these islands, 
and means to have it ; wants virtuous industry in 



these islands, and must have it. The state demands 
of you such service as will bring these results, this 
latter result which includes all. Not a black Ire- 
land, by immigration and boundless black supply 
for the demand ; not that — may the gods forbid ! — 
but a regulated West Indies, with black working 
population in adequate numbers; all 'happy' 
if they find it possible; and not entirely unbeauti- 
ful to gods and men, which latter result they must 
find possible ! All ' happy ' enough ; that is to say, 
all working according to the faculty they have got, 
making a little more divine this earth which the 
gods have given them. Is there any other ' hap- 
piness ' — if it be not that of pigs fattening daily 
to the slaughter ? So will the state speak hy and 

" The thing must be done everywhere; must is the 
word. Only it is so terribly difficult to do; and 
will take generations yet, this of getting our rich 
European white men ' set to work !' But yours in 
the West Indies, my obscure black friends, your 
work, and the getting of you set to it, is a simple af- 
fair ; and by diligence, the West Indian legislatures, 
and royal governors, setting their faces fairly to 
the problem, will get it done. You are not ' slaves' 
now ; nor, do I wish, if it can be avoided, to see 
you slaves again; but decidedly you will have to 
be servants to those that are born wiser than you, 
that are born lords of you — servants to the whites, 
if they are (as what mortal can doubt they are ?) 
born wiser than you. That, you may depend on it, 
my obscure black friends, is and was always the 


law of the world, for you and for all men : to he ser- 
vants, the more foolish of us to the more wise ; and 
only sorrow, futility and disappointment will betide 
both, till both in some approximate degree get to con- 
form to the same. Heaven's laws are not repeala- 
ble by earth, however earth may try — and it has 
been trying hard, in some directions, of late! I say, 
no well being, and in the end no being at all, will 
be possible for you or us, if the law of Heaven is 
not complied with. And if' slave' mean essentially 
' servant hired for life'— for life, or by a contract ot 
long continuance, and not easily dissoluble — I ask, 
Whether in all human things, the 'contract of long 
continuance' is not precisely the contract to be de- 
sired, were the right terms once found for it? Ser- 
vant hired for life were the right terms once found, 
which I do not pretend they are, seems to me much 
preferable to servant hired for the month, or 
by contract dissoluble in a day. An ill-situated ser- 
vant, that ; — servant grown to be nomadic ; between 
whom and his master a good relation cannot easily 
spring up !" 

" Already one hears of black Adscripti gleice ; 
w T hich seems a promising arrangement, one of the 
first to suggest itself in such a complicacy. It ap- 
pears the Dutch blacks, in Java, are already a kind 
of Adscripts, after the manner of the old European 
serfs; bound by royal authority, to give so many 
days of work a year. Is not this something like a 
real approximation ; the first step towards all man- 
ner of such ? Wherever, in British territory, there 
exists a black man, and needful work to the just ex- 


tent is not to be got out of him, such a law in defect 
of better,should be brought to bear upon said black 
man ! How many laws of like purport, conceivable 
some of them, might be brought to bear upon the 
black man and the white, with all despatch, by way 
of solution, instead of dissolution to their complicated 
case just now! On the whole, it ought to be ren- 
dered possible, ought it not, for white men to live 
beside black men, and in some just manner to 
command black men, and produce West Indian fruit- 
fulness by means of them ? West Indian fruitful- 
ness will need to be produced. If the English can- 
not find the method for that, they may rest assured 
there will another come (Brother Jonathan or still 
another) who can. He it is whom the gods will bid 
continue in the West Indies ; bidding us ignomin- 
iously, Depart, ye quack-ridden, incompetent !•" — 




It is now time that I should examine the effects 
of emancipation in the British West Indies ; for it 
would be deemed criminal to shrink from noticing 
this part of the subject. The most able essay I 
have seen relative to emancipation is to be found 
in " Blackwood's Magazine r for February, 1848. 
I do not give the whole article, only a portion. 

" Immediately after the Emancipation Act was 
passed, the produce of the West Indian estates began 
rapidly to decline, and their value to be correspond- 
ingly depreciated. This was the inevitable conse- 
quence of the abridgment of the working hours, and 
of the withdrawal of a great number of laborers 
altogether from plantation employment. In fact, the 
want of adequate labor began to be felt most pain- 
fully throughout the colonies. Notwithstanding 
this, the planters went on, making every exertion 
they could, under peculiarly difficult circumstances. 

" The increased expense, occasioned by the altered 
circumstances of the colonies, soon absorbed more 
than the compensation money which they had re- 
ceived, and in addition, they were urged by Gov- 
ernment to provide ■ more fully for the administra- 
tion of justice, for the consolidation of the criminal 
law, for establishing circuit courts, amending the 
workhouse laws, improving the state of goals, for 
better prison discipline, establishing weekly courts 
of petit sessions, providing places of confinement for 

44 * 


prisoners, raising an efficient police, &c. ; things no 
doubt, very desirable in themselves, but not to be 
accomplished save at a grievous cost, which, of 
course, was thrown entirely upon the shoulders of 
the planters. The following extract from the an- 
swer of the Jamaica Assembly, in reply to the Gov- 
ernor's address at the opening of that chamber on 
the 4th of August, 1835, will show the state of the 
colonies at the close of the year immediately subse- 
quent to emancipation : 

" ' Seeing large portions of our neglected cane- 
fields becoming overrun with weeds, and a still 
larger portion of our pasture lands returning to a 
state of nature : seeing, in fact, desolation already 
overspreading the face of the land, it is impossible 
for us, without abandoning the evidence of our own 
senses, to entertain favorable anticipations, or to 
divest ourselves of the painful conviction, that pro- 
gressive and rapid deterioration of property will 
continue to keep pace with the apprenticeship, and 
that its termination must (unless strong preventive 
measures be applied) complete the ruin of the 
colony. ' " 

" We now come to a matter extremely painful in 
itself, inasmuch as it involves a gross, flagrant, and 
dishonorable breach of our plighted faith. The 
colonies which had already suffered so much, even 
under the apprentice system, again became the ob- 
ject of fierce attack by the Liberal party of Eng- 
land. Every one knows how easy it is to get up a 
shout upon any vague pretext of humanity, and how 
frequently the credulity of the people of England 


has been imposed on by specious and designing 
hypocrites. With this set of men Africa has been 
for many years a pet subject of complaint. They 
have made the wrongs of the negro a short and pro- 
fitable cut to fame and fortune, and their spurious 
philanthropy has never failed to engage the support 
of a large number of weak but well-meaning indi- 
viduals, who are totally ignorant of the real objects 
which lie at the bottom of the agitation. Utterly 
regardless of the nature of the bargain so recently 
and solemnly made, throwing aside and trampling 
upon national honor with unparalleled effrontery, 
these men began to denounce apprenticeship in the 
colonies as something worse than slavery, and to 
demand its instant abolition. The subject of de- 
clamation was a popular one, and unfortunately it 
gathered strength. No one thought of the condi- 
tion of the colonists, who had been already subjected 
to so much hardship, and to whom the continuance 
of apprenticeship for a certain period had been sol- 
emnly and advisedly guaranteed. The spirit of our 
constitution does not recognise the presence of any 
representation of the colonies within the walls of the 
Imperial Parliament : and although it is popularly, 
or rather ludicrously, said that Jamaica is as much 
a portion of the British dominions as Yorkshire, we 
have no hesitation in meting out to the one a mea- 
sure of injustice which no Parliament and no Min- 
ister would dare to venture in the case of the other. 
To our shame therefore be it said, that the agitation 
so subversive of good faith and of public morals, 
was crowned with success. Two years of the ap- 


prentice period were curtailed. A robbery to that 
extent — for it was nothing else — was perpetrated 
upon the unfortunate colonists, and on the 1st of 
August, 1838, unqualified freedom was granted to 
the negro population. 

" The following were the immediate and ex- 
tremely natural consequences : — ' There was no 
violence ; the mass of the laboring population being 
left in quiet possession of the houses and grounds 
on the estates of their masters. For successive 
weeks universal idleness reigned over the whole 
island. The plantation cattle, deserted by their 
keepers, ranged at large through the growing crops, 
and fields of cane, cultivated at great cost, rotted 
upon the ground for want of hands to cut them. 
Among the humbler classes of society, respectable 
families, whose sole dependence had been a few 
slaves, had to perform for themselves the most 
menial offices. Still the same baneful influence 
continued to rule the Government. In all cases of 
difference, the stipendiary magistrates supported 
the emancipated mass against the helpless proprie- 
tor, and even took an active part in supporting the 
demands of the people for an extravagant rate of 
wages, alike injurious to both classes/ 

" So much for the * sympathy ' which was exten- 
ded to the colonists for their ready acquiescence in 
the Act of Emancipation! Like most Whig pro- 
mises, it had served its purpose, and was thereafter 
cast aside and forgotten. It might naturally be sup- 
posed that this violent curtailment of the period of 
apprenticeship, would, out of mere shame, have im- 



pressed ministers with the propriety of doing some- 
thing for the relief of the colonies — not by way of 
actual pecuniary assistance, which was never asked 
— but by giving every facility in their power to the 
introduction of free labor from every quarter whence 
it could be hired or obtained. However, a course 
diametrically opposite was immediately pursued; 
and, up to the present time, no facilities whatever 
for procuring labor have been given to the colonists, 
and every obstacle has been thrown in the way of 
the importation of free laborers from the coast of 

"Under such a system the decline of the colonies 
was, as a matter of course, inevitable. The follow- 
ing is the Jamaica statement of the relative amount 
and value of the exports of that island at various 
periods :- 

" ' The destructive results to property, by the changes thus precipi- 
tately forced on the colony, will be best manifested by a reference to the 
exports of our three great staples — sugar, rum, and coffee. 

Average of 

1807, last 
Average of 

1815, date 
Average of 

1823, date 
Average of 

1833, last 
Average of 

1843, first 

the five years ending 
of the African trade , 
the five years ending 
of Registry Act . . . . 
the five years ending 
of Canning's resolut'ns 
the five years ending 
five of slavery . . . , 
the five years ending 
five of freedom .... 

at £20. 








at £10. 


lbs. Coffee, 

at 60s- 
per 100 lbs, 



2,791,478 i 



"'Up to 1807, the exports of Jamaica progressively rose as cultivation 
was extended. From that date they have been gradually sinking; but we 
more especially entreat attention to the evidence here adduced of the 
effect of emancipation, which, in ten years, reduced the annual value of 



the three principal staples from £2,791,478, to £1,213,284, being in the 
proportion of seven to sixteen, or equal, at five per cent., to an investment 
of about thirty-two millions of property annihilated. We believe the his- 
tory of the world would be in vain searched for any parallel case of op- 
pression, perpetrated by a civilized government upon any section of its 
own subjects.' " 

" In other places the alteration and decline has 
been even more startling. The following table ex- 
hibits the state of exports from British Guiana, at 
intervals of three years, beginning with 1827, and 
ending as above with 1843 : — 











lbs. Dutch. 





































" And during the whole period of those changes, 
there was a constantly augmenting consumption in 
the mother country of all the articles of colonial 
produce ! 

" The causes of this extraordinary decline of 
production are abundantly clear, and the facts now 
adduced ought to cover with confusion those igmo- 
rant and pragmatical personages who averred that, 
under a system of free trade, no loss whatever 
would be sustained by the planters. No doubt, had 
free labor been ready and attainable, the loss would 
have been much diminished ; but the misfortune 
was, that free labor could not be found within the 


colonies to anything like the required extent ; and 
neither time nor opportunity were afforded to the 
planters to obtain it elsewhere. The friends of the 
African have either persuaded themselves, or endea- 
vored to cheat the public into the belief, that the 
negro has attained a point of civilization and docility, 
from which a large proportion of the inhabitants of 
the British islands are at this moment very widely 
removed. They promised, on his behalf, that when 
emancipated, he would set down seriously to work, 
and, with a heart full of gratitude, proceed to earn 
his wages by toiling in the service of his employer. 
It is well for those gentlemen that they did not 
offer any tangible forfeit in the event of the failure 
of their protege. The negro is perhaps more fully 
alive than any other class of mankind to the luxury 
of undisturbed idleness. He has few wants, and 
those few are easily supplied in such a splendid 
island as Jamaica, where his provision ground, with 
the smallest possible amount of cultivation, will 
afford him every necessary, and some of the luxu- 
ries of life. What he cannot raise for himself must, 
of course, be obtained by labor ; but a very slight 
portion indeed of the primal curse now lights upon 
the emancipated negro, who has no ambition, and 
consequently no motive to persevere. Thus the 
negroes abandon themselves to a life of lazy sensu- 
ality, and look upon the neglected cane-fields and 
choked coffee plantations with an. eye of utter 

" The great object of the planters, therefore — for 
the existence of the colonies seems to depend upon 


the success of their endeavors, — was to obtain labor 
at any cost, and from any quarter whatever. It has 
been perfectly well ascertained that the constitution 
of Europeans will not admit of their pursuing out- 
door labor in a tropical climate, and therefore white 
labor is out of the question. The natives of Ma- 
deira, indeed, have been tried, but they are unfit for 
the work, and even were it otherwise, the supply 
from that quarter is limited. Coolies were brought 
out from the East Indies at an enormous expense, 
equal to two-fifths of their wages for a. period of five 
years, and after all, it was found that two Coolies 
could hardly perform the task which one African can 
accomplish with ease. 

" From all this, and from the experience of cen- 
turies, it is evident that the African alone is physi- 
cally suited to undergo with ease and without 
danger the fatigue of field labor in the climates 
which are suited for sugar cultivation. We shall 
presently allude to the obstacles which have been 
thrown in the way of obtaining a supply of free 
labor from that quarter ; and we think we shall be 
able to convince the most scrupulous reader, that 
the line of conduct adopted by the psuedo friends 
of the African, is one most admirably calculated to 
foster the state of barbarism, cruelty, ignorance, op- 
pression, and crime, which is the melancholy char- 
acteristic of the inhabitants of that unhappy country. 
In the meantime, let us go back to the history of 
our colonies, whose singular case of unmerited per- 
secution is by no means yet brought to a close. 

" In 1842, a committee of the House of Commons 


was appointed to inquire into the state of the West 
India colonies, and from their report, which is now 
before us, we make the following extract : 

"* Resolved, That, unhappily, there has occurred, simultaneously with 
the amendment in the condition of the negroes, a very great diminution 
in the staple productions of the West Indies, to such an extent as to have 
caused serious, and, in some cases, ruinous injury to the proprietors of 
estates in those colonies. 

" In order that we may understand the true posi- 
tion of the colonies, and the situation in which they 
have been placed, confessedly by no fault of their 
own, it will be necessary to ascertain what is the 
present cost of production of sugar there, under 
the curtailed and crippled system of free labor, as 
compared with that of the slave-growing colonies. 
We apprehend that it will not be denied by any, 
that the soil, climate, and natural position of Ja- 
maica and of British Guiana are in no way infe- 
rior to any in the known world for the growth and 
cultivation of the sugar-cane. No statement to the 
contrary has ever yet been hazarded ; and so far as 
the application of capital can go in rendering pro- 
duction cheap, the British colonies have unques- 
tionably the advantage of the others. Let us look 
then to the matter of cost. 

According to one authority, the Planter of British 
Guiana, it would be as follows, — 

Cost of production in slave countries per ton, £13 

Cost of production in British Guiana, 25 

Difference per ton in favor of the slave market, £12 




" In other words, slave-grown sugar can be pro- 
duced at twelve shillings per cwt. less than in free 
colonies, besides the additional advantage of uncon- 
trolled and unlicensed transport. 

" The above probably may be taken as the ex- 
treme case, because the cost of production has al- 
ways been great in Demerara, owing to the small- 
ness of the population, but the general hardship 
will be sufficiently shown and understood by the 
following extract from the resolutions of a meeting 
of St. David's parish in Jamaica, on the 2d of Oc- 
tober last. 

" ' The great influx of slave-grown produce into 
the home markets has in the short space of six 
months, reduced the value of sugar from £26 to 
£14 per ton ; while, under ordinary circumstances 
of soil and season, the cost to us of placing it in the 
market is not less than £20 per ton.' 

" ' From many calculations,' writes a highly intel- 
ligent and experienced correspondent, ' the lowest 
rate at which sugar can be produced, is about twenty 
shillings per cwt. on the average, or twenty pounds 
per ton. No doubt some estates may, and do, grow 
it cheaper than others. They may have advantages 
of situation both in regard to weather and command 
of labor, but one thing lam certain of, that no num- 
ber of estates taken collectively, can grow it much 
under twelve shillings.' 

" With regard to the additional argument against 
the navigation laws, which certain free trade journals 
have adroitly contrived to extract from the state- 
ment of the planters' grievances, our correspondent 


writes, — ' A long article has been written to show 
that we have got all that was demanded some years 
ago, with the exception of the abolition of the navi- 
gation laws. This I hold to be a very minor con- 
sideration, as, even were these abolished to-morrow, 
a saving of one shilling per cwt. freights would be 
the very outside. No doubt a letter appeared in 
the Times, stating that last year's freights were six 
shillings per cwt. from Demerara, which was quite 
true, — but what are they now ? The great rise was 
caused by every bottom being employed to im- 
port grain, which raised freights in America to 
nine shillings per barrel for flour, which are now 
one and six pence, — so that shipping of every de- 
nomination was dear. These men forget, or will not 
remember, that we asked for measures which we 
hoped might benefit us, at a time when we could 
reasonably calculate upon this country keeping faith 
with us. But had we then been told that in 1846 
slave sugar would be introduced at a nominal differ- 
ential duty of seven shillings per cwt., to decrease 
annually till all sugars were admitted at the same 
rate, our demand would have been very different. 
Indeed I have no doubt that many would at once 
have abandoned their estates ; and though a despe- 
rate course, it would yet have been the wisest, and 
those who might have pursued it would have saved 
a further loss. 

" 'I mentioned a nominal differential duty. What 
I mean by that is, that the slave sugars are all so 
much better manufactured, which the great com- 
mand of labor enables them to do, that, to the refi- 


ner, they are intrinsically worth more than ours. 
In short, they prepare their sugars, whereas we can- 
not do so, and we pay duty at the same rate on an 
article which contains a quantity of molasses. So 
that, if the duties were equalized, there would virtu- 
ally be a bonus on the importation of foreign sugar. 
I have a letter before me in which is written, — 
1 Whilst at Jamaica, offers came from the Havana to 
supply sugar all the year round at 12s. per cwt.; as 
I said before, in no Jamaica estate can it be grown 
much under 20s., and assuredly by none at 12s. 
The refiners estimate the value of Havana in com- 
parison with West India free sugar, as from three 
to five shillings per cwt. better in point of color and 
strength. The reason is, that these sugars are par- 
tially refined or clayed' 

"If these are correct data, and we do not anticipate 
that they will be impugned, the result will be this : 

Cost of production in slave countries per ton, ..... £12 
Add duty £1 per cwt., • 20 

Cost, irrespective of freight, £32 

Cost of production in free labor colonies, £20 

Add duty 14s. per cwt., 14 9 

Difference of value between slave and free sugar, at the 

lowest estimate or 3s. per cwt., 300 

Cost, irrespective of freight, £37 

"Such is the amount of protection at present en- 
joyed by our colonists — a protection which, be it 
remarked, is every year to decrease ! In the present, 
or second year after the passing of Lord John Rus- 


sell's bill, we find that slave grown sugar can be 
brought into the market at a cost of production less 
at least hy five pounds per ton than that of our own 
colonies ! We can now easily understand how it is 
that, within a very short period, Cuba has increased 
her exports of sugar from 50,000 to more than 
200,000 tons ; and we can readily believe that, with 
such a stimulus as has been given, she may, in as 
short a period, succeed in. doubling the latter quan- 
tity. No doubt, in order to effect this, the importa- 
tion of slaves from Africa must go on with corres- 
ponding celerity ; but that is a matter which we 
need not regard, as our present rulers are actually 
giving an enormous impulse to the trade. 

"In a matter of this sort, in which the element of 
British honor is largely implicated, it in reality mat- 
ters not who the parties are, whom, by an unjust 
and inconsistent course of legislation, we are thus 
oppressing and defrauding. But if self-interest is 
at all to be taken into view, it may be as well that 
we should know, that at least three fourths of the 
capital now jeopardied in our West Indian colonies, 
is the property of fellow-citizens in this country. 
The disastrous effects of the Mauritius failures pri- 
marily caused and frightfully accelerated by the 
abolition of the old, and the operation of the new 
system in that island, were immediately felt by the 
commercial circles here, and tended greatly to in- 
crease that depression which has been experienced 
in every branch of our trade. If, as is now seriously 
meditated, and as must be the case should the Whig 
Cabinet prove equally obstinate as rash, our West 



Indian plantations should be abandoned, and the 
capital already expended as completely sunk as 
though it had been dropped into the depths of the 
ocean, we may look for another crisis at home, which 
will assuredly appal the boldest. Let our financial 
authorities tell us whether we can under present 
circumstances, afford to part with an invested capi- 
tal of two hundred millions, or to throw back into a 
state of nature and pauperism, colonies which, a 
very few years ago, consumed annually no less an 
amount than three millions and a half value of our 
manufactures ? And yet to such results, unless some 
strong remedial measure be immediately ap- 
plied, we are most decidedly tending. The 
depreciation of the value of property in the colonies 
has been going on for years at a most alarming rate, 
and we shall now state a few facts upon that point, 
which we think will convince the most sceptical. 
We shall begin with Demerara. 

"In 1838, the value of the estates, owing to the 
want of labor had fallen from one-third to a half. 
The following is the account of some of the estates. 

Price in Former 

1838. Price. 

Anna Catherina Estate, .... £30,000 £50,000 

Providence, 38,000 80,000 

Thomas, 20,000 40,000 

" In 1840, the depreciation became greater. Here 
are a few examples : — 

Rome and Houston Estate, .... £40,000 £100,000 

Success, . 30,000 55,000 

Kitty, 26,000 60,000 

William, 18,000 40,000 


" 111 1844, the ' Groenveldt' estate, formerly valued 
at £35,000, was sold for £10,000. In 1845, the 
' Baillie's Hope ' estate, formerly valued at £50,000, 
was disposed of for £7,000. And in 1846, the 
' Haarlem ' estate went for £3,500, whereas its pre- 
vious value was not less than £50,000 ! 

" We have been accustomed of late to fluctuations 
of property, but it would be difficult to find in any 
other list of prices such instances of ruinous declen- 
sion. The above were cases of private sale; let us 
now look to the estates which were sold by execu- 
tion in the country, and we shall find a still greater 
decadence. In the following list, which is that of 
1846, the 'Kitty estate,' disposed of in 1840, ap- 
pears again. 

Kitty Estate, £3,000 £60,000 

Nismes, 5,000 55,000 

Vryheid's Lust, 6,000 55,000 

"Let those persons who think that the planters 
were amply compensated by the sum of £20,000,000, 
at the time of emancipation, consider the above 
figures carefully : and they may arrive at a different 
conclusion. Let us adopt the argument of the 
planter, and take the case of the Kitty estate, of the 
original value of £60,000. Suppose that upon this 
estate there had been £18,000 of debt, and a clear 
vested remnant interest to the proprietor of £42,000. 
Let us further suppose that the property had not 
changed hands until 1846, when it was brought to 
sale, and the result will be, that the compensation 
money, estimated at £15,000, and the price which 


the estate fetched in the public market, would 
barely have sufficed to buy off the mortgage, and 
the proprietor's £42,000 would have utterly disap- 
peared ! 

" We are enabled from a private source to carry 
out the history of one of these Demerara estates. 
' We bought it,' says our correspondent, 'or rather 
we took it over as a bad debt for our mortgage (up- 
wards of £12,000) for £5,000. Of course no person 
would have had anything to do with it but under 
the circumstances stated. And to show you that 
property is now of no value, we may mention that 
we took an estate over, valued in the year 1825 at 
£60,000, as a bad debt; and though the estate has 
been advertised for sale or lease, we cannot get an 
offer of any kind, and have accordingly determined 
and sent out orders to abandon it. The works are 
in first-rate order, and everything complete; therefore 
you may judge of the sacrifice ; which, however, is 
only imaginary, as the cultivation of this estate, 
since 1842, has cost us £13,000 more than the pro- 
duce has yielded. This does not include interest, 
but the actual wages and expenditure to make crops 
which have sold for £13,000 less than they cost us 
to produce. I could enumerate many others, but 
one is as good as a thousand. The situation of 
some of the estates is much in their favor, and this 
was another reason that induced us to take the one 
alluded to on any terms. 

" ' The West Indians have often been taunted 
with not adopting the improvements which are in- 
troduced in the slave colonies. At the cost of about 


£2,000, we sent out last August machinery for that 
estate, and since then have written out not to un- 
pack it, and, in the serious contemplation of aban- 
doning the estate, have asked the makers of that 
machinery to take it off our hands, as they have a 
good many orders for foreign slave-growing coun- 
tries. I believe, if we determine to sacrifice it, that 
they will send it to Porto Rico or Havana.' 

" The following letter is taken from a late num- 
ber of a Jamaica newspaper, and we recommend it 
seriously to the attention of our readers : 

11 ' To the Editor of the 'Jamaica Despatch, Chronicle, and Gazette.' 
u l Coming events cast their shadows before.' 

"'Sir: I have just returned from Lucea, where I have witnessed a 
sight anything but gratifying to my feelings. 

" ' A vessel has arrived from Trinidad de Cuba, to load with the 
mill and machinery, coppers, and other apparatus, from Williamsfield 
Estate in this parish, late the property of Mr. Alexander Grant. The 
estate has, since Mr. Grant's death, been, from the difficulty of the times, 
abandoned; and Mr. D'Castro, the owner of the vessel now at Lucea, has 
purchased the fixtures for an estate settling in Cuba. 

" ' Is not the fate of Jamaica estates foreshadowed in this circumstance 1 
Is it not a melancholy reflection that we are being wantonly sacrificed by 
our fellow countrymen, solely for the aggrandisement of foreigners 1 

" ' It does not require, Mr. Editor, a prophet to foretell the fate of Ja- 
maica's sugar properties, and that for every man's property destroyed 
here, half a dozen will flourish in Cuba. A new branch of trade is 
opened to us, and for a few months, no doubt, it will be a brisk one. I 
would strongly recommend gentlemen who are advertising properties for 
sale to send the advertisement to Cuba; an estate now is not worth more 
than the cattle and machinery on it, and our neighbors in Cuba might 
obtain all the machinery necessary for the settlement of their sugar plan- 
tations on very easy terms ; and it will be, no doubt, exceedingly agree- 
able at some future time, when necessity compels us to quit our own 
country, to seek a living in Cuba, to see our late still, steam engine, or 
coppers, and if we are particularly fortunate, obtain the superintendence 
of any one of them. I am, Mr. Editor, your obedient servant, 

Hanoyeb, Oct. 23, 1847. A Proprietor.' 


" With such facts and testimony before him, what 
man in the possession of his reasonable senses can 
doubt that our West Indian colonies are at this mo- 
ment upon the verge of ruin ? We use the word in 
the most literal sense, and we are not very sure that 
we are justified in retaining the qualification, for 
ruin, in its worst shape, has already fallen upon 
many. Lord John Russell is said to be a bold and 
intrepid man, but there is a weight of responsibility 
here enough to appal the boldest man that ever 
held the office of Prime Minister of Britain. The 
question is not now one of depression of trade. The 
rashness of former cabinets in dealing with the pro- 
perty of the colonists, and their unaccountable hesi- 
tation and delay in granting any remedial measures, 
or an increased supply of labor, have accomplished 
that already. The question now is, shall these colo- 
nies be at once abandoned? We look for an answer, 
not to the colonists, but to Lord John Russell him- 
self. He is the party who has directly consummated 
their ruin, and from him the country at large are 
entitled to demand a full explanation of his policy. 
Is it his purpose that these colonies, once styled the 
brightest jewels of the British crown, shall be 
thrown waste and abandoned ? If it is, let him say 
so boldly. The country will then be enabled to 
record their opinion of his judgment, and, notwith- 
standing all that has tafcen place of late years, we 
will not do the honest-hearted people of Great Brit- 
ain the injustice, for one moment, to doubt of the 
strength and tenor of that opinion. If, as we hope 
and trust, he never contemplated these results, when 


in a rash moment, and perhaps with no unnatural 
eye to a little temporary popularity, he forced on 
the measure of 1846, let him say so — let him make 
the only reparation in his power for former errors; 
and although much mischief has already been done, 
the colonies may yet be saved, and a sacrifice so 
terrible averted. 

" While such is the situation of our own colonies, 
upon whom we forced emancipation, let us see what 
is doing in the slave countries, to whom we are 
handing over our custom. The increase in the 
sugar produce of Cuba, as we have already seen, is 
from fifty thousand to two hundred thousand tons, 
and is still rapidly increasing. The slave trade is 
going on at a multiplied ratio, and perhaps the 
friends of the African will be glad to learn a fact, 
for the correctness of which we. can vouch. Not 
three weeks ago, a large mercantile house in Glas- 
gow received orders to send out a supply of blankets 
to Cuba, because, as the writer said, the slaves have 
become so much more valuable, owing to the en- 
hanced price of their produce, and the new sugar 
market now opened, that the owners must take 
more care of them. Humanity, it would seem, 
begins to develope itself when it goes hand in hand 
with profit. 

" And yet, perhaps, we have used the word l hu- 
manity [ a little too rashly. Let us hear the testi- 
mony of Jacob Omnium, which we extract from his 
late able letter to Lord John Russell, as to the 
manner in which our cheap sugar is at present 
manufactured in Cuba : — 


" ' I spent,' says that intelligent witness, ' the "beginning of this year in 
Cuba, with a view of ascertaining the preparations which were being 
made in that island to meet the opening of our markets. To an English- 
man coming up from Grenada and Jamaica, the contrast between the pa- 
ralysed and decayed aspect of the trade of those colonies, and the spirit 
and activity which your measures had infused into that of the Havana, 
was most disheartening. 

"'The town was illuminated when I landed, in consequence of the 
news of high prices from England. Three splendid trains of De Rosne's 
machinery, costing $40,000 each, had just arrived from France, and were 
in process of erection ; steam-engines and engineers were coming over 
daily from America ; new estates were forming ; coffee plantations were 
being broken up ; and their feeble gangs of old people and children who 
had hitherto been selected for that light work, were formed into task-gangs 
and hired out by the month to the new ingenios, then in full drive. 

" ' It was crop time : the mills went round night and day. On every 
estate (I scarcely hope to be believed when I state the fact) every slave 
was worked under the whip eighteen hours out of the twenty-four, and, in 
the boiling houses, from five to six P. M., and from eleven o'clock to mid- 
night, when half the people were concluding their eighteen hours' work, 
the sound of the hellish lash was incessant ; indeed, it was necessary to 
keep the overtasked wretches awake. 

" 'The six hours during which they rested, they spent locked in a bar- 
racoon, — a strong, foul, close sty, where they wallowed without distinc- 
tion of age or sex. 

" ' There was no marrying amongst the slaves on the plantations, breed- 
ing was discouraged; it was cheaper and less troublesome to buy than to 
breed. On many estates females were entirely excluded; but an intelli- 
gent American planter told me he disapproved of that system; that the 
men drooped under it; and that he had found the most beneficial effects 
from the judicious admixture of a proportion of one 'lively wench' to 
five males in a gang of which he had charge. Religious instruction and 
medical aid were not carried out generally beyond baptism and vaccina- 

" 'Whilst at work the slaves were stimulated by drivers, armed with 
swords and whips, and protected by magnificent bloodhounds.' 

" Gentlemen who clamored for emancipation, in 
this way is the sugar which you are daily consum- 
ing made ! You would not have it when pro- 
duced by slaves in your own colonies, and under 
the humane protection of your own overrul- 


ing laws; you are content to take it now — at 
the instigation of Mr. Cobden and his confede- 
rates, without the slightest scruple or remorse, 
for having ruined thousands of your countrymen — 
because you can have it cheaper through the sweat 
and the life-blood of the slave ! Is this morality ? 
Is it justice ? Is it even — to descend to lower motives 
— wisdom ? Can you not see before you the time 
when, after the West Indian colonies are abandoned, 
a gigantic monopoly will accrue to the slave-grow- 
ing states, and the sugar, for the paltry saving on 
which article all has been sacrificed, again become 
as dear, possibly much dearer than before ? Recol- 
lect it is not an article like wheat, or any common 
species of food which can be reared upon every 
soil. There is but one region of the earth in which 
it can be grown, and even there it cannot be grown 
profitably, except through a large expenditure of 
capital, and by means of an almost limitless com- 
mand of labor. Cuba and Brazil have both. Our 
colonies had both in sufficiency, until, by cutting 
off the one, you almost annihilated the other. Go 
one step further, or rather continue in the course 
you have begun a very little longer, and the capital 
of the West Indian colonies will be wholly and ir- 
retrievably dissipated. Irretrievably — for, after what 
has passed, it is vain to think that any British subject 
will again embark his capital in such a trade, with 
no better security than that of our fiscal laws, fluc- 
tuating every year under the influence of short- 
sighted agitation, and regulated by men whose sole 
intelligible principle is the continued possession of 



power. Once let our colonies be annihilated — their 
capital of nearly two hundred millions be swallowed 
up, principal and interest — their market, which took 
from us annually three millions and a half of 
British manufactures, closed — and the inevitable 
result will be a monopoly of sugar to the slave- 
growing states, high prices, and in all probability, 
which the bullionists ought to consider, a perpetual 
drain of gold. 

" We have quoted only a fraction of the evidence 
of Jacob Omnium with regard to the present aspect 
of affairs in Cuba. Much there is of painful and even 
sickening detail as to the treatment of the slaves, in 
order that an augmented supply may be thrown in 
"upon our now unscrupulous market, for which we 
must refer to our readers if they wish to peruse it, to 
the pamphlet itself. But lest it should be thought that 
this testimony merely applies to the condition of the 
unhappy slaves at present in Cuba, we shall go fur- 
ther, and show that the late measure of the "Whig 
government has given a ten-fold additional impe- 
tus to the slave-trade ; and that all our efforts to re- 
strain it — efforts which, at the smallest calculation, 
cost this country annually a sum of half a million — 
are as they must be under such circumstances, 
wholly futile and unavailing.' ' 

" In February last, says the author of the above letter, ' the market 
value of field negroes had risen from 300 to 500 dollars — a price which 
would speedily bring a supply from the coast. The accounts thence of 
the number of vessels captured, and of the still greater number seen and 
heard of, but not captured by our cruisers, bear ready witness to the 
stimulus which you have afforded to that accursed trade. It is only 
during the last year that we hear of sieam-slavers carrying nine hundred 
and fifty slaves, dipping their flag in derision to our men of war.' " 




A couple of years ago men were afraid in Phila- 
delphia to speak out their opinions of the Negro ; 
that day is past — his equality and humanity can be 
talked of now in any and every company. Were 
one to have said that no amount of education, or cir- 
cumstances, or food, or climate, or all united, could 
ever make aught of a negro than a negro, there were 
not wanting a certain number of sham humanita- 
rians, fierce as wolves, ready to pounce upon the 
unfortunate utterer of the truth, and willing to hunt 
him to the death. This evil had to be arrested — 
public opinion had to be changed — and the only 
way to accomplish this was by open and free dis- 
cussion. I dared the abolitionists to the contest; 
nearly every speaker was upon their side at the 
commencement, but one after another changed 
their opinions, the nature of the evidence, and the 
character of the authority I cited were so irresistible 
that the honest and disinterested, having no selfish 
motives to blind their eyes to the evidence adduced, 
readily adopted the ideas of the great names who 
had made the science of man and the history of 
races their especial study. 

Open, full, and free discussion will settle this 
question. In every contest of this kind the Ne- 
groites have been ignominiously driven from their 
strongholds. This must ever be the case where 
truth and falsehood come in contact. The truth 


must and shall prevail; and I am of opinion that a 
new turn will be given to public opinion in the free 
States, and the fact be believed, that whenever the 
white man and the Negro inhabit a warm climate 
together, there is no other state of society than mas- 
tery for the white and slavery for the black race; 
but this has been so clearly demonstrated by Ham- 
mond, Blackwood, and others, that I need not do 
more than allude to it. 

In this place it may not be inappropriate to say 
something about the free colored people. I speak 
now of Pennsylvania. Here we have a negroid 
population numbering over fifty -three thousand. I 
hold that he would be a pure patriot, and a philan- 
thropist, in every sense of the term, who could rid 
us of this intolerable curse ; who could point out a 
plan by which this vicious, idle, lazy, mongrel race 
would be safely deposited in Liberia. 

The Shams denounce any attempt at colonization 
as cruel and tyrannical, thereby displaying their 
usual ignorance of negro nature. They claim for 
this species of man the same rights the whites pos- 
sess ; whereas, if they understood the matter, they 
would know that Negro nature is not Celtic or Sax- 
on nature ; they would know that the destiny, con- 
stitution, intellect, civilization, and even diseases of 
the negro are all essentially different from the 
white. These things the "abolitionists know, or 
ought to know. The plain fact of the matter is, 
that we must take efficient steps ere long to get rid 
of our negroes, either by colonization or otherwise ; 
but get rid of them we must, and must is the word. 


We must appropriate a certain sum annually, to 
enable those who are willing to emigrate so to do. 
We must prohibit the introduction of free negroes 
into our State. We must alter our State constitu- 
tion for the purpose of enabling us to get rid of this 
population. And after we have made ample provi- 
sion to send them in comfort to Africa, should there 
be any left who would prefer being slaves to the 
whites instead of free blacks in Liberia, they should 
have the power to choose, but they must either go 
there as free, or remain here as slaves. Aside of us 
they cannot be on terms of equality. 

Will the white race ever agree that blacks shall 
stand beside us on election day, upon the rostrum, 
in the ranks of the army, in our places of amuse- 
ment, in places of public worship, ride in the same 
coaches, railway cars, or steamships? Never! 
never ! nor is it natural or just that this kind of 
equality should exist. . God never intended it; had 
he so willed it, he would have made all one color. 
We see clearly that God himself has made the dis- 
tinction — has made him inferior to the white. 
Could any body or tribe of negroes maintain the 
warlike attitude which the Circasian, a typical 
stock of the Caucasian race do against the armed 
forces of the Russian Bear. This, I presume, none 
will attempt to answer in the affirmative. Why, 
then, all this rant about negro equality, seeing that 
neither nature or natures God ever established any 
such equality. 

The arrangement of the authors quoted in the 

work are uerhaps not as complete as some might 



desire, but I considered it better to place them in 
the order they are, and I also deemed it right to say- 
as little as possible myself, but rather to place the 
opinions of those great minds upon the question of 
races before our citizens, so that they may be ena- 
bled to judge for themselves. 

My object is to popularise this question ; and this 
book has been written to reach the thousands upon 
thousands who are unable to procure the works of 
those authors who have treated of the subject. 

An abolition meeting is held at a town in Ohio, 
New York, or Pennsylvania; speeches are made, 
negro wrongs are dwelt upon, Burns is quoted, " A 
man's a man for a' that," and Terence diho'Homosiwi 
et nihil a me allenum puto" " My black brother," and 
" all men are created free and equal." The meeting 
terminates, an impression is made, and frequently 
even upon strong minds. There are no libraries 
within reach of them ; the different authors' works 
are too expensive, and the abolition poison runs 
through the mental system precisely as hydropho- 
bia does through the physical, until the patient 
becomes a rabid, raving fanatic. Now this book 
popularizing this subject, and placing the best 
authorities for examination, bringing the whole 
question of races before them in a compact form, will 
destroy the influence of the knaves and demagogues 
who care nothing for the happiness of either Negro 
or white, provided they can accomplish their own 
selfish purposes. But the grand secret of the sepa- 
ration, or rather of the separate existence of race is 
to be found in the love of the beautiful, that in- 


stinctive and innate feeling wisely implanted by 
the Creator in us, will keep forever and ever the 
higher race always distinctive from the inferior 

Man, even savage man will stop to gaze at a beau- 
tiful statue or picture, and the fair haired white 
Caucasian woman has been always sought as a 
wife by every race ; while on the other hand the 
white race of men have drawn back in disgust from 
anything like general intermingling with the fe- 
males of the inferior races. So long as this feeling 
exists, all attempts at establishing an equality of 
races is silly ; nay more, it is wicked. If the Negro 
is equal to the white why do not the Negro-maniacs 
produce the names of such negroes as have become 
eminent for any one great quality in art, science, 
literature, or in any other way ; this cannot be done, 
and the abolitionists know it. 

From the evidence laid down in the preceding 
pages, it is proven that the constitution of the white 
man is not adapted to out-door labor in the Southern 
States. As such is the fact, would it be politic to 
abandon the rice, cotton, tobacco, and sugar planta- 
tions to the negroes, place them upon terms of 
political equality with the whites, allow an ignorant, 
brutal, and degraded race to perpetrate crimes and 
excesses similar to what were enacted in Hayti? 
This will never be tolerated by white men — by 

The destiny of the negro when among the whites 
in tropical climes is slavery; and would it not be 
well that those slaves who, according to Jacob Om- 


nium, are worked under the lash eighteen hours in 
Cuba, by the Spaniard, that their destiny were 
changed — that the mild system of slavery in prac- 
tice in the Southern States were introduced into 
Cuba, or that Cuba fell into the possession of the 
United States, would not the physical condition of 
the African be made better by this change ? 

I need hardly state here that all my quotations 
are given fairly and in the spirit of the author. I 
did " nothing extenuate, nor aught set down in 
malice," and I beg of the reader where he has the 
opportunity to refer to the various authors cited by 
me, to do so, in order that he may arrive at a thor- 
ough knowledge of the history of the Negro, for 
upon this knowledge depends the durability of our 
republican institutions. If it be true that the Ne- 
gro is our equal, and that we enslave him, then are 
we acting unjustly, and the day of retribution will 
certainly come ; but if it will be found upon investi- 
gation that he is naturally the white man's inferior, 
and that he alone is capable of undergoing tropical 
labor, then his proper place is in subjection to his 
natural master. The more this question is dis- 
cussed, the more certain is it to be decided against 
Negro equality. 

The Negro- maniacs cannot say that I have been 
partial in my quotations. I have been sparing and 
chary of \}^ng Southern authors, preferring to use 
Northern or European ones. Lawrence, Smith, 
Knox, Murray, and Cardinal Wiseman cannot be 
accused of pandering to Southern prejudices, nor 
can the great Cuvier ; yet who dare to say anything 


in favor of Negroism after having read them. Mor- 
ton, English, Conrad, Brown, and other Northern 
men are equally emphatic in proving this universal 
law — a law established by nature, and exhibited 
before us every day of our lives. 

Should this volume be favorably received it will 
give me much satisfaction ; should it not, I console 
myself with the reflection that one hundred years 
hence it will matter little. I have said w T hat I 
thought, and spoken what I felt, regardless of conse- 
quences; believing, as I do, in the language of the 
Apostle, "Prove all things; hold fast that which is 






One of the most useful of Lawbooks to practising lawyers as well as to 
magistrates. The following testimonials, selected from hundreds of such, 
is the best proof of the value of the work : 

Letter of the Hon. George Sharswood, President of the District Court 
of the City and County of. Philadelphia. 

" Philadelphia, August 13, 1850. 

My Dear Sir: — I have made a careful examination of your work en- 
titled " The American Magistrate and Civil Officer." It appears to me 
to be admirably adapted to the purpose for which it is intended; and 
more, for I think practitioners at the bar will find the book a valuable 
manual. It is executed with great research and accuracy, and I trust 
that the sale may answer your expectations, though that will be a very 
inadequate compensation for the time and labor it must have cost you. 

Very truly yours, 

Mordecai McKinney, Esq. GEORGE SHARSWOOD." 

Letter from the Hon. Anson V. Parsons, a Judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, &c, for the City and County of Philadelphia. 

■ " Philadelphia, September 7, 1850. 

M. McKinney, Esq. — Dear Sir, — I have examined, with considerable 
attention, "The American Magi£#ate" published by you, and am pleased 
with the work, and would commend it to all magistrates. I think every 
alderman and justice of the peace ought to have it in his office ; if that 
was done, and the valuable forms which you have given were pursued, 
we would not witness so many gross and lamentable errors in their pro- 
ceedings as are presented to the higher courts at almost every term. 

In my opinion, the book is valuable for every lawyer, and particularly 
to the younger members of the bar. In it they will find much valuable 


information in practice, which they can only obtain by great labor and 
research in numerous other authors. I trust the profession and the pub- 
lic will appreciate your labors in preparing this work for them. 
I am, with high respect, yours &c. 


Letter of Hon. Ellis Lewis, President of the Courts of Lancaster 
County Pennsylvania. 

" Lancaster, September, 11, 1850. 

M. McKinney, Esq. — Dear Sir: — "The American Magistrate," for 
which the public are indebted to your professional research, has been 
examined by me, and I cheerfully recommend it not only to the officers 
in Pennsylvania, for whose use it is chiefly designed, but concur in the 
remark contained in the American Law Journal, " that in its references to 
the practice and principles of the common law, and its treatment of pro- 
ceedings under the Constitution of the United States, Acts of Congress, 
and in the several States, you have rendered it practically useful 
throughout the United States."' 

With a sincere wish that your labors may meet with an ample 
reward, I am yours, truly, ELLIS LEWIS." 

Letter of the Hon. Richard Coulter, one of the Judges of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania. 

"Pittsburg, October 2, 1850. 

Mordecai McKinney, Esq. — Dear Sir: — I have examined "The Ameri- 
can Magistrate and Civil Officer," prepared and written by you, and think 
it a very useful book. It evinces much careful and accurate research — 
has been a work of very considerable labor, and in my opinion may be 
relied on by the officers, for whose use it was intended, as well as by the 
profession. Very respectfully your obedient servant, 


Opinion of the Hon. Robert C. Grier, Associate Judge of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

"Philadelphia, October 9, 1850. 

I have examined "McKinney's American Magistrate " with some at- 
tention. It contains a valuable summary of the principles of law affect- 
ing criminal prosecutions, together^ witfi "forms of process and of proceed- 
ings in summary convictions, which will be found useful to every prac- 
titioner of the law, and especially to justices of the peace, and all 
magistrates exercising criminal jurisdiction, whether under State laws or 
the statutes of the United States. * 

The work has been compiled with great care, industry and research; 
and the name of its author is a sufficient guaranty of its accuracy and 
correctness. C. GRIER."